Summary

IDENTIFICATION

Last updated on 19 April 2017

SCIENTIFIC NAME

Capros aper

SPECIES NAME(S)

Boarfish

The structure of boarfish stocks is uncertain. A single assessment unit is considered within ICES Subareas IV, VI, VII, VIII and IXa. This distribution is broader than the current EC TAC area: VI, VII and VIII. A discontinuity in distribution was suggested between ICES Divisions VIIIc and IXa, however it is unclear if this suggested hiatus represents a true stock separation .(ICES 2016) Most of the catches are presently from the Celtic Sea (Division VIIj) and this profile describes that proposed NE Atlantic unit.


ANALYSIS

Strengths
  • New candidate reference points are currently being analyzed.
  • The fishery is regulated by precautionary catch limits since 2011, and other technical measures are in place such as a mesh size range and real-time closures to mitigate bycatch.
  • Fishers’ compliance with TACs and bycatch limits is strong and the catch limits have been set in accordance to scientific recommendations.
  • Bycatch data is still scarce, but overall bycatch in the fishery is deemed low.
  • Studies are being conducted to understand the stock structure, boarfish abundance and relationship with environmental conditions.
  • Significant impacts of the fishing gear on benthic habitats are unlikely.
Weaknesses
  • Currently, no  reference points are defined and no analytical stock assessment is conducted for this stock, thus the status of the stock is uncertain; however, biomass indices indicate that the stock is at its lowest level of the historical series.
  • The Schaefer production model is no longer considerable suitable to provide estimates on biomass and fishing mortality, and since 2015 ICES advice is based on the data-limited approach.
  • A precautionary management plan has been developed by the Pelagic Regional Advisory Council in 2012 (then revised in 2015), but has yet to be formally put in place.
  • Stock distribution is broader than the current advice and catch limit area.
  • The information on the overall impact of this fishery on protected species is still insufficient.

SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

≥ 8

Managers Compliance:

10

Fishers Compliance:

10

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

< 6

Future Health:

≥ 6


RECOMMENDATIONS

RETAILERS & SUPPLY CHAIN
  • Contact national fisheries administrations and request the immediate formal adoption of the management plan last updated in 2015.
  • Work with scientists to collect further biological data to allow for a robust age-based stock assessment to be developed and used to estimate biologically-based reference points.
  • Encourage regulators to develop a management approach that better matches the spatial distribution of the stock and fisheries.
  • Work with scientists and managers to implement a programme to collect baseline data on interactions with protected species in this fishery.

FIPS

No related FIPs

CERTIFICATIONS

No related MSC fisheries

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

ASSESSMENT UNIT MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
NE Atlantic EU Denmark Midwater trawls
Ireland Midwater trawls
United Kingdom Midwater trawls

Analysis

OVERVIEW

Last updated on 27 April 2017

Strengths
  • New candidate reference points are currently being analyzed.
  • The fishery is regulated by precautionary catch limits since 2011, and other technical measures are in place such as a mesh size range and real-time closures to mitigate bycatch.
  • Fishers’ compliance with TACs and bycatch limits is strong and the catch limits have been set in accordance to scientific recommendations.
  • Bycatch data is still scarce, but overall bycatch in the fishery is deemed low.
  • Studies are being conducted to understand the stock structure, boarfish abundance and relationship with environmental conditions.
  • Significant impacts of the fishing gear on benthic habitats are unlikely.
Weaknesses
  • Currently, no  reference points are defined and no analytical stock assessment is conducted for this stock, thus the status of the stock is uncertain; however, biomass indices indicate that the stock is at its lowest level of the historical series.
  • The Schaefer production model is no longer considerable suitable to provide estimates on biomass and fishing mortality, and since 2015 ICES advice is based on the data-limited approach.
  • A precautionary management plan has been developed by the Pelagic Regional Advisory Council in 2012 (then revised in 2015), but has yet to be formally put in place.
  • Stock distribution is broader than the current advice and catch limit area.
  • The information on the overall impact of this fishery on protected species is still insufficient.
RECOMMENDATIONS

Last updated on 25 May 2017

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain
  • Contact national fisheries administrations and request the immediate formal adoption of the management plan last updated in 2015.
  • Work with scientists to collect further biological data to allow for a robust age-based stock assessment to be developed and used to estimate biologically-based reference points.
  • Encourage regulators to develop a management approach that better matches the spatial distribution of the stock and fisheries.
  • Work with scientists and managers to implement a programme to collect baseline data on interactions with protected species in this fishery.

