Last updated on 3 September 2018

SUMMARY

SUMMARY

IDENTIFICATION

SCIENTIFIC NAME(s)

Merlangius merlangus

SPECIES NAME(s)

Whiting

Whiting (Merlangius merlangus) is endemic to the northeastern Atlantic, including the Mediterranean and Black Seas. In the north-west European shelf seas, it has been assessed and managed on the basis of four stocks: 1) the North Sea and English Channel, 2) the Skagerrak, 3) the West of Scotland and 4) the Irish Sea (ICES, 2013a). However, these stock units may not be representative, either of biologically discrete populations or of functional fishery areas (ICES, 2005). There is some evidence for north-south split in the North Sea and for links between Divisions IVa (North Sea) and VIa (West of Scotland), but stock identity remains an unresolved issue (ICES, 2014a).


ANALYSIS

Strengths

A long-term management plan has been established between EU and Norway, setting a precautionary target F of 0.15 (ICES, 2014a). International data on landings and discards have improved (ICES, 2014b). Advice TAC for Subarea IV is been followed by managers.

Weaknesses

No biomass reference points could be defined yet (ICES, 2014b). SSB is close to Blim and the average level of recruitment is low since 2003, therefore whiting biomass is likely to decline in future until the appearance of the next good year class. TAC for division VIId is included in the overall TAC for Subarea VII and there is no way to track if managers follow scientific advice in setting TACs or to evaluate quota uptake from Division VIId specifically (ICES, 2014a,b).

FISHSOURCE SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

≥ 8

Managers Compliance:

≥ 6

Fishers Compliance:

≥ 6

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

≥ 6

Future Health:

8.7


FIPS

No related FIPs

CERTIFICATIONS

  • SFSAG Northern Demersal Stocks:

    MSC Recertified

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

ASSESSMENT UNIT MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
North Sea and Eastern English Channel North Sea and Eastern English Channel Norway Bottom trawls
Scottish seines
Single boat bottom otter trawls
United Kingdom Beam trawls
Set gillnets (anchored)
Single boat bottom otter trawls

Analysis

OVERVIEW

Strengths

A long-term management plan has been established between EU and Norway, setting a precautionary target F of 0.15 (ICES, 2014a). International data on landings and discards have improved (ICES, 2014b). Advice TAC for Subarea IV is been followed by managers.

Weaknesses

No biomass reference points could be defined yet (ICES, 2014b). SSB is close to Blim and the average level of recruitment is low since 2003, therefore whiting biomass is likely to decline in future until the appearance of the next good year class. TAC for division VIId is included in the overall TAC for Subarea VII and there is no way to track if managers follow scientific advice in setting TACs or to evaluate quota uptake from Division VIId specifically (ICES, 2014a,b).

1.STOCK STATUS

STOCK ASSESSMENT

The most recent benchmark for this stock was conducted in 2013 (ICES, 2013a) including Subarea IV (North Sea) and Division VIId (eastern English Channel). Adult whiting are widespread in the North Sea with a patchy distribution, high numbers of immature fish occur off the Scottish coast, in the German Bight and along the coast of the Netherlands (ICES, 2013a). Recent changes in the spatial distribution of whiting have been observed, and may represent a contraction to a sub-stock structure that coincides with the main spawning areas in the North Sea (ICES, 2014b).

Last assessment conducted in 2014 is an update, using same age-based analytical assessment (FLXSA) as for the benchmark. Forecasts were undertaken with a multi-fleet deterministic projection. The input data included latest commercial catches (international landings, ages from catch sampling by métier), two recent survey indices from first and third quarters International Bottom Trawl Surveys with new recruitment information, and time-varying natural mortality estimates, from an stochastic multispecies model (ICES, 2014a,b). ICES concluded that no reliable estimate of FMSY could be found for North Sea whiting using standard approaches, and that candidate fishing mortality and biomass reference points should be developed using meta-analytic (or other) methods in the near future (ICES, 2014b).

Pre-1990 catch and survey data which were previously used in the assessment have been removed in recent years due to discrepancies between catch and survey information (ICES, 2014b). Discard data, an important component of the catch, is included in the assessment since 1990; data series from the sampled fleets cover 80% of the landings. Industrial bycatch of whiting is almost entirely due to the Danish sandeel, sprat and Norway pout fisheries, and has been decreasing considerably since 1995 due to low TACs (ICES, 2014b).

Given the spatial structure of the whiting stock and of the fleets exploiting it, it is important to have data that covers all fleets. Considering that age 1 and age 2 whiting make up a large proportion of the total stock biomass, good information of the discarding practices of the major fleets is important (ICES, 2014b). Since 2012, international data on landings and discards have been collated through the InterCatch system and have improved (ICES, 2014b).

