Profile updated on 18 January 2018

SUMMARY

SUMMARY

IDENTIFICATION

SCIENTIFIC NAME(s)

Scomber japonicus

SPECIES NAME(s)

Pacific chub mackerel, Chub mackerel

Chub mackerel has a worldwide distribution. There is limited information on stock structure of Scomber japonicus off the coast of Ecuador. Some authors state that in the SE Pacific, differences in growth patterns would suggest that the stocks in the Ecuadorian and Peruvian coastal regions would be distinct and separated by the Equatorial front (Patterson et al. 1993). Other authors suggest the existence of one stock in the south of Ecuador and north of Peru (which is more intensively exploited by the Ecuadorian fleet) and another stock in the south of Peru and north of Chile (Cucalón-Zenck et al. 2000). However, none of the above stock differentiation can be considered as entirely conclusive (Cucalón-Zenck et al. 2000)(Patterson et al. 1993). Stock status was assessed in the past in Ecuadorian waters (Cucalón-Zenck et al. 2000)(Patterson et al. 1993) so an assessment unit for Ecuador has been assigned as top node.  


ANALYSIS

Strengths
  • Fishing of small pelagic fishes is banned two months per year to allow the recovery of the species.
  • There is a regulation on mesh size and some spatial protection measures have been adopted to protect reproductive phases, as advised. 
  • Three acoustic surveys have been recently conducted (March and November 2018, March 2019) provinding some updated information on abundance and biomass.
  • Except for recreational and particular traditional fisheries the first mile from coast is closed to fishing in order to protect the reproduction of aquatic species.
  • Marine habitats and bottom types have been identified and mapped.
  • There is a national plan for the conservation of sea turtles and a national plan for the conservation of sharks and rays.  
Weaknesses
  • Current stock status against biological reference points is unknown. Last stock assessment was conducted in 2000. 
  • The stock has been reported as overfished in two ocassions, with high risk of collapse. Since then no relevant management measures have been implemented to increase the spawning stock biomass (e.g. minimum landing size) or to reduce total catches (e.g. quotas or catch limits) and catches in the last 25 years have been low as compared to the start of the series (in the 1980's).
  • The fishery for small pelagic fishes of Ecuador catches very high percentages of immature chub mackerel.
  • There is no formal link between scientific advice and management. Specific technical measures such as a minimum landing size have not been established in spite of being repeatedly advised by the National Institute of Fisheries of Ecuador.
  • There is no information available that would allow determining the magnitude of IUU fishing and compliance to current fishing regulations (such as seasonal and spatial closures). 
  • Some impacts of the fishery on ETP and seabed habitats have been reported, but are not regularly assessed. Ecosystem impact of this fishery and the role of chub mackerel in the ecosystem of the area where this fishery operates have not been evaluated

FISHSOURCE SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

< 6

Managers Compliance:

≥ 6

Fishers Compliance:

DATA DEFICIENT

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

DATA DEFICIENT

Future Health:

DATA DEFICIENT


RECOMMENDATIONS

RETAILERS & SUPPLY CHAIN
  • Support current improvement efforts and encourage development of a formal, national, Ecuador small pelagic fishery improvement project (FIP) including the following activities:
    • Work with scientists to review the stock structure, develop an appropriate stock assessment model, and conduct regular stock assessments.
    • Encourage regulators to develop a management plan including biological reference points, a harvest strategy, and harvest control rule. 
    • Ask managers to implement measures based on the best scientific advice to reduce catches of immature fish and establish appropriate limits for catch and/or effort. 
    • Work with regulators to implement a consistent system for the regular collection and publication of fisheries and observer data from all fleet segments and gear types, especially for the artisanal fleet.
    • Ask managers to review both the process and scientific basis used to implement temporal closures and evaluate the results of this management approach.
    • Encourage regulators to improve monitoring, control and surveillance to ensure compliance with regulations.
    • Develop formal decision-making frameworks, which should establish: a) sources of information and scientific research for decision making, b) consultation and inclusion of relevant stakeholders, institutions, and organizations in decision making, c) transparent reporting of research outcomes and consultation processes, and d) a public strategy to implement decisions. 