1.STOCK STATUS

STOCK ASSESSMENT

Last updated on 8 August 2017

Boarfish has a wide distribution, with the species being found from Norway to Senegal, including the Mediterranean, Azores, Canaries, Madeira and Great Meteor Seamount (Blanchard and Vander-meirsch, 2005 In (ICES 2015). The stock structure of boarfish in NE Atlantic is not fully understood, as discontinuity of the stock can represent the existence of separate populations. A hiatus in distribution was suggested between ICES Divisions VIIIc and IXa. Preliminary results from a study being conducted within the Northeast Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea (since October 2013) support this this stock separation. The analysis from this study suggested strong population structure across the distribution range of boarfish with four or five distinct populations identified. But the study is still underway. A recent genetic study suggests a single stock exists in ICES Subareas IV, VI, VII, VIII and the northern part IXa (ICES 2016). This distribution is broader than the current TAC area; however, the biomass in the northern part of IXa is expected to be relatively small compared to the TAC area. The current assessment and management area for this stock (VI, VII and VIII) is thus considered adequate (ICES 2016).

A landings sampling programme began in 2010 and a Boarfish Acoustic Survey (BFAS) is conducted since July 2011, but there were changes in protocols so biomass estimates cannot be comparable between years. A Bayesian Schaefer surplus production model was performed using commercial catches (international landings and discards), combined acoustic surveys (MSHAS & BFAS) and WESPAS, six international bottom-trawl survey (IBTS) indices (EVHOE, IGFS, WCSGFS, SPPGFS, SPNGFS, and ECSGFS), and annual maturity data. Natural mortality (M) was also included and estimated over the life span of the stock (ICES 2016, ICES 2016).

The assessment is not considered suitable for providing category 1 (data-rich situations) advice since 2014, partly due to the short acoustic survey time series, short exploitation history of the stock, and uncertainty in the survey indices (ICES 2016).

SCIENTIFIC ADVICE

Last updated on 8 August 2017

No quantitative assessment is presented for this stock since 2013. Since 2015, ICES’ precautionary approach (specifically ICES framework for category 3 stocks) has been used to base its advice, as an interim solution until a robust age-based assessment is conducted. The Schaefer surplus production model, although not reliable to base the advice, provides an index of total stock biomass (TSB) which is used to detect trends in stock condition. The advice is based on a comparison of the two most recent index values with the three preceding values, multiplied by the recent advised catch; exploitation status is also considered. The drop in catch is limited at 20%, to take into account the uncertainty associated to the biomass indices (ICES 2016).

According to ICES' latest assessment, the index was estimated to have decreased by more than 20% between the two periods analyzed, and thus the uncertainty cap was applied. As the stock status against reference points is also unknown and the latest estimated biomass is the lowest of the historical series, the precautionary buffer was also applied to the advice for 2017 (for the first time for this stock). For 2017, the ICES’ advice based on the precautionary approach was 27,288 tonnes, a 36% drop from the 2016 TAC (ICES 2016).

REFERENCE POINTS

Last updated on 8 August 2017

Reference points previously defined are no longer considered as reliable (ICES 2014), but candidate values are currently being analyzed. Candidate Yield based and precautionary reference points are below (ICES 2016):

ParameterValue
BMSY = MSY Btrigger327,657 tonnes
F0.10.13 (based on yield-per-recruit analysis)
FMSY0.138
Fpa0.152

It should be noted that some of these values changed slightly since 2015, and are based on the revised perception of the stock (ICES 2016)

CURRENT STATUS

Last updated on 8 August 2017

The current status of the stock against reference points is unknown; however, biomass indices indicate that the stock is at its lowest level of the historical series (ICES 2016, ICES 2016). According to the 2016 exploratory assessment, the average of the 2015 and 2016 relative total spawning biomass (TSB) indices is 62% below both the average of the three preceding years (i.e., 2012 - 2015) and the long-term average. Despite the uncertainty surrounding the estimates, the TSB index in 2016 is the lowest of the time series (ICES 2016). The TSB absolute estimate in 2016 (108,199 tonnes) is estimated at well below the candidate Bmsy reference point (327,657 tonnes), and represents a sharp decrease from 2015 (ICES 2016).

