Last updated on 11 August 2016

SUMMARY

SUMMARY

IDENTIFICATION

SCIENTIFIC NAME(s)

Scomber scombrus

SPECIES NAME(s)

Atlantic mackerel

Northeast Atlantic mackerel defines the mackerel in the region from ICES Division IXa in the south to Division IIa in the north. Spawning areas are equally widely distributed but catches are attributed to three spawning components by area – North Sea (IV, IIIa), Western (VI, VII, VIIIa,b,d,e) and Southern (VIIIc, IXa). Fish from Southern and Western areas have been shown to migrate to the North Sea, Norwegian Sea and Baltic Sea after spawning where they become indistinct from other components. For practical purposes all mackerel in the Northeast Atlantic are considered to form a single stock (ICES, 2012a,b).


ANALYSIS

Strengths

The management plan, though lacking in its implementation, is precautionary. SSB remains high and above Bpa and MSY Btrigger.

Weaknesses

Specific fishing mortalities to be applied under poor stock conditions have not been specified in the management agreement. No international agreement exists between all states participating in the fishery and advised catches are routinely exceeded.Fishing mortality in the entire area remains above FMSY and FPA. The North Sea spawning biomass remains low.

FISHSOURCE SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

≥ 6

Managers Compliance:

0.9

Fishers Compliance:

10

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

8.8

Future Health:

5.8


RECOMMENDATIONS

CATCHERS & REGULATORS

1. Start a fishery improvement project to address sustainability issues in this fishery. For advice on starting a FIP, see SFP’s Seafood Industry Guide to FIPs.
2. Communicate to fishery managers that there are sustainability issues in this fishery that may be affecting the sale of products, and request that they comprehensively evaluate and address such issues.

RETAILERS & SUPPLY CHAIN

1. Encourage your supply chain to start a fishery improvement project. For advice on starting a FIP see SFP’s Seafood Industry Guide to FIPs.
2. Work with other suppliers and buyers on a pre-competitive basis to start a supplier roundtable to review improvement needs in this and other similar fisheries, catalyze fishery improvement projects, and monitor progress in improvement efforts.


FIPS

No related FIPs

CERTIFICATIONS

  • Danish Pelagic Producers Organisation North East Atlantic mackerel:

    Withdrawn

  • Faroese Pelagic Organization North East Atlantic mackerel:

    MSC Certified

  • Hastings Fleet mackerel drift net:

    MSC Full Assessment

  • MINSA North East Atlantic mackerel:

    MSC Certified

  • Northern Ireland Pelagic Sustainability Group (NIPSG) Irish Sea-Atlantic mackerel & NS herring:

    MSC Full Assessment

  • Pelagic Freezer Trawler Association North East Atlantic mackerel pelagic trawl:

    Withdrawn

  • South West Handline Mackerel:

    Withdrawn

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

ASSESSMENT UNIT MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
NE Atlantic EU Denmark Midwater trawls
Purse seines
France Midwater trawls
Purse seines
Germany Midwater trawls
Ireland Midwater trawls
Lithuania Midwater trawls
Netherlands Midwater trawls
Poland Cast nets
Portugal Midwater trawls
Spain Midwater trawls
Pole-lines hand operated
Purse seines
Sweden Mechanized lines
Midwater trawls
Purse seines
United Kingdom Drift gillnets
Hooks and lines
Mechanized lines
Midwater trawls
Pole-lines hand operated
Faroe Islands Faroe Islands Midwater trawls
Seine nets
Iceland Iceland Midwater trawls
Norway Norway Midwater trawls
Pole-lines hand operated
Purse seines

Analysis

OVERVIEW

Last updated on 22 August 2013

Strengths

The management plan, though lacking in its implementation, is precautionary. SSB remains high and above Bpa and MSY Btrigger.

Weaknesses

Specific fishing mortalities to be applied under poor stock conditions have not been specified in the management agreement. No international agreement exists between all states participating in the fishery and advised catches are routinely exceeded.Fishing mortality in the entire area remains above FMSY and FPA. The North Sea spawning biomass remains low.