 


FIPS

No related FIPs

CERTIFICATIONS

No related MSC fisheries

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

ASSESSMENT UNIT MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
Ecuador Ecuador Ecuador Purse seines

Analysis

OVERVIEW

Last updated on 2 November 2018

Strengths
  • Fishing of small pelagic fishes is banned two months per year to allow the recovery of the species.
  • There is a regulation on mesh size and some spatial protection measures have been adopted to protect reproductive phases, as advised. 
  • Three acoustic surveys have been recently conducted (March and November 2018, March 2019) provinding some updated information on abundance and biomass.
  • Except for recreational and particular traditional fisheries the first mile from coast is closed to fishing in order to protect the reproduction of aquatic species.
  • Marine habitats and bottom types have been identified and mapped.
  • There is a national plan for the conservation of sea turtles and a national plan for the conservation of sharks and rays.  
Weaknesses
  • Current stock status against biological reference points is unknown. Last stock assessment was conducted in 2000. 
  • The stock has been reported as overfished in two ocassions, with high risk of collapse. Since then no relevant management measures have been implemented to increase the spawning stock biomass (e.g. minimum landing size) or to reduce total catches (e.g. quotas or catch limits) and catches in the last 25 years have been low as compared to the start of the series (in the 1980's).
  • The fishery for small pelagic fishes of Ecuador catches very high percentages of immature chub mackerel.
  • There is no formal link between scientific advice and management. Specific technical measures such as a minimum landing size have not been established in spite of being repeatedly advised by the National Institute of Fisheries of Ecuador.
  • There is no information available that would allow determining the magnitude of IUU fishing and compliance to current fishing regulations (such as seasonal and spatial closures). 
  • Some impacts of the fishery on ETP and seabed habitats have been reported, but are not regularly assessed. Ecosystem impact of this fishery and the role of chub mackerel in the ecosystem of the area where this fishery operates have not been evaluated
RECOMMENDATIONS

Last updated on 16 October 2018

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain
  • Support current improvement efforts and encourage development of a formal, national, Ecuador small pelagic fishery improvement project (FIP) including the following activities:
    • Work with scientists to review the stock structure, develop an appropriate stock assessment model, and conduct regular stock assessments.
    • Encourage regulators to develop a management plan including biological reference points, a harvest strategy, and harvest control rule. 
    • Ask managers to implement measures based on the best scientific advice to reduce catches of immature fish and establish appropriate limits for catch and/or effort. 
    • Work with regulators to implement a consistent system for the regular collection and publication of fisheries and observer data from all fleet segments and gear types, especially for the artisanal fleet.
    • Ask managers to review both the process and scientific basis used to implement temporal closures and evaluate the results of this management approach.
    • Encourage regulators to improve monitoring, control and surveillance to ensure compliance with regulations.
    • Develop formal decision-making frameworks, which should establish: a) sources of information and scientific research for decision making, b) consultation and inclusion of relevant stakeholders, institutions, and organizations in decision making, c) transparent reporting of research outcomes and consultation processes, and d) a public strategy to implement decisions. 

 

1.STOCK STATUS

STOCK ASSESSMENT

Last updated on 5 April 2019

The National Institute of Fisheries of Ecuador (INP) is responsible for assessing the status of the stock of all small pelagic fishes in Ecuador. The last stock assessment of chub mackerel off Ecuador was conducted in 2000 using data from 1979 to 1998 (Cucalón-Zenck et al. 2000). This stock assessment used a virtual population analysis with catch data by age, fishing mortality in the last year and natural mortality (estimated using the equation of Pauly and the equation of Beverton-Holt). No information about uncertainty was provided in the assessment report. Since 2000, there is no reliable information on the stock status of chub mackerel off Ecuador.    

Since 2000, no stock assessment of Scomber japonicus off Ecuador has been conducted and there is currently no information on the stock status. Three acoustic surveys have been recently conducted (March and November 2018, March 2019) providing some updated information on abundance and biomass

