Summary

IDENTIFICATION

SCIENTIFIC NAME

Penaeus aztecus

SPECIES NAME(S)

Northern brown shrimp, Camarón café norteño

The population structure of the species is not clear but there are indications that the Northern Gulf of Mexico and NW Atlantic distributions may constitute a single contiguous population (McMillen-Jackson & Bert, 2003) that are currently assessed and managed independently in the US region: NW Atlantic (Scott-Denton, 2012) and in Northern Gulf of Mexico (Hart, 2012). A distinct assessment unit is considered to exist in SW Gulf of Mexico (SAGARPA, 2012). Brown shrimp is caught along with pink and white shrimp in the NW Atlantic.


ANALYSIS

Strengths
  • Good management; scientific advice is followed.
  • Species is resilient to fishing pressure. Stock is very healthy and is likely to remain so.
  • Use of turtle excluder devices and bycatch reduction devices by shrimp otter trawls is required in state and federal waters.
  • Shrimp trawling typically takes place over muddy and sandy bottom habitats, which aren’t impacted as significantly as other benthic habitats. Critical habitat areas that provide essential nutrients and shelter to juvenile shrimp and finfish species are protected and closed to trawling.
Weaknesses
  • TED compliance is not as high as previously estimated, though is showing signs of improvement.
  • Monitoring of discarded bycatch is low.
  • Bycatch ratios are still high in comparison to other trawl fisheries. Impacts of bycatch mortality on fish populations and ecosystems are not well understood.

SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

≥ 8

Managers Compliance:

≥ 8

Fishers Compliance:

≥ 6

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

10

Future Health:

≥ 8


RECOMMENDATIONS

CATCHERS & REGULATORS

1. Conduct annual, third-party gear inspections to ensure that the bycatch reduction device and turtle excluder device are installed properly and operating at peak performance.
2. Experiment with other approved bycatch reduction devices (or apply to test new designs) that may have higher bycatch exclusion rates.
3. Determine status of most frequently caught bycatch species.
4. Improve existing or implement new bycatch characterization and habitat impact studies.

RETAILERS & SUPPLY CHAIN

1. Encourage your suppliers to participate in existing or start their own shrimp fishery improvement project.
2. The most effective way to minimize bycatch is to ensure that the bycatch reduction devices and turtle excluder devices are properly installed; request that your supply chain participate in regular courtesy inspections by gear experts and provide documentation of the inspections (a courtesy inspection is an evaluation with no legal consequences).
3. Contact the South Atlantic Fishery Management Council and find out how the supply chain can support improvements in research and data collection.


FIPS

  • Gulf of Mexico shrimp:

    Stage 4, Progress Rating B

CERTIFICATIONS

No related MSC fisheries

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

ASSESSMENT UNIT MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
NW Atlantic Florida United States Single boat bottom otter trawls
Georgia United States Single boat bottom otter trawls
North Carolina United States Pushed skimmer nets
Single boat bottom otter trawls
Stow nets
US Federal United States Single boat bottom otter trawls

Analysis

OVERVIEW

Last updated on 28 July 2014

Strengths
  • Good management; scientific advice is followed.
  • Species is resilient to fishing pressure. Stock is very healthy and is likely to remain so.
  • Use of turtle excluder devices and bycatch reduction devices by shrimp otter trawls is required in state and federal waters.
  • Shrimp trawling typically takes place over muddy and sandy bottom habitats, which aren’t impacted as significantly as other benthic habitats. Critical habitat areas that provide essential nutrients and shelter to juvenile shrimp and finfish species are protected and closed to trawling.
Weaknesses
  • TED compliance is not as high as previously estimated, though is showing signs of improvement.
  • Monitoring of discarded bycatch is low.
  • Bycatch ratios are still high in comparison to other trawl fisheries. Impacts of bycatch mortality on fish populations and ecosystems are not well understood.
RECOMMENDATIONS

Last updated on 28 June 2016

Improvement Recommendations to Catchers & Regulators

1. Conduct annual, third-party gear inspections to ensure that the bycatch reduction device and turtle excluder device are installed properly and operating at peak performance.
2. Experiment with other approved bycatch reduction devices (or apply to test new designs) that may have higher bycatch exclusion rates.
3. Determine status of most frequently caught bycatch species.
4. Improve existing or implement new bycatch characterization and habitat impact studies.