In terms of fishing mortality, no reference points are also currently defined. The latest exploratory assessment indicates that relative fishing mortality dropped sharply in 2015 compared to the previous year, and is currently below the long-term average (ICES 2016, ICES 2016). The F estimate for 2015 based on the exploratory Bayesian Schaefer surplus production model (F = 0.061) is below both the candidate Fmsy (0.138) and F0.1 and Fpa (ICES 2016). No recruitment estimates are available from the exploratory surplus model, but results from the Spanish and French trawl surveys suggest a decreasing trend in recruitment (age 1) since 2010 (ICES 2016).

TRENDS

Last updated on 8 August 2017

First landings of boarfish were reported in 2001 at low levels and progressively increased until 2006, and from then began to rise considerably as a target fishery, peaking at 144,000 tonnes in 2010, the year before TACs were put in place (ICES 2016, ICES 2016). In terms of stock size, biomass survey indices from the exploratory assessments suggest a declining trend in the stock size, especially in last years. Fishing mortality is estimated to have increased from 2011 to 2014 but decreased sharply in 2015, and is currently below the long-term average (ICES 2016, ICES 2016).

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

MANAGERS' DECISIONS

Last updated on 8 August 2017

Despite the wide distribution of this species, the boarfish fishery is mainly conducted in waters to the southwest of Ireland. Boarfish is targeted in a pelagic trawl fishery for fish meal. Despite landings of this species being reported since 2001, the fishery was unregulated until 2010. Precautionary TACs for the boarfish fishery are in place since 2011, and have always been set according to the scientific recommendation (ICES 2016, ICES 2016). For 2017, the TAC was agreed at 28,288 tonnes (Council Regulation (EU) 2017/127), in line with ICES advice.

A long-term management plan was proposed in 2012 by the Pelagic Regional Advisory Council (RAC) and then revised in 2015 (ICES 2015, ICES 2016). The latest revision of the plan includes different procedures to set the TAC depending on the status of the stock, but also quality of assessment, and type ICES advice. It also includes a number of additional measures such as upper ceilings on possible TACs and seasonal and area closures to avoid bycatch of species such as horse mackerel and herring. ICES evaluated the plan and considered it precautionary, and noted the strategy “is more cautious than the precautionary approach” (ICES 2015, ICES 2016). Despite no indication that the proposed plan was officially put in place (e.g., via an EU Council regulation), several of the provisions in the plan (e.g., rules in setting TACs) seem to be already being followed.

In terms of other management measures already in place in this fishery: mesh size of pelagic trawls nets were defined in 2010 at 100mm by the EC for this fishery (Regulation 850/1998), but in 2011 a range was established between 32 and 54mm. A real-time closure is in place and the boarfish fishery is closed for 5 consecutive days when 5% of the total catch is from other species regulated by TACs, by day and by ICES statistical rectangle – however this measure has not yet been evaluated by ICES (ICES 2014). A seasonal closure was proposed (and now included in the revised management plan) from 15th March – 31st August, to reduce bycatch of mackerel; the measure is known to have been enacted already in legislation in Ireland (ICES 2016), and to have been voluntarily obeyed by the industry in 2011 and 2012 (ICES 2014). An additional closure was proposed in Division VIIg to avoid bycatch of herring (ICES 2014, ICES 2014).

Since 2011, there is a provision on bycatch of boarfish (and whiting, haddock and mackerel) in the Western and North Sea horse mackerel fishery, which dictates that bycatch of these 4 species combined is to be taken to be deducted (up to a defined amount) from EU quotas for western and for North Sea horse mackerel (ICES 2015, ICES 2015). The bycatch quota was defined at 7,128 tonnes in 2014, 4,785 tonnes in 2015, and 6,203 toones in 2016 (ICES 2016, ICES 2016).