SCIENTIFIC ADVICE

Last updated on 5 April 2019

The monitoring and analysis of fisheries and landings involving the harvesting of small pelagic fishes conducted by the purse seiner fleet of Ecuador was started in 1981 by the INP through the Small Pelagic Fishes Program. The limited resources of this Institution, however, has prevented conducting regular scientific surveys, and advice is therefore provided based on landing data, sampling at fish markets and estimation of effort based on the information provided by the vessels and harbor records. Scientific advice for chub mackerel was provided both in the scientific paper where last stock assessment results were published (Cucalón-Zenck et al. 2000) and in the last Reports of the Fishery for Small Pelagic Fishes produced by INP (González 2010)(Prado 2009). These Reports include a summary of the catches (not only biomass but also size structure or sex ratio for some species) but no formal stock assessments are performed. Advice included technical measures such as setting minimum landing size for small pelagic fishes in Ecuador; specifically after reporting that for chub mackerel most of the individuals (e.g. 87% in 2008 and 96% in 2009) captured are below the size at 50% maturity; the regulation of mesh size (1.5 inches for chub mackerel); the establishment of temporal closures in the spawning season; the regulation or ban of the use of lights for fishing; the establishment of catch limits and the reduction of effort. A recent report (INAPESCA 2019) advised a minimum landing size of 28 cm (fork length) and a modification of the fishing ban season. The new proposed period is 17 February-23 March and 1 October-30 November (INAPESCA 2019).

There are no reference points in place for chub mackerel in Ecuador.   

CURRENT STATUS

Last updated on 5 April 2019

The current status of chub mackerel in Ecuador is unknown. The only available information is from fishing books (INAPESCA 2019) and two acoustic surveys conducted in March and November 2018 which yielded the following estimates (INAPESCA 2018) (INAPESCA 2018):

SurveyBiomass (tonnes)Abundance (millions of individuals)
March 2018265,714556
November 2018999,5062,800

A recent survey was conducted in March 2019 but results are not publicly available yet.

After record high values in 1982 (589,375 tonnes ), landings progressively decreased until 1992, with especially low landings in 1983 and 1987 as a consequence of El Niño events in those years. Between 1992 and 2000 low catches were maintained although with a slow recovery in 1997 and a new drop after El Niño event in 1998. After 2000, landings of chub mackerel in Ecuador have been low but showing great variability; a recent increase occurred in the period 2011-2015, from 31,799 tonnes to 99,630 tonnes . Catches in 2017 (last year for which data is available) were 70,727.2 tonnes (INAPESCA 2018), representing the most important species in terms of biomass in the Ecuadorian Fishery for Small Pelagic Fishes. 

There are no recent estimates of stock biomass. The stock assessment conducted for the period 1979-1998 (Cucalón-Zenck et al. 2000) yielded the following parameters for 1998:

  1. Stock biomass: 274,690 tonnes.
  2. Fishing mortality: 0,74 year-1

The conclusion of the 2000 stock assessment was that the stock biomass was undergoing a rapid decline and overfished. 

In the past some authors have raised concern about the possibility that the monitoring of Ecuadorian fisheries has not been comprehensive and that the statistics are questionable and under-reported (Patterson et al. 1993) (Alava et al. 2005), although there is no information to conclude if this issue may still persist at present. 

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

MANAGEMENT

Last updated on 5 April 2019

The Law of Fisheries and Fisheries Development (Gobierno de Ecuador 1974) is the Law that regulates fishing activities in Ecuador. Management of the Fishery for Small Pelagics (including chub mackerel) occurring in Ecuadorian national waters is conducted by the Subsecretary of Fishery Resources (Subsecretaria de Recursos Pesqueros) which belongs to the Ministry of Aquaculture and Fisheries (Ministerio de Acuacultura y Pesca; MAP). A new Law of Fisheries and Aquaculture is in draft stage (February 2019). When this Law is approved, the Fishing Authority will be the entity responsible for management of Ecuadorian fisheries and aquaculture activities.   

Chub mackerel in Ecuador is not managed through TACs or catch quotas. Managers has adopted some, but not all, of the technical measures proposed by the INP in the last years.  Minimum landing sizes have not been established for chub mackerel in spite of the INP repeatedly reporting high percentage of juveniles in the catches (e.g. 87% in 2008 (Prado España 2009) and 96% in 2009 (González 2010)). Management of chub mackerel in Ecuador consist of temporal closures (historically in March and September each year (MAGAP 2010) but recently adjusted to March and 24 October – 8 December 2018 (MAP 2018)(MAP 2018), spatial closures (except for recreational and particular traditional fisheries, the first mile from coast is closed to fishing in order to protect the reproduction of aquatic species (MAP 2003)(MAP 2007); first eight miles from coast are reserved for artisanal fisheries (MAP 1990); and a minimum mesh size of 1,5 inches for purse seiners targeting frigate tuna and other small pelagic species in Ecuador (MAP 2010). Bycatch by purse seiners targeting small pelagic species in Ecuador cannot exceed 20% (MAGAP 2011). In addition, the use of artificial lights ("pantallas") for fisheries purposes is banned (MAGAP 2011). A fisheries observer program is in place covering at least 30% of the fishing trips (MAGAP 2010).

