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SUMMARY

IDENTIFICATION

Last updated on 4 April 2018

SCIENTIFIC NAME(s)

Lutjanus sebae

SPECIES NAME(s)

Emperor red snapper

COMMON NAMES

Kakap Bongkok (local common name in South Sulawesi)

This profile refers to Lutjanus sebae (emperor red snapper) and is locally known in South Sulawesi (Indonesia) as kakap bongkok (kakap = snapper, bongkok = hunchback). L. sebae is caught in multi-species fisheries targeting snappers and groupers (and to a lesser extent, with emperors, sweetlips, and jobfishes species)  ((Nuraini 2016)(Nuraini 2017)). In the multi-species fisheries in the Makassar Strait – Flores Sea, L. sebae is also one of four most dominant Lutjanid species identified: Lutjanus malabaricus (the most dominant in the catch), L. sebae, L. erythropterus, and L. vittus  ((Fisheries Improvement Indonesia 2016)(Fisheries Improvement Indonesia 2017), (Nuraini 2017)). Despite its unique local common name, L. sebae is often collectively referred to as kakap merah or bambangan, a common name used for all Lutjanus genus in the trade.

In terms of Fisheries Management Area, this profile refers to FMA 713 assessment unit that covers Makassar Strait, Bone Bay, Bali Sea, and Flores Sea (under the jurisdiction of 10 provinces). However, in short, we refer it to “Makassar Strait – Flores Sea”.

This profile may undergo restructuring in the future as new information comes to light.


ANALYSIS

Strengths
  • Exploitation rate for demersal fish group (of which emperor red snappers are lumped into) in FMA 713 has slightly improved from over-exploited (in 2015) to fully-exploited (in 2016), although this is not specifically refers to emperor red snappers  (L. sebae) species per se.
  • Activities in FMA 713, such as biological study on snappers (i.e., length-weight relationship, growth and mortality models, and estimation of mortality and exploitation rates), implementation of log-book system, and other activities have been developed to improve the snapper fisheries. 
Weaknesses
  • Most emperor red snapper catches are not recorded, especially those destined for export that go directly to the buyers’ (middlemen’s) facilities. Even if they are recorded, they are lumped into the catch record of kakap merah/bambangan (Lutjanus spp.).
  • All snappers (regardless of species) are aggregated into demersal fish group in the assessment, resulting a high level of uncertainty on the real condition of the resources.
  • Snappers, including emperor red snappers, in FMA 713 are mainly fished by small-scale fishery, and by law, they are exempted from applying for fishing licenses ((PEMRI 2009)(PEMRI 2016)), rendering it more difficult to control and track these fisheries.
  • There are no management objectives for the snapper stock(s). Management decisions consist on controlling fishing effort through the limitation of the number of fishing gear to be licensed.
Options
  • FIP is currently underway and is moving forward with training course for enumerator and local traders on recording catch data using log-book, and with training course for processing plan staff to conduct biological sampling.
  • Improve the statistics data collection system to obtain accurate catch data, including implementation of logbook system. 
  • Implement monitoring, control, and surveillance that would fit the small-scale fishery system, of which many snapper fishers are categorized into.
  • Improve research on stock assessment (species-based) to estimate the potential of the fishery and the stock status as a basis for management and licensing.

FishSource Scores

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

< 6

Managers Compliance:

< 6

Fishers Compliance:

< 6

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

< 6

Future Health:

< 6


FIPS

No related FIPs

CERTIFICATIONS

No related MSC fisheries

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

ASSESSMENT UNIT MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
Makassar Strait - Flores Sea Makassar Strait - Flores Sea (WPP-713) Indonesia Bottom-set longlines
Diving
Handlines hand operated
Hooks and lines
Mechanized lines
Set gillnets (anchored)
Traps
Trolling lines