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain

1. Encourage your suppliers to participate in existing or start their own shrimp fishery improvement project.
2. The most effective way to minimize bycatch is to ensure that the bycatch reduction devices and turtle excluder devices are properly installed; request that your supply chain participate in regular courtesy inspections by gear experts and provide documentation of the inspections (a courtesy inspection is an evaluation with no legal consequences).
3. Contact the South Atlantic Fishery Management Council and find out how the supply chain can support improvements in research and data collection.

Last updated on 28 June 2016

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain

1. Encourage your suppliers to participate in existing or start their own shrimp fishery improvement project.
2. The most effective way to minimize bycatch is to ensure that the bycatch reduction devices and turtle excluder devices are properly installed; request that your supply chain participate in regular courtesy inspections by gear experts and provide documentation of the inspections (a courtesy inspection is an evaluation with no legal consequences).
3. Contact the GA Department of Natural Resources and find out how the supply chain can support improvements in research and data collection.

Last updated on 28 June 2016

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain

1. Encourage your suppliers to participate in existing or start their own shrimp fishery improvement project.
2. The most effective way to minimize bycatch is to ensure that the bycatch reduction devices and turtle excluder devices are properly installed; request that your supply chain participate in regular courtesy inspections by gear experts and provide documentation of the inspections (a courtesy inspection is an evaluation with no legal consequences).
3. Contact the NC Division of Marine Fisheries and find out how the supply chain can support improvements in research and data collection.

1.STOCK STATUS

STOCK ASSESSMENT

Last updated on 26 August 2013

A permit is required in federal waters, which requires selected vessels to record and report landings and trip data. This information allows the South Atlantic Fisheries Management Council (SAFMC) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to monitor the shrimp population through the duration of the seasons. The SAFMC shrimp FMP determines overfishing for penaeid shrimp when annual landings fall below 1/2 MSY abundance in one year or have a fishing mortality that brings the stock below MSY for two consecutive years (SAFMC, 2005).

Last updated on 21 June 2013

Stock assessments are not carried out for penaeid shrimp in GA because they are such a short lived species (rarely living longer than 18 months). Shrimp are extremely resilient to fishing pressure due to their short life spans and high reproduction rates. The GADNR Coastal Resources Division (CRD) utilizes fishery dependent and independent data to manage the shrimp fishery.

Last updated on 27 May 2013

Stock assessments are not carried out for penaeid shrimp in NC because they are such a short lived species (rarely living longer than 18 months). Shrimp are extremely resilient to fishing pressure due to their short life spans and high reproduction rates. It is believed that environmental conditions have a greater impact on recruitment and mortality than fishing (NCDMF, 2012a).

In the state waters of North Carolina the three shrimp stocks (pink, white and brown) are monitored via a trip ticket program and reported to the Division of Marine Fisheries (DMF). This requires commercial vessels to report landings information for each trip taken such as area fished, gear used, quantity of each species landed, number of crew, and if they sold the product the transaction date and dealer purchasing the product. Landings data is monitored and compared to historical averages (from 1994-2010 the average landings of all three species were 3,120 tons [6.88 million pounds] per year caught on an average of 14,256 trips) to evaluate and monitor trends in the fishery (NCDMF, 2012a).

SCIENTIFIC ADVICE

Last updated on 26 August 2013

Most research and management of shrimp US Atlantic shrimp stocks is performed at the state level.State fishery managers can make requests of the federal government, to mimic state regulations in offshore federal waters.

Last updated on 21 June 2013

In the state waters of Georgia the shrimp stock is monitored via various fishery dependent and independent data sources. Georgia Department of Natural Resources (GADNR)’s Coastal Resources Division (CRD) utilizes fishery independent data collected from the state’s Ecological Monitoring Trawl Survey (which measures shrimp abundance on a monthly basis in six estuarine systems) to determine when to open and close the shrimp seasons. Additionally, data is also gathered from the Juvenile Trawl Survey which samples abundance of juvenile fish and invertebrates in primary nursery habitats in three estuarine systems (GADNR, 2013).

Georgia is partnered with the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) through the Cooperative Statistics Program, which collects and standardizes catch and effort data. Georgia also participates in the Atlantic Coastal Cooperative Statistics Program, which is a cooperation between 23 Atlantic federal, state, and regional fishery management agencies to collect and manage fishery data. To collect data for these two programs Georgia has implemented a trip ticket program, which requires commercial vessels to report landings information for each trip taken such as area fished, gear used, quantity of each species landed, number of crew, and if they sold the product the transaction date and dealer purchasing the product. Landings data is used by GADNR to monitor and manage the shrimp fishery (GADNR, 2008).