The recently implemented EU landing obligation (COUNCIL REGULATION (EU) No 1380/2013) is in place for the pelagic and industrial fisheries since January 2015, banning the discarding of species regulated by TACs included in these fisheries, namely boarfish (COUNCIL REGULATION (EU) No 2015/104). The main goal is to eliminate discards across all European Union fisheries with species subject to catch limits.

RECOVERY PLANS

Last updated on 8 August 2017

The current stock status against reference points is unknown, but biomass indexes suggest the stock is as its lowest level of the time series. A management strategy has been proposed in 2015 Pelagic Regional Advisory Council (RAC), which anticipates adjusting catch limits depending on the status of the stock, but also quality and uncertainty of the assessment estimates, and the type ICES advice (ICES 2016).

COMPLIANCE

Last updated on 8 August 2017

Ireland, Denmark and United Kingdom (Scottish vessels) are the main fleets targeting this species; in 2015, landings from Ireland represented 97% of the total landings. Landings are mainly from ICES Divisions VIIh, VIIj and VIIb, which accounted for 51%, 22% and 16% of the total boarfish landings in 2015, respectively (ICES 2016). Since TACs are in place (2011), landings have always been below the set TAC, although total catches (landings + discards) were above the TACs in 2011 and 2012 (ICES 2016); from 2013 onwards both landings and total catches have been decreasing and below the quota (i.e., including discards). Discarding has been oscillating between 5,500 and 6,700 tons since 2009, but in 2014 and 2015 dropped considerably, to around 1.8 and 0.9 thousand tonnes, respectively (ICES 2016).

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

ETP SPECIES

Last updated on 8 August 2017

Mammals found in the region include harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena), bottlenosed dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), common dolphin (Delphinus delphis), white-beaked dolphin (Lagenorhynchus albirostris), white-sided dolphin (L. acutus) and grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) (Marine Institute 2011) but none are listed as at risk on the IUCN Red List (IUCN 2017). Similarly, no seabirds are thought to be endangered: fulmar and storm-petrel are the dominant seabirds of the region but kittiwake, guillemot and gannet also breed in the area (Marine Institute 2011). At-risk sharks include the vulnerable basking shark (Cetorhinus maximus) and the near-threatened blue shark (Prionace glauca) (IUCN 2017). In terms of demersal elasmobranchs, the blonde ray (Raja brachyura), thornback skate (R. clavata) and nursehound (Scyliorhinus stellaris) are near-threatened, shagreen ray (Leucoraja fullonica), common smoothhound (Mustelus mustelus) and piked dogfish (Squalus acanthias) are vulnerable and undulate ray (R. undulata) is endangered (IUCN 2017).

Bycatch of other species, including of groups such as seabirds and marine mammals is likely low, as is reported in other pelagic trawl fisheries in the region (STECF 2010, Marine Institute 2011, ICES 2016). However, data on the effects of this specific fishery on protected species is still limited. In 2009, an ICES working group Working Group on Bycatch of Protected Species was formed, aiming at collating, storing and summarizing data provided by EU states on bycatch of protected species. For the Irish pelagic trawl fisheries in particular, between 2005 and 2011 more than 700 days were monitored in a range of Irish pelagic trawl fisheries through independent observer programmes, technical trials, fisheries surveys and the data collection framework. During this period, no cetacean bycatch occurred during the independent observer work; four common dolphins were observed as bycatch as part of a fishery survey conducted in 2006 (BIM 2017).

In terms of indirect effects of the fishery on the ecosystem, boarfish is not considered an important prey item in the NE Atlantic. However, in some areas such as the Portuguese mainland and Azores waters, studies have shown boarfish to be an important component of the diet of several fish species (e.g., conger eel, forkbeard, tunas and hake), and seabirds (e.g., common tern (Sterna hirundo) and Cory’s shearwater Calonectris diomedea) (ICES 2016).