Analysis

OVERVIEW

Last updated on 3 April 2018

Strengths
  • Exploitation rate for demersal fish group (of which emperor red snappers are lumped into) in FMA 713 has slightly improved from over-exploited (in 2015) to fully-exploited (in 2016), although this is not specifically refers to emperor red snappers  (L. sebae) species per se.
  • Activities in FMA 713, such as biological study on snappers (i.e., length-weight relationship, growth and mortality models, and estimation of mortality and exploitation rates), implementation of log-book system, and other activities have been developed to improve the snapper fisheries. 
Weaknesses
  • Most emperor red snapper catches are not recorded, especially those destined for export that go directly to the buyers’ (middlemen’s) facilities. Even if they are recorded, they are lumped into the catch record of kakap merah/bambangan (Lutjanus spp.).
  • All snappers (regardless of species) are aggregated into demersal fish group in the assessment, resulting a high level of uncertainty on the real condition of the resources.
  • Snappers, including emperor red snappers, in FMA 713 are mainly fished by small-scale fishery, and by law, they are exempted from applying for fishing licenses ((PEMRI 2009)(PEMRI 2016)), rendering it more difficult to control and track these fisheries.
  • There are no management objectives for the snapper stock(s). Management decisions consist on controlling fishing effort through the limitation of the number of fishing gear to be licensed.
Options
  • FIP is currently underway and is moving forward with training course for enumerator and local traders on recording catch data using log-book, and with training course for processing plan staff to conduct biological sampling.
  • Improve the statistics data collection system to obtain accurate catch data, including implementation of logbook system. 
  • Implement monitoring, control, and surveillance that would fit the small-scale fishery system, of which many snapper fishers are categorized into.
  • Improve research on stock assessment (species-based) to estimate the potential of the fishery and the stock status as a basis for management and licensing.

1.STOCK STATUS

STOCK ASSESSMENT

Last updated on 4 April 2018

Stock assessments in Indonesia are carried out by government fisheries scientists affiliated with the Research Center for Fisheries (Pusriskan). Research outputs from Pusriskan and other best scientific evidence are then reviewed and synthesized by the National Commission for Fish Stock Assessment (Komnas Kajiskan), an independent entity under (and report to) the Minister of Marine Affairs and Fisheries (KKP-RI) and whose members have expertise in fisheries resources and are drawn from various relevant organizations (KKP-RI 2016). Upon peer-reviews and synthesis, Komnas Kajiskan then make policy recommendations to the Minister (KKP-RI 2016). The Minister then stipulate, decree, and gazette a Ministerial Decree pertaining to the estimation of maximum sustainable yields (MSYs), total allowable catches (TACs), and exploitation rates (Es) of fish stocks within Indonesia’s FMAs ((KKP-RI 2016), (KKP-RI 2017)). Stock assessments are carried out continuously, although it is not always every year (Prof. Ali Suman, Senior Shrimp Expert from Pusriskan, member of Komnas Kajiskan, 2012 – present, pers. comm., 29 October 2017). There are significant discrepancies (inter-annual variability) in the results of stock assessment between the most recent one (2016) and the last one (2015), with a tendency of increased values for the basket or aggregated MSYs, TACs, and fOPT for most ecologically-related groups in 2016. In this report, (Indrajaya 2017) explained that the use of limited or under-reported data (mostly from reported catches) as model inputs in the previous assessment have resulted in significantly lower assessment results. In earlier assessment (prior to 2015), heavy reliance (~ 90%) was given to landing and effort statistics as model inputs (Suman et al. 2016). To improve the accuracy of model estimates, from 2015 assessment and onward, primary data from acoustic survey, when possible, was primarily (~80%) used as model inputs (Suman et al. 2016).

Indonesia’s fisheries are highly multispecies and multi-fleet; spanning across 11 FMAs (KKP-RI 2009). Consequently, basket or aggregated MSYs, TACs, and Es assessment system per species groups in each FMA had been chosen as an empirical solution to a very difficult and potentially very expensive problem (Prof. Ali Suman, Senior Shrimp Expert from Pusriskan, member of Komnas Kajiskan, 2012 – present, pers. comm., 25 October 2017). Fish resources are allocated into nine ecologically-related groups: small pelagic fish, large pelagic fish (except tuna and skipjack), demersal fish, reef fish, penaeid shrimp, lobster, mud crab, swimming crab, and squid. Lutjanus sebae is, thus, lumped together in the demersal fish group and do not have its own MSYs, TACs, or Es ((KKP-RI 2016)(KKP-RI 2017)).