Last updated on 22 May 2013

The North Carolina DMF develops Fishery Management Plans (FMPs) for the Marine Fisheries Commission (MFC) to adopt. Additionally the MFC appoints members to the shrimp advisory committee (AC). These two groups provide the MFC with comments and scientific advice on management measures. The DMF monitors the shrimp population size and abundance to advise the MFC when to open and close the seasons. The DMF also conducts a variety of habitat studies and advises the MFC on areas where trawling should be prohibited.

REFERENCE POINTS

Last updated on 26 August 2013

The SAFMC shrimp FMP designates an overfished status for penaeid shrimp (or MSST) when annual federal landings fall below 1/2 maximum sustainable yield abundance (BMSY) in one year or have a fishing mortality that brings the stock below BMSY for two consecutive years. This threshold is established to protect the minimum parent stock size that is known to produce MSY the following year. BMSY is established using CPUE data from SEAMAP-SA (fishery independent) data for time period of 1993-2003. The lowest values within this time period that produced catches that met MSY the following year are the values used for BMSY. Overfishing (or MFMT) is determined to be occurring when the fishing mortality rate brings the stock abundance below MSY abundance for two consecutive years (SAFMC, 2005).

Mean total landings are used as a proxy for MSY: 4,173 tons (9.2 million pounds) for brown shrimp (SAFMC, 1996). The state can request a concurrent closure of the federal waters to harvest if they can provide evidence that the water temperature has remained at 7.8ºC (46 degrees F) for longer than a week or that the overwintering stock has declined by 80% (SAFMC, 2012).

CURRENT STATUS

Last updated on 26 August 2013

Stock assessments are not conducted on penaeid shrimp in the US Atlantic because they are considered an annual stock. It is believed that environmental conditions have a greater impact on recruitment and mortality than fishing. Estimates of population size are not available and are deemed unnecessary; annual landings are considered an indication of relative abundance. The current federal determination of the shrimp stock status for brown shrimp is that they are not overfished and overfishing is not occurring (NOAA, 2013b). This determination is based on fishery independent survey and harvest data.

Last updated on 22 May 2013

As of 2012, the North Carolina DMF considers the stock to be ‘viable’, which means there is evidence that there is stable or increasing trends in spawning stock biomass and/or declining trends in fishing mortality (NCDMF, 2012b). 

TRENDS

Last updated on 26 August 2013

The National Marine Fisheries Service’s (NMFS) 2011 stock status report indicated that no shrimp stock has ever been declared overfished because of excessive fishing mortality (NMFS, 2011).

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

MANAGERS' DECISIONS

Last updated on 26 August 2013

South Atlantic Fisheries Management Council (SAFMC) has management authority of penaeid shrimp in federal waters (≥ 3 miles off the U.S. Atlantic coast). SAFMC established a FMP for white and brown shrimp in 1991. It was amended in 1996 to include pink shrimp in the management unit (SAFMC, 1996). A federal permit is required to fish in federal waters. To limit the amount of bycatch within the EEZ, SAFMC requires the use of certified BRDs and minimum mesh size. Under the Endangered Species Act, certified turtle excluder devices (TEDs) are required in both federal and state waters to lessen turtle captures. This requirement is enforced by local and federal authorities.

Last updated on 28 July 2014

Specific regulations are in place for shrimping in Florida state waters (≤ 3 nautical miles): e.g. closed seasons, bag and size limits, fishing gear restrictions and requirements, use of TEDs and BRDs (FFWCC, 2013).

Last updated on 21 June 2013

The Georgia Department of Natural Resources (GADNR)’s Coastal Resources Division (CRD) samples the size and number of shrimp throughout the season to determine when the state waters will open and close to commercial shrimping. The season may open in early May and close in late December with the possibility of an extension into January or February, depending on shrimp abundance. Shrimp trawlers also have to abide by time closures (shrimping is allowed 30 minutes before sunrise to 30 minutes after sunset) and area closures (estuarine systems and sounds are closed to trawling). Additionally, there are gear restrictions (Turtle Excluder Devices [TEDs]/Bycatch Reduction Devices [BRDs] required, max foot rope length).