RECOMMENDATIONS

Last updated on 20 August 2016

Improvement Recommendations to Catchers & Regulators

1. Start a fishery improvement project to address sustainability issues in this fishery. For advice on starting a FIP, see SFP’s Seafood Industry Guide to FIPs.
2. Communicate to fishery managers that there are sustainability issues in this fishery that may be affecting the sale of products, and request that they comprehensively evaluate and address such issues.

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain

1. Encourage your supply chain to start a fishery improvement project. For advice on starting a FIP see SFP’s Seafood Industry Guide to FIPs.
2. Work with other suppliers and buyers on a pre-competitive basis to start a supplier roundtable to review improvement needs in this and other similar fisheries, catalyze fishery improvement projects, and monitor progress in improvement efforts.

1.STOCK STATUS

STOCK ASSESSMENT

Last updated on 8 November 2012

An Age-based analytical (ICA) was carried out, based on catch data and triennial egg surveys (2007 and 2010 values revised in 2011) for Spawning Stock Biomass (SSB) estimates. Discards data are included in the assessment (estimates since 1978) but considered to be underestimated like slippage and natural mortality; previous underestimated catches related to misreporting issues are no longer an issue. However the assessment is considered to be robust. Large revisions in the estimates every three years may to occur, when triennial egg surveys data becomes available. No recruitment index is currently available for use in the assessment. New quantitative and reliable data (discards, slippage, unreported landings and also of abundance series) would improve the assessment (ICES, 2012a). Perception of fishermen is contradictory to stock assessment results and efforts are in place to include fishing industry information in the assessment process; pilot projects are in progress (ICES, 2012a).

SCIENTIFIC ADVICE

Last updated on 8 November 2012

From 2010 ICES has started to gradually implement a Maximum Sustainable Yield (MSY) approach in its advice, which will generally be more cautious than the heretofore used precautionary approach (PA). During the transition, three options for catch advice will be presented: according to the MSY approach, the PA, and to a management plan satisfying fishery objectives that has been found to be precautionary (ICES, 2010b). 

Following the ICES MSY framework implies an F reduction to 0.22 (FMSY) resulting in landings of 542,000 tonnes in 2013 and to an SSB of 2560,000 tonnes in 2014. The transition scheme towards ICES MSY framework implies F at 0.23 (Fpa), resulting in landings of 564,000 tonnes in 2013 and to an SSB of 2530,000 tonnes in 2014. In accordance with the PA, F should be no higher than 0.23 with catches at 564,000 tonnes in 2013, what is expected to maintain SSB above 2300,000 tonnes in 2014.

The agreed management plan has been considered by ICES to be in accordance with the PA. ICES’ advice has thus been issued based on the plan and consists of catches between 497,000 tonnes and 542,000 (average at 519,500 tonnes) for 2013. If followed, this is expected to lead to an average increase of 1% (2581,000 tonnes) (ICES, 2012a). 

ICES has also advised that the TAC should cover all area where mackerel is fished, and that the existing measures to protect the North Sea spawning component should remain in place. The consistency with PA of interannual transfer of quotas is not evaluated by ICES (ICES, 2012a).

Reference Points

Last updated on 08 Nov 2012

The following reference points, unchanged since 2010, have been defined for this stock (ICES, 2012a).

Management plan: MSY Approach: Precautionary Approach:
SSBtrigger = 2.2 million t
Ftarget = 0.20-0.22
MSY Btrigger = 2.2 million t
FMSY = 0. 22
Blim = 1.67 million t
Bpa = 2.3 million t
Flim = 0.42
Fpa = 0.23
CURRENT STATUS

Last updated on 8 November 2012

The stock is currently being harvested above target levels, with F2011 at 0.31, above FMSY and Fpa, and higher than in 2010; SSB at 2.677 million tonnes in 2011, remains above Bpa and MSY Btrigger but is lower than last year (ICES, 2012a). Available information is insufficient to confirm recent recruitment (2009 and 2011 year classes) and year classes in recent years have been below average (ICES, 2012a). 2011 landings is the time series high record at 938,800 tonnes (ICES, 2012b).