The most recent (2016) official stock assessment (KKP-RI 2017) carried out for demersal fish group use bottom long line (rawai dasar) as the standard effort in the assessment, and used the Cadima model (in (Troadec 1977)), (Indrajaya 2017)). TAC was determined at 80% of MSY, and there were no referrals to uncertainties or sensitivity analyses ((Suman et al. 2016), (Indrajaya 2017)). The stock is considered as one big unit of biomass and no attempt is made to model on an age- or length-based. Despite several studies on snappers in the Makassar Strait area, comprehensive biological stock assessment for L. sebae is not available ((Fisheries Improvement Indonesia 2016)(Fisheries Improvement Indonesia 2017)).

SCIENTIFIC ADVICE

Last updated on 4 April 2018

In the 2016 official stock assessment (KKP-RI 2017) for the demersal fish group (of which emperor red snappers is lumped into) in the Makassar Strait – Flores Sea (FMA 713), aggregate MSY and TAC are determined at 252,869 tons and 202,295 tons, respectively. This advised TAC is more or less equal to 29,059 units of standardized bottom long line, reflecting the optimal fishing effort, or fOPT

Overall, the demersal fish group in FMA 713 can be considered as 'fully-exploited' with an E value of 0.96 (note: E < 0.5 = moderately-exploited; 0.5 ≤ E < 1 = fully-exploited;  E ≥ 1 = over-exploited).

However, specifically for L. sebae (emperor red snapper) in FMA 713, (Nuraini 2017) concluded that it is probably overfished already (see more detail under ‘Current Status’ section).

REFERENCE POINTS

Last updated on 4 April 2018

No biological reference points have been officially defined for snappers (and thus, L. sebae) in FMA 713.

CURRENT STATUS

Last updated on 4 April 2018

Based on the 2016 assessment, the exploitation rate for demersal fish (in which emperor red snapper is included) in FMA 713 was found to have reached fully-exploited state (E = 0.96) (KKP-RI 2017). Compared to the 2015 assessment (KKP-RI 2016)  where E was estimated to be 1.04 (over-exploited), the state of demersal fish in FMA 713 seemed to be slightly improving. An on-going study of snappers and groupers in the Makassar Strait which covers about 17 species of snappers and 34 species of groupers have preliminary concluded that the stock status of some of these snappers are still good (Nuraini 2016), except for L. sebae (Nuraini 2017).

Length-at-first-maturity (Lm) of L. sebae was reported to be 48cm (Nuraini 2017). However, in Nuraini's recent study (Nuraini 2017) in Makassar Strait from Feb – Dec 2016, it was found that most of L. sebae caught and landed were immature (size < Lm 48cm), and only 7% of the fish landed were mature - this indicates recruitment overfishing through harvesting juveniles. The L. sebae fishery in Makassar Strait is probably overfished already (Nuraini 2017). The study also found that assuming the exploitation rate was optimum at a value of E = 0.5, Lutjanus sebae was found to be above the optimum at E = 0.55. There is no other data on exploitation rates or biomass trends for Lutjanus sebae fishery in FMA 713.

No account on discarding has been mentioned.

TRENDS

Last updated on 4 April 2018

The multi-species of snapper (Lutjanus spp.) have distinct local common names for each snapper species (including for Lutjanus sebae, kakap bongkok), however, all of them (Lutjanus genus) are collectively referred to as kakap merah or bambangan in the trade, and thus, their official catch records are also reported as an aggregate value under kakap merah/bambangan. Beginning in 2015 catch record, a few snapper species’ local common names have started to be reported separately in KKP-RI’s catch database, except for kakap bongkok (L. sebae) (Mr. Muhammad Anas, DG Capture Fisheries-KKP, pers. comm., 28 Dec 2017).  Therefore, catch statistics on Lutjanus sebae does not exist.

Recent biological and ecological sampling survey as part of the FIP program for Snappers and Groupers in Makassar Strait had been carried out to scope-out the situation, including sampling snapper species in middlemen facilities ((Nuraini 2016), (Nuraini 2017)). From February to November 2016, 7729 fish were enumerated and 56.3% of these specimens were snappers (17 species), with Lutjanus malabaricus (21%), L. sebae (4%), and L. erythropterus (4%), being the most dominant in weight and number ((Nuraini 2016), (Nuraini 2017), (SFP 2017)).  Nuraini’s recent study (Nuraini 2017)  also found that L. sebae fishery in Makassar Strait is probably overfished already, as the majority (90%) of the species landed and traded are juvenile/immature L. sebae (size < Lm 48 cm). 