Last updated on 22 May 2013

The North Carolina Fisheries Reform Act was passed in 1997 that required the North Carolina DMF to develop FMPs for the North Carolina Marine Fisheries Commission for all species significant in commercial and recreational fisheries. The original shrimp FMP (for the three species of penaeid shrimp) was passed in 2006 with a review conducted in 2012 (all NC FMPs are reviewed, at minimum, every 5 years). DMF utilizes gear restrictions, area restrictions and protects critical habitats as management measures to ensure the long-term health of the shrimp stock. Additionally, gear modifications, bycatch reduction devices (BRDs), area closures, and harvest restrictions are measures used to minimize waste of the resource (NCDMF, 2012a). There are no catch limits – DMF samples the size and number of shrimp throughout the season to determine when the season should open and close. To participate in the state shrimp fishery a vessel must have a Standard Commercial Fishing License. Fishery is limited entry where to be eligible for this license the vessel must have a license from the previous year. Licenses can be transferred from one vessel to another. New applicants applying to the fishery are put into an “eligibility pool” where new applicants are selected into the fishery based on criteria such as past involvement in commercial fishing and their degree of reliance on commercial fishing.

RECOVERY PLANS

Last updated on 26 August 2013

Because penaeid shrimp are essentially an annual crop, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) do not view a rebuilding plan as an appropriate management strategy (SAFMC, 2005). While the SAFMC also does not view a rebuilding plan as a necessary component of the management plan, if overfished conditions are met in federal waters the shrimp advisory committees of SAFMC (Shrimp Stock Assessment Panel, Shrimp Advisory Panel, and the Shrimp Committee) must meet to determine the causes of the decline and recommend appropriate action to the Council (SAFMC, 2005).

Last updated on 21 June 2013

CRD uses their ecological monitoring trawl survey and juvenile trawl survey as a proactive approach to managing the shrimp fishery. Data collected from these efforts provide information before concerns arise. Catch-per-unit-of-effort (CPUE) values are compared with historical database averages to evaluate the stock status and are used to prepare administrative fishery management recommendations (GADNR, 2013).

Last updated on 4 June 2013

According to the 2012 update to the NC shrimp FMP the three shrimp species are determined to be ‘viable’, which indicates that they are not overfished or experiencing overfishing. Because penaeid shrimp are essentially an annual crop, both the North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources (NCDENR) and the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) do not view a rebuilding plan as an appropriate management strategy (NCDMF, 2012a & SAFMC, 2005). 

COMPLIANCE

Last updated on 28 July 2014

Fishermen’s compliance with TED regulations remains an on-going concern. According to the 2012 biological opinion for the ESA section 7 consultation, data emerged that suggested compliance with TEDs was lower than expected and the capture rate of sea turtles was higher than expected (NOAA, 2012a). In light of this information NOAA issued new TED performance standards that limits otter trawls to an overall 12% capture rate. To monitor compliance NOAA reviews inspection records every 6 months to estimate compliance and capture rates. If the estimates exceed the performance standards actions are initiated to bring the capture rates back into range. After the first 6 months of monitoring (June 1 – November 30, 2012) the capture rate for the Gulf and Atlantic fleets combined was found to be 13%, triggering actions to raise compliance (NOAA, 2013a).A new ESA section 7 consultation was completed in 2014 and reviewed TED compliance and estimated sea turtle capture rates from June 2012 through October 2013 for the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico fleets, but not on a state by state basis (NOAA, 2014).The Atlantic fleet started the time series with a 38% non-compliance rate and an estimated sea turtle capture rate of 19%, but by the end of the time series had improved to a 19% non-compliance rate and an estimated sea turtle capture rate of 11%.

Last updated on 28 July 2014

The only publicly available state-specific TED compliance information is from 2011/2012. Of 32 federal TED inspections performed in Florida during a 12-month time period (Oct.1 2011-Sept. 31 2012), 14 vessels were noncompliant with TED regulations. Of the 14 violations only two were considered major violations and worthy of federal prosecution; the other violations received warnings (NOAA, 2012b). These data refer to the state where the inspections occurred and do not specify whether the vessel fished in state or federal waters, or whether in the Atlantic or Gulf of Mexico.