Trends

Last updated on 08 Nov 2012

Overfishing of the North Sea component in the 1960s led to recruitment failure after 1969, and a decline of SSB from the pre-1960 estimated 3 million tonnes. Catches are at around 10,000 tonnes for 10 years. A slight increase in the SSB has occurred since 1999, but protection measures are still needed; a decreasing trend is noticed since 2005 to 0.17 million t in 2011. Catches of the Western component were low in the 1960s but have increased since. Estimates from the egg surveys indicate that SSB has increased from 2.47 million t in 2004 to 3.43 million t in 2010. The Southern component’s catches increased in the early 2000s to around 40,000 tonnes, and reached a peak at 108 000 tonnes in 2009, followed by a decrease to 19,000 tonnes in 2011 mainly due to “pay-back of 18 000 tonnes and tighter regulations”. Estimates from egg surveys indicate that SSB has increased from 0.28 million tonnes in 2004 to 0.85 million tonnes in 2010 (ICES, 2012a).

Total SSB has increased from 1.7 million tonnes in 2002 to close to 3.1 million tonnes in 2010; remains above targets but below last year. F decreased with the implementation of the management plan (ICES, 2012a).

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

MANAGEMENT

Last updated on 8 November 2012

A management plan based upon ICES recommendations was agreed upon by Norway, the Faroe Islands and the EU (the Coastal States) in October 2008 to jointly manage the fishery, replacing a previous 1999 plan (ICES, 2009a). It is based on a decision to keep F in the range 0.20-0.22, through the application of an appropriate TAC, while the SSB remains above 2.2 million tonnes. If the SSB falls below this limit, F will be linearly reduced and should it fall below 1.67 million tonnes, an even lower F will be agreed upon by the parties. A 20% constraint on TAC changes in successive years is foreseen but the TAC may also be set at a lower level than that foreseen by this harvest rule (ICES, 2009a).

No international agreement exists between all fishing states and consensus on quotas has not been reached among signatory countries to the plan (some of the countries, such as Iceland and Faroe islands, have unilaterally set their own quotas), meaning the plan’s catch objectives have been exceeded by the sum of set quotas in each year since 2009. The sum of unilateral TACs for 2012 totals 927 thousand tonnes (ICES, 2012a), considerably above the advised 497-542 thousand tonnes (ICES, 2012a,b). The Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) has for this reason suspended some of the certificated fisheries of Northeast Atlantic mackerel from March 2012 (DNV, IMM, FCI, 2012).

Specific management measures are attributed to the North Sea spawning component: fishing closures in Divisions IIIa and IVb,c at any time of the year (enforced for juveniles), in Division IVa between 15 February–31 July and a minimum landing size of 30cm in Subarea IV. EU minimum landing size is of 18cm (Collette et al., 2011). Other specific measures are set by each fishing country (ICES, 2012b).

Recovery Plans

Last updated on 08 Nov 2012

No comprehensive plans in place. A reduction in F to within the target range is advised by ICES and is expected to maintain SSB well above Bpa. Existing measures to protect the Northern Sea spawning component are also advised to be kept in place (ICES, 2012a).

An Action Plan has been drawn up by MSC client companies in order to meet the requirements to lift the fisheries’ suspension of certification.

COMPLIANCE

Last updated on 8 November 2012

Total mackerel catches are estimated by ICES and include discards where available (ICES, 2012a). With the exception of 1994 and since 2009, total catches have surpassed Set TACs. From 2009, catches were below the sum of the quotas set for the entire area, but considerably exceeded ICES’ advice, which was based on the management plan; F was also above that foreseen in the management plan. According to ICES, the lack of international agreements on the exploitation of the stock since 2008 is of critical concern, and hinders control of the total exploitation rates. The fishing closure in Divisions IIIa and IVb,c at any time of the year increased discards of mackerel of non-directed fisheries causing underestimated catches in these Divisions due to unavailable discard data (ICES, 2012a). The catch information is probably underestimated due to discards, slippage and under-reporting. However, under-reporting is thought to be less problematic in recent years (ICES, 2012a).