OTHER TARGET AND BYCATCH SPECIES

Last updated on 8 August 2017

Bycatch data in the boarfish fishery is limited but numbers are considered as low (ICES 2015). The targeted fishery developed only recently but is thought to be highly selective, with almost no bycatch from September to February. From March onward there can be some bycatch of mackerel, but fishery generally ceases if bycatch rates are above a certain amount (ICES 2016, STECF 2010). The proposed management plan includes seasonal and area closures, specifically designed to avoid bycatch of species such as horse mackerel and herring (ICES 2016).

Bycatch of boarfish in the horse mackerel pelagic fishery is regulated by a provision in the TAC for the latter species. This allows a certain percentage of boarfish, and other species, to be retained and deducted from the horse mackerel quota. Previous to the development of the target fishery, boarfish was a discarded bycatch in pelagic fisheries for mackerel in ICES Subareas VII and VIII (ICES 2016). A study by Borges et al. (2008) found that boarfish may account for as much as 5% of the total catch of Dutch pelagic freezer trawlers. Boarfish are also discarded in whitefish fisheries, particularly by Spanish demersal trawlers (ICES 2016).

HABITAT

Last updated on 8 August 2017

The fishery is conducted only with pelagic trawl, so direct effects on benthic communities are deemed minimal (Marine Institute 2011).

In terms of indirect effects of the fishery on the ecosystem, given their frequency on seabirds and commercial species diets in the Azores, boarfish appear to be an important component of the marine ecosystem in that specific area. There is currently insufficient evidence to draw similar conclusions in the entire NE Atlantic, though the species is currently not considered an important prey item in this region. Studies are being conducted to understand abundance and relationship with environmental conditions (ICES 2016, ICES 2016).

MARINE RESERVES

Last updated on 8 August 2017

A series of sites on the Porcupine Bank are declared as a Special Area of Conservation (Brock et al. 2009) and several other areas are closed to fishing to protect orange roughy (CoralFISH 2008).

Several closed seasons and closed areas are included in the proposed Management Plan: a closed season shall operate from 15th March to the 31st August to prevent catch herring and mackerel; a closed area shall be implemented inside the Irish 12 mile limit south of 52°30’N from 12th February to 31st October, in order to prevent catches of Celtic Sea herring; and, if catches of other species covered by TAC amount to more than 5% of the total catch by day by ICES statistical rectangle, then all fishing must cease in that rectangle for five consecutive days (ICES 2015, ICES 2016).

FishSource Scores

Last updated on 8 August 2017

SELECT SCORES

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

As calculated for 2016 data.

The score is ≥ 8.

A precautionary catch limit has been set since 2011. A management plan was proposed by the Pelagic Regional Advisory Council in 2012 and then revised in 2015 (ICES 2015a, 2015b). ICES evaluated the plan and considered it precautionary (ICES 2015b, ICES 2016b). Despite no indication that the proposed plan was officially put in place (e.g., via an EU Council regulation), seems some of the provisions in the plan (e.g., rules in setting TACs) are already being followed by scientists and managers.

As calculated for 2017 data.

This measures the Set TAC as a percentage of the Advised TAC.

The Set TAC is 27.3 ('000 t). The Advised TAC is 27.3 ('000 t) .

The underlying Set TAC/Advised TAC for this index is 100%.

As calculated for 2015 data.

This measures the Catch as a percentage of the Set TAC.

The Catch is 17.8 ('000 t). The Set TAC is 53.3 ('000 t) .

The underlying Catch/Set TAC for this index is 33.3%.

STOCK HEALTH:

As calculated for 2016 data.

The score is < 6.

Previous reference points are no longer accepted but new ones are being developed. According to the 2016 exploratory assessment, the average of the 2015 and 2016 relative total spawning biomass (TSB) indices is 62% below both the average of the three preceding years (i.e., 2012 - 2015) and the long-term average. Despite the uncertainty surrounding the estimates, the TSB index in 2016 is the lowest of the time series (ICES 2015c). The TSB absolute estimate in 2016 (108,199 tonnes) is estimated at well below the candidate Bmsy reference point (327,657 tonnes), and represents a sharp decrease from 2015 (ICES 2016a).