Last updated on 28 July 2014

The only publicly available state-specific TED compliance information is from 2011/2012. In state waters, of 14 inspections 9 vessels were noncompliant with TED regulations during a 12 month time period (Oct.1 2011-Sept. 31 2012). Of the 9 violations only two were considered major violations worthy of prosecution; the other 7 violations received warnings or instructions on how to fix a minor violation (NOAA, 2012c). This data refers to the state where the inspections occurred and does not specify whether the vessel fished in state or federal waters.

Last updated on 28 July 2014

The only publicly available state-specific TED compliance information is from 2011/2012. In state waters, of 33 inspections 8 vessels were noncompliant with TED regulations during a 12 month time period (Oct.1 2011-Sept. 31 2012). Of the 8 violations only one was considered a major violation and worthy of prosecution; the other 7 violations received warnings or instructions on how to fix a minor violation (NOAA, 2012b). This data refers to the state where the inspections occurred and does not specify whether the vessel fished in state or federal waters.

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

ETP SPECIES

Last updated on 28 July 2014

In federal waters sea turtles are the only protected species that interact with shrimp trawls. To minimize these interactions TEDs are required in both state and federal waters. In state waters trawl gear rarely interacts with the Atlantic sturgeon and the smalltooth sawfish. Certified BRDs are required to be used in nets to reduce these interactions (SAFMC, 2005). The 2014 Endangered Species Act Section 7 Consultation and Biological Opinion found that continued operation of southeastern shrimp fishery under current regulations is not expected to cause appreciable reduction in the likelihood of survival and recovery of sea turtles, Atlantic sturgeon or smalltooth sawfish (NOAA, 2014).

Last updated on 28 July 2014

Animals protected under the Endangered Species Act that occur in Georgia state waters include the shortnose sturgeon, five reptiles (green, Kemp’s ridley, hawksbill, leatherback, and loggerhead sea turtles), and three mammals (West Indian manatee, humpback whale, North Atlantic right whale). The scalloped hammerhead shark is currently under status review to be listed as either endangered or threatened.

In state waters trawl gear rarely interacts with the shortnose sturgeon. 

Last updated on 28 July 2014

Animals protected under the Endangered Species Act that occur in North Carolina state waters include three fish (smalltooth sawfish, shortnose sturgeon, and Atlantic sturgeon), six reptiles (Green, Kemp’s ridley, Hawksbill, Leatherback, and Loggerhead sea turtles and the Northern diamondback terrapin), and six mammals (West Indian manatee, Fin Whale, Humpback whale, North Atlantic right whale, Sperm whale, and Sei whale) (NCDMF, 2012a). The American eel, Alewife, scalloped hammerhead shark, and blueback herring are currently under status review to be listed as either endangered or threatened.

OTHER TARGET AND BYCATCH SPECIES

Last updated on 26 August 2013

SAFMC requires mandatory observer coverage to monitor bycatch and sea turtle interactions. Observer coverage is low, at only about 2% of effort, but does generate information on the species and quantities of bycatch in the shrimp fishery. A recent study in 2012 characterized the South Atlantic penaeid fishery based ondata from the observer program from 2007-2010. Data from 890 nets showed that Atlantic croaker made up 24% of the total catch, grouped finfish 12%, white shrimp 12%, spot 7%, jellyfish 7%, brown shrimp 6%, star drum 6%, cannonball jelly fish 4%, invertebrates made up 4% and all other species made up 16% of the total catch (Scott-Denton et al., 2012). In the same study ratios of bycatch to target catch were calculated: all bycatch to penaeid shrimp is 4.25:1; fish to penaeid shrimp: 3.17:1. These ratios for the South Atlantic shrimp fishery are higher than previously estimated. CPUE estimates for Atlantic croaker in this study increased substantially from a previous estimate of 3.6 (kg/h) in the 1992-2005 time period to 12.5 (kg/h) in the 2007-2010 time period (Scott-Denton et al., 2012). The increase in Atlantic croaker CPUE may be attributed to the increasing biomass trend of the stock since the 1980s (ASFMC, 2012).

All shrimping vessels in state and federal waters are required to have certified BRDs installed in their nets to mitigate the amount of bycatch caught. To be certified a BRD must reduce finfish bycatch by at least 30%. Based on data from the Scott-Denton study of shrimp fisheries in the South Atlantic, estimates of finfish CPUE increased two-fold from previous estimates (2007: 13.0 kg/h, 47% of catch; 2007-2010: 31.2 kg/h, 60% of catch). This increase may, again, also be a result of the increasing trend of biomass of Atlantic croaker.