Ecuador is a Member Country of the South Pacific Regional Fisheries Management Organisation (SPRFMO) since 2015. As such it is committed to apply all the conservation and management measures (CMM) established by the SPRFMO. Currently, there are fifteen CMMs in place detailing various provisions such as the application of technical measures or output and input controls, requirements for data collection and reporting, as well as regulations for monitoring, control and surveillance and enforcement. However, Ecuadorian purse seiners seem to operate only in national jurisdictional waters where SPRFMO CMM’s do not apply.

 
COMPLIANCE

Last updated on 5 April 2019

There are no TAC or quotas set for chub mackerel in Ecuador. Fishing activities in Ecuadorian national waters are regulated by the Law of Fisheries and Fisheries Development (Gobierno de Ecuador 1974), which set the penalties for violations of the regulations and acts included in that Law and which includes economic fines, withdrawal of fishing permits or imprisonment. Compliance with regulations is enforced through inspections at harbors and observers on board of commercial vessels. The new Law of Fisheries and Aquaculture which is in draft stage (February 2019) will set the new legal framework for compliance and enforcement in Ecuadorian fisheries, including a wide array of penalties such as withdrawal of fishing license, confiscation of fishing products, economic fines and immobilization of the vessel. This new Law also specifies that compliance will be enforced through VMS monitoring, on-board observers, inspection of landings, image recording systems among others.  

There are anecdotal evidences of industrial fishing vessels operating with the eight miles reserved for artisanal fishing (INAPESCA 2018). However, the publicly information available does not allow determining the magnitude of IUU fishing and compliance to current fishing regulations.

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

BYCATCH
ETP Species

Last updated on 2 November 2018

Purse seine fisheries have some interactions with sea turtles, but far less than longline fisheries (Ministerio del Ambiente del Ecuador 2014). There is a permanent ban on turtle capture in Ecuador (Acuerdo Ministerial 212, 1990). In 2007 fisheries observers from the INP reported that in 10 trips, three turtles were captured and released alive. Although there is no information on which specific turtle species interact with purse seiners in Ecuador, all the five marine turtles of Ecuador can be considered ETP species: the green turtle Chelonia mydas (IUCN classification: "endangered"), the olive ridley sea turtle Lepidochelys olivacea ("vulnerable"), the hawksbill sea turtle Eretmochelys imbrincata ("critically endangered"), the leatherback turtle Dermochelys coriacea ("vulnerable") and the loggerhead turtle Caretta caretta ("vulnerable"). These species are included in the National Plan for Sea Turtles of Ecuador (Ministerio del Ambiente del Ecuador 2014), which aims to take the actions needed for the conservation of the sea turtles and their essential habitats in Ecuador, including the implementation of a plan to assess the interaction between coastal purse seiners and sea turtles in Ecuador and the establishment of a plan to reduce the impact of coastal purse seiner on sea turtles.  

There is very little information on the interaction between Ecuadorian purse seiners targeting small pelagic species and sharks, although it has been reported that some bycatch of small sharks and rays can occur (Coello 2005). The National Plan for Sharks (Aguilar et al. 2005) is being implemented as a way to improve the conservation of sharks and rays and reduce the accidental catch of these species by industrial and artisanal fishing boats. 

Among all the marine mammals reported to have some interaction with Ecuadorian fisheries (reviewed in (Félix et al. 2007)), the sperm whale Physeter macrocephalus is the only ETP species ("vulnerable" according to IUCN). However the interaction between purse seines targeting small pelagic species in Ecuador and marine mammals is considered negligible (MAP 2018).

Other Species

Last updated on 2 November 2018

The Fishery for Small Pelagics in Ecuador is a multispecific fishery. The list of main target species varies depending on the source but main species according to the National Institute of Fisheries of Ecuador are: Scomber japonicus (chub mackerel), Ophistonema spp. (thread herring), Cetengraulis mysticetus (Pacific anchoveta), Sardinops sagax (South American pilchard) and Etrumeus sardina (red-eye round herring). Other small pelagic species like Decapterus macrosoma (shortfin scad), Selene oerstedii (Mexican moonfish), Chloroscombrus orqueta (Pacific bumper), Peprilus medius (Pacific harvestfish), Engraulis ringens (anchoveta), Auxis thazard (frigate tuna) and Trachurus murphy (Chilean jack mackerel) are considered bycatch.  