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

MANAGERS' DECISIONS

Last updated on 4 April 2018

The official assessment advise for demersal fish (to which Lutjanus sebae is embedded) in FMA 713 for 2015 (Suman et al. 2016) and 2016 (Indrajaya 2017) that were adopted as management decisions were legally decreed ((KKP-RI 2016), (KKP-RI 2017)) and officially set as follows:

Year

MSY (tons)

TAC (tons)

fOPT (units)

E

Standard effort

2015 (decreed)

77,238

61,790

43,063

1.04*

Demersal Danish Seine

2016 (decreed)

252,869

202,295

29,059

0.96

Bottom long line

                 Note: E < 0.5  = moderately-exploited;  0.5 ≤ E < 1 = fully-exploited;   E ≥ 1 = over-exploited (*)

Management decisions consist on controlling fishing effort through the number of fishing gear as the limit. It is not clear how these advices would be heeded by the fishers and controlled by the management body, since most fishing units are considered as small scale and are operated mainly using boats of 1-5 GT. According to the Fisheries Act No.45/2009 (PEMRI 2009), small scale fishing households operating with boats less than 5 GT or without boats (and later its definition is changed to less than 10 GT in Fishers’ Protection Act No.7/2016 (PEMRI 2016)) are exempted from applying for fishing licenses (SIPI, Surat Izin Penangkapan Ikan) and fishing business licences (SIUP, Surat Izin Usaha Perikanan) (PEMRI 2009). Without these official documents, it is difficult to control and track.

RECOVERY PLANS

Last updated on 4 April 2018

Specific Fishery Management Plan (Rencana Pengelolaan Perikanan, RPP) for Indonesia’s snapper (including emperor red snapper) fisheries does not exist yet, and therefore, the corresponding road map and recovery plans for L. sebae fishery is also non-existent. However, an RPP for the entire FMA 713 assessment unit does exist (KKP-RI 2016) and covers all fisheries in the 10 provinces and provided a more general strategic plan and road map for the nine ecologically-related group fisheries as aggregated groups (i.e., small pelagic fish, large pelagic fish, demersal fish (where emperor red snappers are embedded in), reef fish, penaeid shrimp, lobster, mud crab, swimming crab, and squid).

COMPLIANCE

Last updated on 4 April 2018

L. sebae is targeted both for export and domestic consumption as part of the multispecies snapper and grouper fisheries ((Nuraini 2016)(Nuraini 2017)). They are caught mainly by hook-and-lines (pancing), including drop lines (pancing ulur), i.e., active vertical hook-and-line for deep slope areas; bottom long line (rawai dasar), on the shelf area and top of the slopes; bottom gillnet (pukat); troll line (pancing tonda); traps (bubu); and occasionally caught by natural divers with speargun (panah) and hookah ((Fisheries Improvement Indonesia 2016); (Fisheries Improvement Indonesia 2017)(Mous and Pet 2018)(FIP Participants-South Sulawesi Small-Scale Snapper-Grouper 2017); (SFP 2017); (Nuraini 2017)).

Although medium size long-liner boats from Probolinggo (East Java) also ply the waters of Makassar Strait for snappers (Mous and Pet 2018), the majority of fishing boats are local small-scale boats, ranging in size between 1 GT (daily fishing) to 3 - 5 GT (approx. 15-20 days/fishing trip), and powered by 5 to 24 HP outboard engines (FIP Participants-South Sulawesi Small-Scale Snapper-Grouper 2017). 

As with other snappers, most of the L. sebae catches go directly to the buyers’ (i.e., middlemen’s) facilities. Meanwhile, official enumeration of catches take place in government fish landing sites, and thus these catches are, unfortunately, most likely not recorded or under-reported. Although compliance assessment has not been conducted, stakeholders in the snapper fishery and supply chains have acknowledged problems about catch data recording and its consequential under-reporting (SFP 2017).