Last updated on 18 July 2013

Observer coverage is required if selected in both state and federal waters to monitor bycatch and sea turtle interactions.

A study by Belcher & Jennings (2011) used fishery dependent data from 1995-1998 to analyze shark bycatch in Georgia’s shrimp trawl fishery. They found that 34% of the 127 trawls sampled contained sharks. Of the six species recorded, the Atlantic sharpnose shark was the most abundant (82% of total) followed by bonnetheads (6.5%), scalloped hammerhead shark (6.5%), blacktip shark (3.2%), spinner shark (<1%), and finetooth shark (<1%). The authors recognize that these sharks presence as bycatch is a function of their abundance. GADNR has a year-round area closure of estuaries to trawling, which essentially creates a marine protected area for many species including sharks. Another study of shark bycatch is currently being funded by NOAA, Georgia Sea Grant, and GADNR, which is investigating the interactions between blacknose sharks and the shrimp trawl fishery in the South Atlantic.

Last updated on 20 June 2013

Both North Carolina and SAFMC require mandatory observer coverage to monitor bycatch and sea turtle interactions.

HABITAT

Last updated on 26 August 2013

In Atlantic waters shrimp trawling typically takes place over muddy and sandy bottom habitats, which aren’t impacted as significantly as other benthic habitats. In state waters, areas that contain valuable submerged aquatic vegetation are designated as no trawl zones. Other critical habitat areas that provide essential nutrients and shelter to juvenile shrimp and finfish species are protected and prohibit trawling.

Last updated on 21 June 2013

In Georgia state waters sounds are closed to trawling and the fishery operates only outside the beach/sound barrier. These permanent closures protect the sensitive habitats within the sounds that provide essential nutrients and shelter to juvenile shrimp and finfish species.

MARINE RESERVES

Last updated on 26 August 2013

Individual states have identified areas within their jurisdiction that are closed to trawling to protect vulnerable habitat or valuable nursery areas.

A number of Marine Protected Area (MPAs) have been established in US Atlantic federal waters off the coasts of North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia and Florida (SAFMC, 2007). These MPAs are in deepwater habitats that house spawning aggregations of commercially important snappers and groupers or provide valuable habitat.

Last updated on 18 July 2013

One Marine Protected Area (MPA) is established off the coast of Georgia (SAFMC, 2007): Georgia MPA. The Georgia MPA ranges from depths of 90 m (295ft) to 300 m (984ft). The area consists of valuable mud-bottom habitat and species such as snowy grouper and golden tilefish were often caught there.

Gray’s Reef National Marine Sanctuary is located on the continental shelf 16 miles east of Sapelo Island, GA and encompasses 22 square miles of natural sandy bottom and live bottom habitat.

Last updated on 22 May 2013

NCDENR prohibits trawling in estuarine nursery areas to protect juvenile fish and crustacean populations and essential habitats. Protected areas are categorized as “primary nurseries”, “secondary nurseries”, and “special secondary nurseries”. Primary and secondary nurseries are permanently closed to trawling, while the special secondary nurseries are only opened to trawling by proclamation from August 16 through May 15. Sea grass beds along the Outer Banks are also closed to trawling to protect these critical habitats. See following maps of primary, secondary, and special secondary nursery habitats and no trawl zones in Pamlico Sound, Tar/Pamlico and Neuse Rivers, Core Banks to Topsail Island and Topsail Island to South Carolina (maps from NCDMF, 2012a).

Two Marine Protected Area (MPAs) are established off the coast of North Carolina (SAFMC, 2007): Snowy grouper wreck MPA and Northern South Carolina MPA. The snowy grouper MPA ranges from depths of 150 m (492ft) to 300 m (984ft) and covers an old wreck site that is known to house spawning aggregations of snowy grouper. Other bottomfish such as speckled hind, gag, red porgy, red grouper, graysby, and hogfish also inhabit the area because of its substantial hard-bottom habitat. The Northern South Carolina MPA contains shallower waters from 50 m (164 ft) to 180 m (591ft) deep. The area consists of hard-bottom habitat which is known to contain and protect small vermillion snapper, several species of deepwater snappers and groupers, and other midwater species.

FishSource Scores

SELECT SCORES

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

As calculated for 2014 data.