In the last years, however, some of the small pelagic species considered as secondary or bycatch have shown a marked increase in catches. Landings data statistics from 2014 and 2015 revealed that main target species represented 52.2% (2014) and 60.1% (2015) while secondary species accounted for the rest.

There are no reference points for any bycatch species of the Fishery for Small Pelagic Fishes of Ecuador. Bycatch by purse seiners targeting small pelagic species in Ecuador cannot exceed 20% (MAGAP 2011). However, no compliance information about this measure are available.

HABITAT

Last updated on 2 November 2018

There is very detailed information on seafloor types (Terán et al. 2006) off Ecuador and most priority habitats such as coral reefs or mangrove swamps have been identified and mapped by the Ministry of the Environment and made available through the Environmental Interactive Map in 2015. However, there is no information on the impacts of purse seiners targeting small pelagic species in Ecuador, on bottom habitats. Since this is a pelagic gear, it could be assumed that the impact is negligible. However in some years there are considerable catches of species such as the Pacific bumper (Chloroscombrus orqueta) or searobins (Prionotus spp.) that live close to the bottom meaning that either the purse seines are higher that legally allowed and cover the whole water column or vessels operate very close to the shoreline (Prado España 2009). In both cases, an impact on seabed habitats might take place, but the magnitude of such an impact has not been evaluated. Alternatively demersal species may be attracted to the surface by artifical lights, although this practice is banned since 2011 (MAGAP 2011).

There is no habitat management strategy for seafloor habitats in Ecuador, however there are some measures in place. For instance, the first mile from coast is closed to fishing to protect the reproduction of species and indirectly the bottom habitats. The first eight miles from coast are reserved for artisanal fishing and industrial activities are prohibited (MAP 1990). However, no compliance information about these measures is available. A network of 21 Coastal and Marine Natural Protected Areas (AMCPs) was created in 2017 (Ministerio del Ambiente del Ecuador 2017).

ECOSYSTEM

Last updated on 2 November 2018

The pelagic ecosystem in the Eastern Tropical Pacific Ocean has been object of research and it is well described. Models have been developed in the past to describe the ecosystem dynamics, structure and functioning in relation to tuna fisheries (Olson and Watters 2003). The chub mackerel is included in the group of miscellaneous epipelagic fishes which is a key element of the Eastern Pacific Pelagic ecosystem (Olson and Watters 2003), so harvesting this species may potentially disrupt the ecosystem structure and function. However there is no enough data to understand if this fishery may cause serious or irreversible harm to the whole ecosystem as the specific impact of the fishery of small pelagic fishes was not assessed in the model.

Ecosystem based fisheries management is not implemented for this fishery. Instead, the fishery for Small Pelagic Fishes in Ecuador is managed through spatial and temporal closures and some technical restrictions like mesh size limits. Since the small pelagic targeted by this fishery are key elements of the Eastern Pacific pelagic ecosystem, those fishery management tools may benefit the ecosystem as a whole. There is little or no information on the enforcement of such measures but some lack of compliance with the seasonal fishing bans have been reported in the past for several small pelagic species (Prado España 2009).

FishSource Scores

Last updated on 3 April 2019

SELECT SCORES

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

As calculated for 2019 data.

The score is < 6.

The Law of Fisheries and Fisheries Development (1974) is the Law that regulates fishing activities in Ecuador. However there are no management objectives for the stock, a management plan or harvest control rule in place.

As calculated for 2019 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

Chub mackerel is not managed through TACs or fish quotas in Ecuador. Some but not all the management recommendations made by the National Institute of Fisheries of Ecuador (INP) have been adopted by the management entity. For instance, there is a regulation on mesh size (Acuerdo Ministerial 19, 2010) and some temporal (Acuerdo Ministerial 47, 2010) and spatial (Acuerdo Ministerial 03316, 2003; Acuerdo Ministerial 134, 2007) protection measures have been adopted to protect reproductive phases, as advised. Minimum landing sizes, however, have not been implemented in spite of being one of the recommendations of the INP (Prado, 2009; González, 2010).

As determined for 2019.

There is no information available that would allow determining the magnitude of IUU fishing and compliance to current fishing regulations (such as seasonal and spatial closures).

STOCK HEALTH:

As determined for 2019.

Current stock status is unknown. Last stock assessment is almost 20 yr old, and biological reference points have not been defined. The only available information on biomass is from direct acoustic estimates recently conducted

As determined for 2019.