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

ETP SPECIES

Last updated on 4 April 2018

Specific study on the effects of the snapper fisheries on ETP species in Makassar Strait – Flores Sea is presently not available. However, a study on the shark and rays bycatch from deep-slope (50-500m) dropline and demersal longline fisheries targeting various snapper, grouper and emperor species in other parts of central and eastern Indonesia exists (Jaiteh 2017). In this study (Jaiteh 2017), sharks and rays caught were recorded by captains onboard fishing vessels as part of the Captain Operated Data Recording System (CODRS). Photographs were taken by 27 vessels on 81 days between 17 October 2015 and 29 October 2016. An estimated 207 individuals in the images were distinct individuals that belonged to at least 36 species and 18 families. Bycatch was dominated (56% of the catch, n = 110) by Carcharhinids (requiem/whaler sharks), followed by Sphyrnidae/hammerhead sharks (11%, n = 22, mainly of the species Sphyrna lewini, scalloped hammerhead) and Rhynchobatidae/guitarfish (9%, n = 17, mainly whitespotted guitarfish, Rhynchobatos australiae); meanwhile, the remaining 15 families contributed 5% or less to the total catch. 

In Indonesia, Ocean Whitetip Shark (Carcharhinus longimanus) is protected by law (KKP-RI 2016), so is hammerhead sharks (Sphyrnidae, Sphyrna spp.) (KKP-RI 2016). Other species of sharks that are protected by law in Indonesia are: whale shark, Rhincodon Typus (KKP-RI 2013), thresher shark, Alopias pelagicus, A. supreciliosus (KKP-RI 2013) and Saw shark (Pristis mocrodon) (PEMRI 1999).

Future studies on the shark and rays bycatch from snapper and grouper fisheries in more areas of Indonesian waters will be carried out in due course (Dr Peter Mous, TNC Indonesia Fisheries Conservation Program, pers. comm., 13 March 2018).

OTHER TARGET AND BYCATCH SPECIES

Last updated on 4 April 2018

Snappers (including L. sebae) in FMA 713 are taken by small-scale fishing gears that mainly use hook-and-lines, including drop lines (for deep slope areas), bottom long line (on the shelf area and top of the slopes), bottom gillnet, troll line, traps, and occasionally caught by natural divers with speargun and hookah (Nuraini 2017). The main target species of this fishery are snappers (Lutjanus spp.) and groupers (Serranidae), and to a lesser extent, emperors, sweetlips, and jobfishes species (Nuraini 2016).

Other than the shark species noted in the study of (Jaiteh 2017), the deep-water long line and drop line fisheries targeting snappers and groupers in central and eastern Indonesia (including in FMA 713) are considered fairly clean in terms of non-target species being caught ((Mous and Pet 2018)(Mous and Pet 2018)). In their reports, (Mous and Pet 2018), and (Mous and Pet 2018) concluded that both fisheries are admittedly much more species-rich then sometimes assumed, but they are still within the snapper category, which forms the main target group.

However, as to bottom long line fishery targeting snappers in FMA 713 (and the adjacent FMA 712) on the shelf areas and tops of slopes (50 – 150 meters), (Mous and Pet 2018) wrote: “The bottom long line fishery is characterized by a more substantial by-catch of small sharks, cobia and trevallies, which are currently not preferred by the processors who are buying the target species. By-catch species are usually sun-dried by the crew and sold separately, outside of the catch of snappers, groupers and emperors, which belongs to the owner of the boat and goes to the processors for middle and higher end local and export markets.”.

Studies on the other target and bycatch species of the other fishing gear that target snappers in FMA 713 were not found.

HABITAT

Last updated on 4 April 2018

Lutjanus sebae occurs in the vicinity of coral reefs and also inhabit mangrove areas. They are large, slow-growing, it may reach 30 – 40 years old, and has low potential reproduction (Nuraini 2017).

The studies by Mous and Pet ((Mous and Pet 2018), (Mous and Pet 2018)) concluded that both (deepwater) drop line and (bottom) long line fisheries are characterized by a very low and relatively low impact on habitat at the fishing ground, respectively. In both fisheries, impact to habitat is nothing near the impact from destructive dragging gears, for example, and also much less than could be expected from other demersal fisheries with nets or traps ((Mous and Pet 2018), (Mous and Pet 2018)).

Meanwhile, with long line fishery, (Mous and Pet 2018) noted that there will be some tangling with various life forms or structure on the bottom at the fishing grounds, but captains avoid areas with high or complicated structure as they do not want to lose their gear.