As calculated for 2016 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

Fishing mortality reference points are also not defined, so the exploitation status against reference points is unknown. Latest exploratory assessment indicates that relative current fishing mortality increased from 2011 to 2014 but decreased sharply in 2015, and is currently below the long-term average (ICES 2016a, ICES 2016b).

HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSE RISK

High Medium Low

This indicates the potential risk of human rights abuses for all fisheries operating within this stock or assessment unit. If there are more than on risk level noted, individual fisheries have different levels. Click on the "Select Scores" drop-down list for your fisheries of interest.

No data available for recruitment
DATA NOTES

1) Both estimates of Total Spawning Biomass and Exploitation rate are from the exploratory Schaefer production model, which is only used to understand stock’s trends as the model was considered by ICES as “no longer suitable for providing category 1 advice” (ICES 2015, ICES 2016).

2) Both ICES advice and the set TAC refer to EU and international waters of Subareas VI, VII, and VIII (COUNCIL REGULATION (EU) 2017/127), the area where most of the boarfish is captured (ICES 2015).

3) Total catches 2001-2014 include landings and estimated discards from Ireland, Denmark and Scotland (ICES 2015).

4) As no specific target fishing mortality rate is defined, score #1 was determined qualitatively (please mouse-over for further details).

5) Previous reference points are no longer accepted (ICES 2014), thus were not included in the datasheet. Scores #4 and #5 were determined qualitatively (please mouse-over for further details).

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Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

No related FIPs

Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

No related MSC certifications

Sources

Credits

 

  1. Borges, L., O.A. van Keeken, A.T.M van Helmond, B. Couperus, and M. Dickey-Collas. 2008. What do pelagic freezer-trawlers discard? ICES Journal of Marine Science 65:605-611. https://academic.oup.com/icesjms/article/65/4/605/640309/What-do-pelagic-freezer-trawlers-discard
  2. COUNCIL REGULATION (EU) 2015/104 of 19 January 2015 fixing for 2015 the fishing opportunities for certain fish stocks and groups of fish stocks, applicable in Union waters and, for Union vessels, in certain non-Union waters, amending Regulation (EU) No 43/2014 and repealing Regulation (EU) No 779/2014, 163pp.http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:32015R0104&from=EN
  3. COUNCIL REGULATION (EU) 2016/72 of 22 January 2016 fixing for 2016 the fishing opportunities for certain fish stocks and groups of fish stocks, applicable in Union waters and, for Union fishing vessels, in certain non-Union waters, and amending Regulation (EU) 2015/104. 165 pp.http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:32016R0072&from=EN
  4. EC, 2013. Proposal for a Council Regulation fixing for 2014 the fishing opportunities for certain fish stocks and groups of fish stocks, applicable in EU waters and, for EU vessels, in certain non-EU waters (Atlantic and North Sea) - COM/2013/753. Annex 1 http://ec.europa.eu/fisheries/cfp/fishing_rules/tacs/info/com_2013_753_annex_1_en.pdf
  5. COUNCIL REGULATION (EU) No 57/2011 of 18 January 2011 fixing for 2011 the fishing opportunities for certain fish stocks and groups of fish stocks, applicable in EU waters and, for EU vessels, in certain non-EU waters.http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2011:024:0001:0125:EN:PDF
  6. COUNCIL REGULATION (EU) No 1380/2013 OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 11 December 2013 on the Common Fisheries Policy, amending Council Regulations (EC) No 1954/2003 and (EC) No 1224/2009 and repealing Council Regulations (EC) No 2371/2002 and (EC) No 639/2004 and Council Decision 2004/585/EC. 22 pp.http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2013:354:0022:0061:EN:PDF
  7. COUNCIL REGULATION (EU) 2017/127 of 20 January 2017 fixing for 2017 the fishing opportunities for certain fish stocks and groups of fish stocks, applicable in Union waters and, for Union fishing vessels, in certain non-Union waters. 172 pp. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:32017R0127&from=EN
References

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    Boarfish - NE Atlantic

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