Summary

IDENTIFICATION

Last updated on 16 July 2017

SCIENTIFIC NAME

Clupea harengus

SPECIES NAME(S)

Atlantic herring

Stock distribution is uncertain for Atlantic herring in this area.  Many local populations with differing growth rates share similar habitats and may mix during certain times of the year. Central Baltic herring (subdivisions 25–29 and 32) are mixing in the Gulf of Riga herring in the Gulf of Riga area (subdivision 28.1). Additionally, it is known that Gulf of Riga Atlantic herring are caught in the Central Baltic Sea Area (ICES 2017)(ICES 2017). This profile covers the Gulf of Riga herring stock.


ANALYSIS

No related analysis

SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

10

Managers Compliance:

5.1

Fishers Compliance:

10

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

9.9

Future Health:

7


FIPS

No related FIPs

CERTIFICATIONS

No related MSC fisheries

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

ASSESSMENT UNIT MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
Baltic Sea Gulf of Riga EU Estonia Midwater trawls
Latvia Midwater trawls

Analysis

OVERVIEW

1.STOCK STATUS

STOCK ASSESSMENT

Last updated on 13 June 2017

The current assessment method uses extended survivor analysis (ICES 2017) an age structured model with both acoustic and trap CPUE tuning indices.  The current model suffers from underestimation of SSB and over-estimation of F in the terminal year. Unlike other Herring assessments in the area, Cod predation is not accounted for in the natural mortality term due to the lack of Cod in the Gulf of Riga.  Natural mortality is set at 0.2 (ICES 2017)

SCIENTIFIC ADVICE

Last updated on 13 June 2017

The most recent assessment and advice (ICES 2017) considers that the Gulf of Riga herring are caught inside and outside the Gulf of Riga area. Quotas are advised for all herring caught in the Gulf of Riga management area, which includes also a small amount of Central Baltic herring caught in the Gulf of Riga. As such the Herring quota for 2017 in the Gulf of Riga area is based on advice for both Central Baltic and Gulf of Riga stocks. From (ICES 2017)

The TAC value proposed for the Gulf of Riga area is based on the advised catch for the Gulf of Riga herring stock, plus the assumed catch of herring from the central Baltic stock taken in the Gulf of Riga, minus the assumed catch of the Gulf of Riga herring taken outside the Gulf of Riga. The values of the two latter are given by the average over the last five years.

  • Central Baltic herring assumed to be taken in the Gulf of Riga in 2018 (Subdivision 28.1) is 4340 t (average 2012–2016);
  • Gulf of Riga herring assumed to be taken in Subdivision 28.2 in 2018 is 260 t (average 2012–2016).

As an example, following the ICES MSY approach (here identical to the MAP FMSY), catches from the Gulf of Riga herring stock in 2018 should be no more than 24 919 t. The corresponding TAC in the Gulf of Riga management area for 2018 would be calculated as 24 919 t – 260 t + 4340 t = 28 999 t.

REFERENCE POINTS

Last updated on 13 June 2017

ICES reviewed the harvest control rule and reference points for this stock in 2015 (ICES 2015). Currently F at FMSY is the management target. A target biomass reference point of MSYBtrigger= 600 kt is set while a Blim of 408 kt is also set (ICES 2017). The harvest control linearly reduces F from FMSY to zero as the stock moves from MSYBtrigger to Blim (ICES 2015)

CURRENT STATUS

Last updated on 13 June 2017

At 88,633 t (ICES 2017) SSB is well above MSYBtrigger and more than double Blim, as such biomass is rather high. F however at 0.34 is above Ftarget=FMSY, by a small amount (0.02). It should, however, be noted that the current model over-estimates F and under estimates SSB in the terminal year.

TRENDS

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

MANAGERS' DECISIONS

Last updated on 13 June 2017

Overall a precautionary harvest control rule is in place that sets catch to zero should the stock fall below Blim, and reduces fishing mortality below MSYBtrigger.  Managers have not generally complied with advised quotas. Even adjusted for removals of Central Baltic herring in the Gulf of Riga quotas have been set higher than advised since 2011 (ICES 2017).