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

BYCATCH
ETP Species

Last updated on 28 October 2009

A wide variety of marine mammals, including several species of whales considered by the IUCN to be endangered, and hooded seals, classified as vulnerable (IUCN, 2009), overlap with mackerel’s distribution in the North-east Atlantic. Limited information is available on bycatch of marine mammals by the fishery but it has been documented in mackerel trawling off southwest Ireland (ICES, 2008c), although, apart from long-finned pilot whale whose status is unknown, it mostly affects non-endangered mammals (IUCN, 2009). Mackerel is an important food source for various marine mammals (ICES, 2008a), but no information could be obtained on the indirect effects of removal of a preferred prey species.

Nesting or overwintering seabirds may also be affected by the fishery on several levels: bycatch of seabirds may occur, though most often documented for longline fishing, and discarding in the fishery can have a considerable impact on the distribution of scavenging seabirds (ICES, 2008c) but no specific information is available on the effects of the mackerel fishery on seabirds in the region.

Many elasmobranchs in the region which also increasingly vulnerable and marine turtles reported towards the south of mackerel’s range (ICES, 2008c) could be at risk of bycatch but no reports are available.

Other Species

Last updated on 9 December 2011

Overall, the bycatch of non-target species in the mackerel fishery is considered minimal (ICES, 2011a). There is some overlap with the Norwegian Spring-Spawning (NSS), in the northern extent of the Atlantic mackerel range, creating some bycatch issues for the vessels targeting mackerel in this area (ICES, 2009b; ICES, 2011b).

HABITAT

Last updated on 8 November 2012

The distribution of mackerel spawning areas has changed in recent years and mackerel is being fished in areas where it was not previously found (ICES, 2009b). A westerly shift in the distribution of the mackerel stock is suggested by survey data in 2009 (ICES, 2009b). Consequences of this change can be expected to be substantial and to impact on the future abundance, spawning, growth and recruitment of the stock (ICES, 2008a). High ocean temperatures appear to be influencing mackerel distribution and migration patterns, partly due to high zooplankton concentrations in the western Norwegian Sea (ICES, 2009b). Earlier spawning in the south and earlier migration to northern waters also appear to be a result of the warmer seas and are supported by changes in the timing of the southern fisheries (ICES, 2008a). An increase in the variability of recruitment has also become apparent in recent years (ICES, 2008b).

Most fleets target mackerel with pelagic gear, where direct effects on the ecosystem are not thought to be significant, but demersal trawls are used by Spanish fleets and are known to damage benthic communities besides having a larger rate of discarding (ICES, 2008c).

Marine Reserves

Last updated on 08 Nov 2012

The south-west mackerel box, an area off the coast of Cornwall in Southern England, was set up in 1981 in order to protect juvenile mackerel in a known nursery area, at a time when fishing effort was particularly high and discarding of small mackerel a major issue. The area was further expanded in 1989 and is closed to mackerel fishing with the exception of handliners. The fishery is also closed in Divisions IIIa and IVb,c on a permanent basis in order to protect the North Sea component and Western juveniles and in Division IVa during the first half of the year (ICES, 2012a).

In addition, in EU waters, the extension to marine areas of the EU Natura 2000 network of special conservation areas, under the Birds Directive 79/409/EEC and the Habitats Directive 92/43/EEC is currently underway and special fishery management measures may be applied.

FishSource Scores

SELECT SCORES

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

As calculated for 2016 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

The previous, precautionary, management plan, which however had not been implemented in setting TACs since 2009, is no longer in use. A new long-term management plan has been developed, but has not yet been evaluated as to its precaution.

As calculated for 2016 data.

The score is 0.9.

This measures the Set TAC as a percentage of the Advised TAC.

The Set TAC is 1050 ('000 t). The Advised TAC is 667 ('000 t) .

The underlying Set TAC/Advised TAC for this index is 157%.

As calculated for 2014 data.

The score is 10.0.

This measures the Landings as a percentage of the Set TAC.

The Landings is 1390 ('000 t). The Set TAC is 1400 ('000 t) .

The underlying Landings/Set TAC for this index is 99.4%.

STOCK HEALTH:

As calculated for 2015 data.

The score is 8.8.

This measures the SSB as a percentage of the MSY Btrigger.

The SSB is 3620 ('000 t). The MSY Btrigger is 3000 ('000 t) .

The underlying SSB/MSY Btrigger for this index is 121%.