However, (Mous and Pet 2018) cautioned that “due to limited available habitat (fishing grounds) and predictable locations of fish concentrations, combined with a very high fishing effort on the best known fishing grounds, as well as the targeting of juveniles, there is a very high potential for overfishing in the deep slope fisheries for snappers, groupers, and emperors.”.

Study on the habitat impact of the other fishing gear that target snappers in FMA 713 is still non-existent.

MARINE RESERVES

Last updated on 4 April 2018

The snapper fishing grounds adjacent to South Sulawesi Province might overlap with some marine protected areas located within the Makassar Strait – Flores Sea area (FMA 713), these include: Taka Bone Rate National Park, district-based Marine Protected Area Pangkep, and district-based Marine Protected Area Selayar (SFP 2017). Some fishers may also venture out to fishing grounds that are located in FMA 714 (Tolo Bay – Banda Sea) and their fishing grounds might overlap with Wakatobi Marine National Park (SFP 2017).

Complete list of Marine Protected Areas in FMA 713 can be found in the Marine Protected Area Database. This MPA database recorded twenty-two (22) marine protected areas located in FMA 713. Other than the fishing ground of snappers that overlap with the MPAs noted above, there is no other information of snappers’ fishing grounds in these listed MPAs. Moreover, none of these MPAs have any specific plans to protect the habitat and spawning ground of snappers per se.

No.

Name

MPA type

Areal extent

IUCN Category

1.

District-based MPA Pangkep, South Sulawesi

District-based MPA (Kawasan Konservasi Perairan Daerah)

171,937.71 ha

VI (Protected area with sustainable use of natural resources)

2.

District-based MPA Selayar, South Sulawesi

District-based MPA (Kawasan Konservasi Perairan Daerah)

4,317 ha

VI (Protected area with sustainable use of natural resources)

3.

Marine National Park (MOF) Taka Bone Rate, South Sulawesi

Marine National Park (Taman Nasional Laut)

530,765 ha

II (National Park)

4.

Marine Tourism Park (MMAF) Kapoposang, South Sulawesi

Marine Tourism Park (Taman Wisata Perairan)

50,000 ha

5.

District-based MPA Kabupaten Majene, West Sulawesi 

District-based MPA (Kawasan Konservasi Perairan Daerah)

49,000 ha

VI (Protected area with sustainable use of natural resources)

6.

District-based MPA Kabupaten Polewali Mandar, West Sulawesi

District-based MPA (Kawasan Konservasi Perairan Daerah)

33,880 ha

7.

District-based MPA Kabupaten Kolaka, South-East Sulawesi

District-based MPA (Kawasan Konservasi Perairan Daerah)

60,400 ha

8.

Marine Tourism Park (MOF) Kepulauan Padamarang, South-East Sulawesi

Marine Tourism Park (Taman Wisata Alam Laut)

36,000 ha

V (Protected Landscape/Seascape)

9.

District-based MPA Bontang, East Kalimantan

District-based MPA (Kawasan Konservasi Perairan Daerah)

5,121.38 ha

VI (Protected area with sustainable use of natural resources)

10.

District-based MPA Kotabaru, South Kalimantan

District-based MPA (Kawasan Konservasi Perairan Daerah)

22,099 ha

VI (Protected area with sustainable use of natural resources)

11.

District-based MPA Kabupaten Tanah Bumbu, South Kalimantan

District-based MPA (Kawasan Konservasi Perairan Daerah)

12,860.14 ha

VI (Protected area with sustainable use of natural resources)

12.

Nature Tourism Park Buleleng, Bali

District-based MPA (Kawasan Konservasi Perairan Daerah)

14,041.13 ha

VI (Protected area with sustainable use of natural resources)

13.

District-based MPA Gili Sulat dan Gili Lawang, East Lombok, West Nusa Tenggara

District-based MPA (Kawasan Konservasi Perairan Daerah)

5,807 ha

VI (Protected area with sustainable use of natural resources)

14.

District-based MPA Bima (Gili Banta), Bima, West Nusa Tenggara

District-based MPA (Kawasan Konservasi Perairan Daerah)

43,750 ha

VI (Protected area with sustainable use of natural resources)

15.

Marine Tourism Park (MOF) Pulau Moyo, Sumbawa, West Nusa Tenggara

Marine Tourism Park (Taman Wisata Alam Laut)

6,000 ha

V (Protected Landscape/Seascape)

16.