RECOVERY PLANS

Last updated on 13 June 2017

A formal recovery plan is not in effect as the stock is not below either Blim or MSYBtrigger. However should the stock fall below MSYBtrigger F is linearly reduced until it is equal to zero at Blim (ICES 2015)

COMPLIANCE

Last updated on 13 June 2017

Harvesters have generally kept within quotas as of 2016.  Only minor overages have occurred since 2010 (ICES 2016). Discarding is considered negligible in this fishery (ICES 2017)

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

ETP SPECIES

Last updated on 17 November 2016

The Baltic population of ringed seal, considered to be a subspecies, Phoca hispida botnica, is the only endangered mammal in the Gulf of Riga (HELCOM, 2009a), the northern extent of which is one of three distinct breeding areas in the Baltic (Palo et al., 2001). The population is thought to be growing slowly, at 5% a year, and the number in the Gulf of Riga was estimated at 1,400 in 2006 (ICES, 2008c). There are reports of seal bycatch in set nets in the Baltic (ICES, 2008d) but no estimates for this fishery.

Twenty-four species of seabirds and sea ducks are also considered endangered in the region, among them several gulls Larus spp, terns Sterna spp, Steller’s eider Polysticta stelleri, red-breasted Merganser Mergus serrator and black guillemot Cepphus grylle (HELCOM, 2009a), and two of which: velvet scoter Melanitta fusca and common eider Somateria mollissima have reported considerable mortality in set nets (ICES, 2008d).

OTHER TARGET AND BYCATCH SPECIES

Last updated on 17 November 2016

Sprat is caught with herring at a rate of around 10%, lower than in the remainder of the Baltic Sea, as herring is dominant in the semi-enclosed, low-salinity, Gulf of Riga (ICES, 2009b).

HABITAT

Last updated on 17 November 2016

A number of mild winters, favouring herring recruitment; the disappearance of cod from the gulf as cod stocks dropped, relieving the predatory pressure on herring; and climatic and eutrophication-related changes, driving ecosystem dynamics, contributed among other factors to the tripling of the herring stock size between the mid 1980s and 1990s (ICES, 2008e) and to major ecosystem changes that demand the re-evaluation of the herring stock’s previous biomass reference points (ICES, 2008b).

No effects of the fishing gear on the ecosystem are reported but as a unique and sensitive marine ecosystem special measures apply in the Gulf of Riga, including a trawling ban in waters of less than 20 m depth and limits on the number and engine power of vessels (EC, 2005).

Trawling is banned for a 30-day period during herring’s spawning migrations (April-May), in both Latvian and Estonian parts of the gulf (ICES, 2009a).

MARINE RESERVES

Last updated on 17 November 2016

The fishery is closed from mid-June to September in the Estonian part of the Gulf of Riga and closed to trawlers during herring spawning migrations (April-May) in both Latvian and Estonian waters (ICES, 2011a).
Three Baltic Sea Protected Areas are defined within the Gulf of Riga, all on Latvia’s coastline (HELCOM, 2009b), and covering 4% of the marine area (HELCOM, 2009c) – Lielirbe /Kolka, Kaltene/Engure and Coastal section Dzeni-Ainazi of the Northern Vidzeme Region Nature Protection Complex – as Protected Landscape or Seascape status under IUCN criteria (HELCOM, 2009b).
Some overlap exists with sites designated under the EU Natura 2000 network, ensuring legal protection for habitats and species covered by the Habitats and Birds Directives, even when national management plans are lacking (HELCOM, 2009c). However the broader nature of the HELCOM lists of threatened marine habitats/species means that the BSPA and Natura networks are important complements (HELCOM, 2009c).

FishSource Scores

Last updated on 16 July 2017

SELECT SCORES

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

As calculated for 2017 data.