As calculated for 2014 data.

The score is 5.8.

This measures the F as a percentage of the Fmsy.

The F is 0.339 (age-averaged). The Fmsy is 0.220 .

The underlying F/Fmsy for this index is 154%.

To see data for biomass, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for catch and tac, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for fishing mortality, please view this site on a desktop.
No data available for recruitment
No data available for recruitment
To see data for management quality, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for stock status, please view this site on a desktop.
DATA NOTES

1) For scores calculation purposes, the advised TACs graphed up to 2014 correspond to the averages of the advised ranges under the previous management plan. For 2015 it corresponds to an MSY approach in the absence of a management plan. A new management plan was later implemented but has not yet been evaluated as to its precaution and was not negotiated between all fishing countries.
2) Target fishing mortality up to 2013 (Ftrp) is from the previous harvest control rule, and calculated as the mid-point of the recommended fishing mortality range (0.20-0.22). The 2014 value graphed is FMSY. The target adopted under the new plan is 0.24.
3) Since no international agreement has been reached on the TACs since 2009, graphed values are the sum of unilateral TACs. The 2016 TAC is the sum of the TAC set by the negotiating parties of the management plan and the TAC set independently by Iceland. No value could be located for Greenland’s TAC.
4) Given the new management plan has not yet been evaluated as to its precaution, a qualitative score has been attributed to score #1.
5) Data of landings, spawning stock biomass and fishing mortality comprise Southern, Western, and North Sea spawning components. Discards and slippage estimates are available from ICES but have not been included.

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Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

No related FIPs

Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

SELECT MSC

NAME

Danish Pelagic Producers Organisation North East Atlantic mackerel

STATUS

Withdrawn on 25 July 2013

SCORES

This fishery is now covered by "MINSA North East Atlantic mackerel" certification.

Certification Type:

Sources

Credits
  1. Det Norske Veritas (DNV), Intertek Moody Marine (IMM), Food Certification International Ltd (FCI), 2012. North East Atlantic Mackerel Fisheries. MSC Certification - Confirmation of Suspension.http://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/certified/north-east-atlantic/sppo-north-east-atlantic-mackerel/assessment-downloads-1/20120328_ANMT_Suspension.pdf
  2. EC, 2011. Council Regulation (EC) No 57/2011 of 18 January 2011, fixing for 2011 the fishing opportunities for certain fish stocks and groups of fish stocks, applicable in EU waters and, for EU vessels, in certain non-EU waters.http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2011:024:0001:0125:EN:PDF
  3. Faroese Ministry of Fisheries, 2011. Faroese Mackerel Fisheries in 2011. Press release, 16-03-2011.http://www.us.fo/Default.aspx?ID=2396&M=News&PID=6412&NewsID=3552
  4. FikiStofa, accessed 15July2016. Mackerel catches and allowed catch. http://www.fiskistofa.is/english/quotas-and-catches/mackerel-fisheries/aflastada_makrill.jsp?lang=en
  5. ICES, 2008a. Report of the Working Group on Widely Distributed Stocks (WGWIDE), 2-11 September 2008, ICES Headquarters, Copenhagen (ICES CM 2008\ACOM:13). http://www.ices.dk/reports/ACOM/2008/WGWIDE/WGWIDE08.pdf
  6. ICES, 2008b. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee on Fishery Management, Advisory Committee on the Marine Environment and Advisory Committee on Ecosystems, Book 9: Widely distributed and Migratory Stocks. 9.4.2 Northeast Atlantic mackerel (combined Southern, Western, and North Sea spawning components).http://www.ices.dk/committe/acom/comwork/report/2008/2008/mac-nea.pdf
  7. ICES, 2008c. Report of the Working Group for Regional Ecosystem Description (WGRED), 25-29 February 2008, ICES, Copenhagen, Denmark (ICES CM 2008/ACOM:47). http://www.ices.dk/reports/ACOM/2008/WGRED/wgred_2008.pdf
  8. ICES, 2009a. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee. Book 9: Widely distributed and Migratory Stocks. 9.4.2 Mackerel in the Northeast Atlantic (combined Southern, Western, and North Sea spawning components).http://www.ices.dk/committe/acom/comwork/report/2009/2009/mac-nea.pdf
  9. ICES, 2009b. Report of the Working Group on Widely Distributed Stocks (WGWIDE), 2-8 September 2009, Copenhagen, Denmark (ICES CM 2009/ACOM:12).http://www.ices.dk/reports/ACOM/2009/WGWIDE/WGWIDE09.pdf
  10. ICES, 2010a. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee. Book 9: Widely Distributed and Migratory Stocks. 9.4.2. Mackerel in the Northeast Atlantic (combined Southern, Western, and North Sea spawning components).http://www.ices.dk/committe/acom/comwork/report/2010/2010/mac-nea.pdf
  11. ICES, 2010b. Report of the Working Group on Widely Distributed Stocks (WGWIDE), 28 August - 3 September 2010, Vigo, Spain (ICES CM 2010/ACOM:15). 612 pp.http://www.ices.dk/reports/ACOM/2010/WGWIDE/WGWIDE%202010.pdf
  12. ICES, 2011a. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee. Book 9: Widely Distributed and Migratory Stocks. 9.4.2. Mackerel in the Northeast Atlantic (combined Southern, Western, and North Sea spawning components).http://www.ices.dk/committe/acom/comwork/report/2011/2011/mac-nea.pdf
  13. ICES, 2011b. Report of the Working Group on Widely Distributed Stocks (WGWIDE), 23 - 29 August 2011, ICES Headquarters, Copenhagen, Denmark (ICES CM 2011/ACOM:15). 642 pp.http://www.ices.dk/reports/ACOM/2011/WGWIDE/WGWIDE%20Report%202011.pdf
  14. ICES, 2012a. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee, Book 9: Widely Distributed and Migratory Stocks 9.4.2 Ecoregion: Widely Distributed and Migratory Stocks. Stock: Mackerel in the Northeast Atlantic (combined Southern, Western, and North Sea spawning components). Advice summary for 2012, 23 pp. http://www.ices.dk/committe/acom/comwork/report/2011/2011/mac-nea.pdf
  15. ICES, 2012b. Report of the Working Group on Widely Distributed Stocks (WGWIDE), 21 - 27 August 2012, Lowestoft, United Kingdom. ICES CM 2012/ACOM:15. 931pp.WGWIDE_2012.pdf
  16. ICES, 2014. Report of the Working Group on Mixed Fisheries Advice for the North Sea (WGMIXFISH-NS), 26-30 May 2014, ICES HQ, Copenhagen, Denmark. ICES CM 2014/ACOM:22. 95 pp.http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Expert%20Group%20Report/acom/2014/WGMIXFISH-NS/01%20WGMIXFISH-NS%20report%202014.pdf
  17. ICES, 2015. Report of the ICES Committee 2015. Book 9, 9.3.25: Mackerel (Scomber scombus) in Subareas I-VII and XIV and Divisions VIIIa-e and IXa (Northeast Atlantic). http://ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2015/2015/mac-nea.pdf
  18. IUCN, 2009. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2009.1. [Downloaded on 24 October 2009].http://www.iucnredlist.org/
  19. MSC, 2014. North East Atlantic Mackerel Fisheries – Acceptance of Mackerel Industry Northern Sustainability Alliance (MINSA) Corrective Action Plan.http://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/fisheries-in-the-program/certified/north-east-atlantic/DPPO-NE-Atlantic-mackerel/assessment-downloads-1/20140117_Corrective_Action_Plan_Acceptance_letter_MAC33.pdf
  20. NEAFC, 2015. Agreed Record of Conclusions of Fisheries Consultations between the Faroe Islands, the European Union and Norway on the Management of Mackerel in the Northeast Atlantic for 2016. Clonakilty, 23 October 2015. http://cdn.lms.fo/media/7038/agreed-record-mackerel.pdf
  21. OSPAR, 2010. 2009/10 Status Report on the OSPAR Network of Marine Protected Areas. Publ. no. 493/2010. OSPAR Commission: Biodiversity Series. 61 pp.http://www.ospar.org/documents/dbase/publications/p00493_Status%20report%20MPAs.pdf
References

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    Atlantic mackerel - NE Atlantic

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