The score is ≥ 8.

State and federal FMPs include conservation measures to prevent overfishing. While it is not expected that the penaeid shrimp parent stock will drop below a level that would not produce MSY the following year, federal management requires that an emergency meeting be called if criteria are met that indicate overfished/overfishing (annual landings fall below 1/2 MSY abundance (BMSY) in one year or have a fishing mortality that brings the stock below MSY abundance (BMSY) for two consecutive years) to decide appropriate action.

Different components of this assessment unit score differently at the fishery level. Please look at the individual fisheries using the selection drop down above.

As calculated for 2014 data.

The score is ≥ 8.

State and federal scientists monitor the shrimp population size and abundance to advise fishery managers when to open and close the seasons. Scientific advice is generally well adhered to.

As calculated for 2014 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

IUU is small and does not hinder management goals. There are concerns however over compliance with TED regulations.

STOCK HEALTH:

As calculated for 2011 data.

This measures the CPUE as a percentage of the MSY abundance.

The CPUE is 21.6 (individuals/hectare). The MSY abundance is 2.00 (individuals/hectare) .

The underlying CPUE/MSY abundance for this index is 1080%.

As calculated for 2014 data.

The score is ≥ 8.

Environmental conditions have more of an impact on mortality and recruitment than fishing pressure. Annual landings are considered an indicator of relative abundance.

HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSE RISK

High Medium Low

This indicates the potential risk of human rights abuses for all fisheries operating within this stock or assessment unit. If there are more than on risk level noted, individual fisheries have different levels. Click on the "Select Scores" drop-down list for your fisheries of interest.

No data available for fishing mortality
No data available for recruitment
DATA NOTES
  1. Abundance estimates (individuals per hectare) are for the NW Atlantic assessment unit and are used by managers as a proxy for a biomass series; reference points are set accordingly.
  2. Scores 1-3 and 5 cannot be determined quantitatively due to the lack of catch limits or an F-based harvest control rule, so qualitative scores have been assigned.
  3. Brown shrimp landings data refer to all the stock.

Last updated on 28 July 2014

  1. The landings series is Florida east coast harvest only.

Last updated on 22 July 2013

  1. Landings are for Georgia only.

Last updated on 23 August 2013

  1. Landings are for North Carolina state harvest only.

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Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

SELECT FIP

Access FIP Public Report

Progress Rating: B
Evaluation Start Date: 3 Jun 2014
Type: Fip

Comments:

FIP rating remains at B,  last stage 4 achievement within 12 months. 

1.
FIP Development
Jun 14
2.
FIP Launch
Jun 14
May 14
3.
FIP Implementation
Sep 16
4.
Improvements in Fishing Practices and Fishery Management
Dec 16
5.
Improvements on the Water
Verifiable improvement on the water
6.
MSC certification (optional)
MSC certificate made public

Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

No related MSC certifications

Sources

Credits
  1. Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission (ASFMC), 2012. Overview of Stock Status: Atlantic croaker, Micropogonias undulatus. [Accessed on 26 April 2012]. http://www.asmfc.org/
  2. Belcher, C. N. and Jennings, C. A. (2011), Identification and evaluation of shark bycatch in Georgia’s commercial shrimp trawl fishery with implications for management. Fisheries Management and Ecology, 18: 104–112. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-2400.2010.00757.x/abstract 
  3. Georgia Department of Natural Resources (GADNR), Coastal Resources Division, 2008. Management Plan: Penaeid Shrimp. [Accessed on 20 May 2013].http://coastalgadnr.org/sites/uploads/crd/pdf/FMPs/ShrimpFMP.pdf
  4. Georgia Department of Natural Resources (GADNR), Coastal Resources Division, 2013. Trawl Surveys. [Accessed on 20 May 2013]. http://coastalgadnr.org/fb/fmgmt/trawl 
  5. Georgia Sea Grant, 2013. Shark Bycatch. [Accessed on 10 June 2013]. http://georgiaseagrant.uga.edu/article/shark_bycatch/
  6. McMillen-Jackson, A. L. & T.M. Bert, 2003. Disparate patterns of population genetic structure and population history in two sympatric penaeid shrimp species (Farfantepenaeus aztecus and Litopenaeus setiferus) in the eastern United States. Molecular Ecology 12 (11): 2895–2905. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14629371
  7. FFWCC, 2013. Commercial Saltwater Regulations. August 2013. Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission (FFWCC). 24 pp. http://myfwc.com/fishing/saltwater/commercial/
  8. National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), 2011. Table A. Summary of Stock Status for FSSI Stocks. http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/sfa/statusoffisheries/2011/fourth/Q4%202011%20FSSI%20and%20nonFSSI%20StockStatus.pdf
  9. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), 2012a. Reinitiation of Endangered Species Act (ESA) Section 7 Consultation on the Continued Implementation of the Sea Turtle Conservation Regulations, as Proposed to Be Amended, and the Continued Authorization of the Southeast US Shrimp Fisheries in Federal Waters under the Magnuson-Stevens Act. NOAA, NMFS, SERO. 302 pp. http://sero.nmfs.noaa.gov/protected_resources/section_7/freq_biop/documents/fisheries_bo/southeastshrimpbiop_final.pdf
  10. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), 2012b. NOAA TED Inspection and Compliance (Oct 1, 2011- Sept 30, 2012). [Accessed on 23 May 2013]. https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B-yvNu3ojn4ZbXM5TWV1WDlUQkU/edit?usp=sharing
  11. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), 2013a. Fishermen Are Reminded of the Importance of Complying With All TED Regulations Under New Fleet-wide TED Performance Standard for Shrimp Otter Trawls. Southeast Fishery Bulletin. [Accessed 26 April 2013]. http://sero.nmfs.noaa.gov/fishery_bulletins/documents/pdfs/2013/fb13-011_otter_trawl_regs.pdf
  12. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), 2013b. Status of U.S. Fisheries, Second Quarter, FSSI and non FSSI Stocks. http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/sfa/fisheries_eco/status_of_fisheries/status_updates.html
  13. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), 2014. Reinitiation of Endangered Species Act (ESA) Section 7 Consultation on the Continued Implementation of the Sea Turtle Conservation Regulations under the ESA and the Continued Authorization of the Southeast US Shrimp Fisheries in Federal Waters under the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Management and Conservation Act. Consultation No. SER-201 3-12255. NOAA, NMFS, SERO. 345 pp. http://sero.nmfs.noaa.gov/protected_resources/sea_turtles/documents/shrimp_biological_opinion_2014.pdf
  14. North Carolina Department Environment and Natural Resources, Division of Marine Fisheries (NCDMF), 2012a. North Carolina Shrimp Fishery Management Plan Draft Revision 2. October 2012. http://portal.ncdenr.org/c/document_library/get_file?uuid=794c7479-2d2f-4f46-b13d-e3ce7f9a4578&groupId=38337
  15. North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Division of Marine Fisheries (NCDMF), 2012b. Stock Status of Important Coastal Fisheries in North Carolina Archival Reports: 2011. [Accessed on 10 April 2013.] http://portal.ncdenr.org/web/mf/2011-stock-status-report
  16. Scott-Denton, E., P. F. Cryer, M. R. Duffy, J. P. Gocke, M. R. Harrelson, D. L. Kinsella, J. M. Nance, J. R. Pulver, R. C. Smith, and J. A. Williams. 2012. Characterization of the U.S. Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic penaeid and rock shrimp fisheries based on observer data. Marine Fisheries Review 74(4): 1-26. http://spo.nmfs.noaa.gov/mfr744/mfr7441.pdf
  17. South Atlantic Fisheries Management Council (SAFMC), 1996. Amendment 2 to the Shrimp Fishery Management Plan for the South Atlantic Region. SAFMC, NOAA. April 1996. 227 pp. http://www.safmc.net/resource-library/shrimp
  18. South Atlantic Fisheries Management Council (SAFMC), 2005. Amendment 6 to the Shrimp Fishery Management Plan for the South Atlantic Region. SAFMC, NOAA. December 2004. 305 pp. http://www.safmc.net/resource-library/shrimp
  19. South Atlantic Fisheries Management Council (SAFMC), 2007. Snapper Grouper Amendment 14. South Atlantic Fishery Management Council. North Charleston, South Carolina. July 2007. 389 pp. http://www.safmc.net/resource-library/snapper-grouper
  20. South Atlantic Fisheries Management Council (SAFMC), 2012. Amendment 9 to the Fishery Management Plan for the Shrimp Fishery of the South Atlantic Region. SAFMC, NOAA. 111 pp. http://www.safmc.net/resource-library/shrimp
References

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