This measures the F at low biomass as a percentage of the F management target.

The F at low biomass is 0.00 (from management plan). The F management target is 0.320 .

The underlying F at low biomass/F management target for this index is 0.00%.

As calculated for 2017 data.

This measures the Set TAC as a percentage of the Advised TAC.

The Set TAC is 30.1 ('000 t). The Advised TAC is 23.1 ('000 t) .

The underlying Set TAC/Advised TAC for this index is 130%.

As calculated for 2016 data.

This measures the Catch as a percentage of the Set TAC.

The Catch is 30.9 ('000 t). The Set TAC is 34.1 ('000 t) .

The underlying Catch/Set TAC for this index is 90.4%.

STOCK HEALTH:

As calculated for 2017 data.

This measures the SSB as a percentage of the MSY Btrigger.

The SSB is 88.6 ('000 t). The MSY Btrigger is 60.0 ('000 t) .

The underlying SSB/MSY Btrigger for this index is 148%.

As calculated for 2016 data.

This measures the F as a percentage of the F management target.

The F is 0.400 . The F management target is 0.320 .

The underlying F/F management target for this index is 125%.

HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSE RISK

High Medium Low
No data available for recruitment
DATA NOTES

Last updated on 13 June 2017

  • Catches Reference points in the Gulf of Riga are for Gulf of Riga herring stock (ICES 2017)
  • Quotas set by managers are for all herring in the Gulf of Riga, and include a small porting of Central Baltic Herring (ICES 2017).
  • To arrive at the quotas set by managers on the Gulf of Riga stock in the Gulf of Riga area (SD 28.1) the Agreed TAC in table 7 (ICES 2017) was prorated by multiplying by  100-% Central Baltic stock caught in SD 28.1 found in (ICES 2017) page 207(last column of that table). This subtraction is the amount of Gulf of Riga herring quota which is actually from the Central Baltic stock

Download Source Data

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Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

No related FIPs

Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

No related MSC certifications

Sources

Credits
  1. EC, 2005. Council Regulation (EC) No 2187/2005 of 21 December 2005 for the conservation of fishery resources through technical measures in the Baltic Sea, the Belts and the Sound, amending Regulation (EC) No 1434/98 and repealing Regulation (EC) No 88/98.http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2005:349:0001:0023:EN:PDF

  2. EC, 2008. Council Regulation (EC) No 1322/2008 of 28 November 2008, fixing the fishing opportunities and associated conditions for certain fish stocks and groups of fish stocks applicable in the Baltic Sea for 2009.http://eur-lex.europa.eu/Notice.do?mode=dbl&lang=en&ihmlang=en&lng1=en,ro&lng2=bg,cs,da,de,el,en,es,et,fi,fr,hu,it,lt,lv,mt,nl,pl,pt,ro,sk,sl,sv,&val=485668:cs&page=

  3. HELCOM, 2009a. Baltic Sea Protected Areas Database. Endangered Species by Subregion: Gulf of Riga. Helsinki Commission – Baltic Marine Environment Protection Commission.http://bspa.helcom.fi/flow/bspa.tammi.esbyregion.search.w.2;jsessionid=C386DF7C1E00DC44CFE1CAEA4474CD90?nop&Id=7

  4. HELCOM, 2009b. HELCOM Atlas. Helsinki Commission – Baltic Marine Environment Protection Commission.http://www.helcom.fi/GIS/helcom_atlas/en_GB/atlas/

  5. HELCOM, 2009c. Biodiversity in the Baltic Sea: an integrated thematic assessment on biodiversity and nature conservation in the Baltic Sea. Baltic Sea Environment Proceedings No. 116B.http://www.helcom.fi/stc/files/Publications/Proceedings/bsep116B.pdf

  6. ICES, 2008a. Report of the Baltic Fisheries Assessment Working Group (WGBFAS), 8 - 17 April 2008, ICES Headquarters, Copenhagen (ICES CM 2008\ACOM:06).http://www.ices.dk/reports/ACOM/2008/WGBFAS/WGBFAS08.pdf