Last stock assessment is almost 20 yr old and since then stock status has not been updated. Current fishing mortality levels are unknown.

ECOSYSTEM IMPACTS

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Bycatch Subscores

The Fishery for Small Pelagics of Ecuador is a multispecific fishery. For the purposes of this score, only chub mackerel is considered a target species, and the remaining small pelagic fishes are considered as bycatch. There is substantial reliable information on the type and quantity of main bycatch species in this fishery (landing data of other small pelagic fish) but there is limited information to assess the impact on ETP species because bycatch of ETP species is not monitored.

Different components has different justification at the fishery level. Please look at the individual fisheries using the selection drop down above.

Different components has different justification at the fishery level. Please look at the individual fisheries using the selection drop down above.

Bycatch is limited to 20% (MAGAP 2011), but there are no measures in place to enforce such measure. There is a National Plan for Sea Turtles and a National Plan for Sharks aimed at improving the conservation of these groups of species and reducing their accidental catch, although none of these plans is fully implemented yet.

×

Habitat Subscores

Although purse seiners do not normally contact the seafloor there are no specific studies for this fishery assessing the impact on bottom habitats. The catches of some species that live close to the bottom might imply that fishing gears are operating close to shoreline and/or in the whole water column (Prado España 2009), but the impact of such activities has not been evaluated either

There is very detailed information on seafloor types (Terán et al. 2006) off Ecuador and most priority habitats such as coral reefs or mangrove swamps have been identified and mapped by the Ministry of the Environment and made available through the Environmental Interactive Map in 2015.

Different components has different justification at the fishery level. Please look at the individual fisheries using the selection drop down above.

The first mile from coast is closed to fishing to protect the reproduction of species and indirectly the bottom habitats. Besides there are a total of 22 marine and coastal areas with some degree of protection (from National Parks to Areas of Recreation), where fishing activities are regulated, restricted and/or banned (Ministerio del Ambiente del Ecuador 2017).

×

Ecosystem Subscores

There is  some information on the role of Scomber japonicus, as part of the group of Miscellaneous epipelagic fishes, in the ecosystem functioning but there is a lack of specific information on chub mackerel biomass that would allow to better understand the impact of the fishery on the ecosystem (Olson and Watters 2003)

The pelagic ecosystem in the Eastern Tropical Pacific Ocean has been object of research and it is well described. Models have been developed in the past to describe the ecosystem dynamics, structure and functioning (Olson and Watters 2003). However, such studies are not part of an ecosystem management scheme, but rather opportunistic research.

Scomber japonicus is a key element of the Eastern Pacific Pelagic ecosystem (Olson and Watters 2003) so harvesting this species may potentially disrupt the ecosystem structure and function; however there is no data to backup the statement that serious or irreversible harm may be occurring.

The fishery for Small Pelagic Fishes in Ecuador is managed through spatial and temporal closures and some technical restrictions like mesh size limits. Since the small pelagic targeted by this fishery are key elements of the Eastern Pacific pelagic ecosystem, those fishery management tools may benefit the ecosystem as a whole. There is little or no information on the enforcement of such measures but compliance has not been flagged as a problem.

To see data for biomass, please view this site on a desktop.
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To see data for fishing mortality, please view this site on a desktop.
No data available for recruitment
No data available for recruitment
To see data for management quality, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for stock status, please view this site on a desktop.
DATA NOTES
  • Landing data is available for the period 1981-2017 from the National Institute of Fisheries of Ecuador (INAPESCA 2019).
  • Lack of quantitative information prevents calculation of quantitative scores, so qualitative scores are provided. 
  • Score about fishers compliance is data deficient because there is no information available that would allow determining the magnitude of IUU fishing and compliance to current fishing regulations . 
  • Score about current and future health of the stock are data deficient because the available information is more than 10 yr old (Cucalón-Zenck et al. 2000)
  • Ecosystem impact scores were not updated in 2019.

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Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

No related FIPs

Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

No related MSC certifications

Sources

Credits

SFP is grateful to the Global Sustainable Supply Chains for Marine Commodities (GMC) project for contributing to the development of this profile. GMC is an interregional initiative implemented by Ministries and Bureaus of Fisheries and Planning of Costa Rica, Ecuador, Indonesia and Philippines, with technical support of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), facilitated by Sustainable Fisheries Partnership (SFP) and funded by the Global Environment Facility (GEF).

References

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    Pacific chub mackerel - Ecuador

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