Marine Tourism Park (MOF) Pulau Satonda, Dompu, West Nusa Tenggara

Marine Tourism Park (Taman Wisata Alam Laut)

2,600 ha

V (Protected Landscape/Seascape)

17.

Marine Tourism Park (MMAF) Gili Ayer, Gili Meno, Gili Trawangan, North Lombok, West Nusa Tenggara

Marine Tourism Park (Taman Wisata Perairan)

2,954 ha

V (Protected Landscape/Seascape)

18.

Marine Nature Reserve (MOF) Riung, Ngada, East Nusa Tenggara

Marine Nature Reserve (Cagar Alam Laut)

2,000 ha

Ib (Wilderness Area)

19.

District-based MPA Kabupaten Sikka, East Nusa Tenggara

District-based MPA (Kawasan Konservasi Perairan Daerah)

42,250 ha

VI (Protected area with sustainable use of natural resources)

20.

District-based MPA Kabupaten Lombok Tengah, West Nusa Tenggara

District-based MPA (Kawasan Konservasi Perairan Daerah)

22,940.45 ha

VI (Protected area with sustainable use of natural resources)

21.

Marine Tourism Park (MOF) Teluk Maumere, East Nusa Tenggara

Marine Tourism Park (Taman Wisata Alam Laut)

59,450 ha

V (Protected Landscape/Seascape)

22.

Marine Tourism Park (MOF) Tujuh Belas Pulau, Ngada, East Nusa Tenggara

Marine Tourism Park (Taman Wisata Alam Laut)

9,900 ha

V (Protected Landscape/Seascape)

 

FishSource Scores

Last updated on 4 April 2018

SELECT SCORES

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

As calculated for 2015 data.

The score is < 6.

There are no management objectives for Lutjanus sebae stock(s) in FMA 713. Available management objectives per FMA are set for aggregated demersal fish group only (KKP-RI 2017).

As calculated for 2015 data.

The score is < 6.

The snapper (including L. sebae) fisheries in FMA 713 are mostly small-scale and unregulated. Scientific advice existed at aggregated level of demersal fish group; however, there is no direct connection to the management of small scale fishing units targeting snappers.

As calculated for 2015 data.

The score is < 6.

Most of the L. sebae catches (particularly of export quality) go directly to the middlemen’s facilities. Meanwhile, official enumeration of catches take place in government fish landing sites, and thus these catches are most likely not recorded.

STOCK HEALTH:

As calculated for 2015 data.

The score is < 6.

Most of L. sebae caught in South Sulawesi were immature, only 7% of the fish landed were mature; therefore, the L. sebae fishery is probably overfished already (Nuraini 2017).

As calculated for 2015 data.

The score is < 6.

Lutjanus sebae is a slow-growing and long-lived species with low potential reproduction (Nuraini 2017). Given gross catch under-reporting and the magnitude of catching juvenile fish, it is not expected that this stock improve although FIPs are now taking place.

HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSE RISK

High Medium Low
No data available for biomass
No data available for fishing mortality
No data available for recruitment
DATA NOTES
  • Scientific advice and the consequential manager’s decisions are based on basket/aggregate stock assessment system, in which Lutjanus sebae and all other snappers (Lutjanus spp.) are lumped into the demersal fish group, together with other demersal fish species. Therefore the quoted maximum sustainable yields (MSYs), total allowable catches (TACs), exploitation rates (Es), and optimal fishing effort (fOPT) in this profile refer to those of demersal fish and not of any snappers per se.
  • Reported landing statistics of Lutjanus sebae does not exist.
  • Qualitative scoring is chosen due to the lack of quantitative data.

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Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

No related FIPs

Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

No related MSC certifications

Sources

Credits

SFP is grateful to the following persons for contributing with information to the development of this fishery profile: 

  • Prof. Ali Suman, Senior Shrimp Expert from Research Center for Fisheries (Pusriskan), member of National Commission for Fish Stock Assessment (Komnas Kajiskan), 2012 – present, Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries of the Republic of Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia.
  • Mr. Muhammad Anas, Staff at Directorate General of Capture Fisheries, Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries of the Republic of Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia.
  • Dr Peter Mous, The Nature Conservacy  Indonesia Fisheries Conservation Program.
References

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