  7. ICES, 2008b. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee on Fishery Management, Advisory Committee on the Marine Environment and Advisory Committee on Ecosystems, Book 8: The Baltic Sea. 8.4.5 Gulf of Riga herring.http://www.ices.dk/committe/acom/comwork/report/2008/2008/Her-riga.pdf

  8. ICES, 2008c. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee on Fishery Management, Advisory Committee on the Marine Environment and Advisory Committee on Ecosystems, Book I. 1.5.1.2 Status of small cetaceans and bycatch in European waters.http://www.ices.dk/committe/acom/comwork/report/2008/2008/Status%20of%20small%20cetaceans%20and%20bycatch%20in%20European%20waters.pdf

  9. ICES, 2008d. Report of the Working Group for Regional Ecosystem Description (WGRED), 25-29 February 2008, ICES, Copenhagen, Denmark (ICES CM 2008/ACOM:47).http://www.ices.dk/reports/ACOM/2008/WGRED/wgred_2008.pdf

  10. ICES, 2008e. Report of the Working Group on Integrated Assessments of the Baltic Sea (WGIAB). 25-29 March 2008 Öregrund, Sweden (ICES CM 2008/BCC:04).http://www.ices.dk/reports/BCC/2008/wgiab08.pdf

  11. ICES, 2009a. Report of the Baltic Fisheries Assessment Working Group (WGBFAS), 22 - 28 April 2009, ICES Headquarters, Copenhagen (ICES CM 2009\ACOM:07).http://www.ices.dk/reports/ACOM/2009/WGBFAS/WGBFAS09.pdf

  12. ICES, 2009b. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee, Book 8: The Baltic Sea. Herring in Subdivision 28.1 (Gulf of Riga).http://www.ices.dk/committe/acom/comwork/report/2009/2009/Her-riga.pdf

  13. ICES, 2009c. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee on Fishery Management, Advisory Committee on the Marine Environment and Advisory Committee on Ecosystems, Book 8: The Baltic Sea. 8.3.3.1 Multi-annual management of pelagic fish stocks in the Baltic.http://www.ices.dk/committe/acom/comwork/report/2009/Special%20Requests/EC%20Multiannual%20management%20pelagic%20stocks%20Baltic.pdf

  14. ICES, 2011a. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee, Book 8: The Baltic Sea. Herring in Subdivision 28.1 (Gulf of Riga), 8 pp.http://www.ices.dk/committe/acom/comwork/report/2011/2011/Her-riga.pdf

  15. ICES 2011b, Report of the Baltic Fisheries Assessment Working Group (WGBFAS), 12-19 April 2011, ICES Headquarters, Copenhagen. 790 pp. http://www.ices.dk/reports/ACOM/2011/WGBFAS/WGBFAS%20Report%202011.pdf

  16. ICES, 2011c. ICES Advice 2011, Book 1 General context of ICES advice, 12 pp. http://www.ices.dk/committe/acom/comwork/report/2011/2011/General%20context%20of%20ICES%20advice.pdf

  17. Palo JU, Mäkinen HS, Helle E, Stenman O, Väinölä R, 2001. Microsatellite variation in ringed seals (Phoca hispida): genetic structure and history of the Baltic Sea population. Heredity 86:609-617.http://www.nature.com/hdy/journal/v86/n5/full/6888590a.html#bib19

  18. Raid, T., Shpilev, H., Järv, L., Järvik, A. 2012. Towards sustainable Baltic herring fishery: trawls vs. pound nets, 1055-1059 In: Soares, C. G. Sustainable Maritime Transportation and Exploitation of Sea Resources, CRC Press.http://www.crcnetbase.com/doi/abs/10.1201/b11810-156

References

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    Atlantic herring - Baltic Sea Gulf of Riga

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