SCIENTIFIC ADVICE

In 2012, considerable changes on the level of fishing mortality (F) led ICES to advised that that the target in place (F=0.3) in place was no longer consistent with the long term stability and a precautionary 25% reduction on F was agreed and set at 0.225 to elaborate the advice for 2013. In 2013, a 15% TAC decrease was used as basis for the advice (ICES, 2014a) and in 2014 a long-term management plan for whiting in North Sea was agreed using the precautionary advised target F set at 0.15 (ICES, 2013b; 2014a), considering that recruitment will stay within a medium–low range in the near future.

This year ICES advises on the basis of the EU–Norway management plan. Following the agreed management plan target F (Ftarget = 0.15) results in a TAC decrease for human consumption landings of more than 15%. Therefore, the TAC constraint of 15% was applied, resulting in human consumption landings for the total area (Subarea IV and Division VIId combined) of no more than 17,190 tons in 2015 (13,678 tons in the North Sea and 3,512 tons in Division VIId). If rates of discards and industrial bycatch do not change from the average of the last three years (2011–2013), this implies catches of no more than 30,579 tons (ICES, 2014b).

ICES recommends that management of Division VIId should be separated from the rest of subarea VII, a specific TAC for Division VIId was established for cod in 2009 and the same procedure for whiting may be appropriate (ICES, 2014b). As well, ICES indicates that localized discarding problems should be monitored carefully and measures to improve survival of young cod, such as the Scottish Credit Conservation Scheme, and increased uptake of more selective gear in the North Sea and Skagerrak, should be encouraged for whiting, as there is a mismatch between quota allocations, derived from relative stability criteria, and the access of the various fisheries to the resource which has changed because of localized distribution of whiting (ICES, 2014b). Also, given the uncertainty in recruitment trends, and the sensitivity of this evaluation to the multispecies assessment results, the management plan should be reviewed every three to five years (ICES, 2013c).

Recent International Bottom Trawl Survey indicated an increase in recruitment estimate, ICES recommends that efforts to reduce discarding are needed to protect the incoming 2014 year class to prevent future decline of whiting stock (ICES, 2014a).

Reference Points

There have been no agreed biological reference points for North Sea whiting since the time-series was truncated to 1990. ICES attempted to use standard approaches via yield-per-recruit and stock-recruit curves to estimate FMSY for this stock implementing an equilibrium age-structured model, but it was concluded that no reliable estimate of FMSY could be found for North Sea whiting using standard equilibrium considerations, and that candidate fishing mortality and biomass reference points should be developed using meta-analytic (or other) methods in the near future (ICES, 2013a), such as SAM and SURBAR models. The Working Group for the Assessment of Demersal Stocks in the North Sea and Skagerrak in 2014 undertook an exploratory assessment using the SURBAR model, and trends were very similar to the standard XSA assessment results (ICES, 2014b), while the SAM model run remained pending.

A long-term management plan was agreed between EU and Norway in 2014, by which the parties shall establish a TAC that is consistent with a fishing mortality rate of no more than 0.15 for appropriate age-groups, and where this rule leads to a TAC which deviates by more than 15% from the TAC of the preceding year, TAC will be set at no more than 15% greater or 15% less than the TAC of the preceding year (TAC constraint of ±15%) (ICES, 2014a,b). As well, until additional information becomes available, ICES considers that the lowest observed SSB of 184,000 t in 2007 can be used as a provisional Blim reference point (ICES, 2014a,b).

CURRENT STATUS

For North Sea whiting there have been no biomass reference points defined, therefore the status of the stock with respect to these is unknown. SSB is estimated to be just above a provisional Blim (184,000 t) and the stock size is considered to be below recent average (ICES, 2014b).

Recruitment has been varying around a recent mean, but that mean was low relative to the rest of the time series. However, last recruitment estimate indicates a significant increase (ICES, 2014a). As whiting are largely mature from age 2, recruitment heavily influences SSB in the following year at low stock sizes. Protecting the incoming 2014 year class (ICES, 2014b) may prevent whiting biomass to decline as predicted initially in 2014 in view of low recruitment average rate (ICES, 2014b).

Fishing mortality is currently fluctuating around a low level, similar to the precautionary Ftarget agreed in the management plan (ICES, 2014b).

Trends

There are considerable discrepancies in stock trends prior to 1990 between the survey time-series and the assessment based on commercial catch data; therefore since 2009 up to date the assessment has been truncated to start in 1990 only (ICES, 2013a; 2014b).

Historical trends show that mean F is declining and has reached the minimum of the post-1990 time-series and is currently fluctuating around a low level, similar to the precautionary Ftarget agreed in the management plan. SSB has stabilized after recent increases and is close to the minimum value of the time-series.

Recruitment of whiting has been fluctuating around a recent low average in recent years is considered to result from the combined effects of low spawning biomass and environmental factors (e.g., sea temperature, changes in the prey field, predation on juveniles) (ICES, 2014b). ICES concluded that whiting biomass was likely to decline in future (even with low fishing mortality rates) until the appearance of the next good year class (ICES, 2014b). After the annual assessment update conducted in May, the International Bottom Trawl Survey undertaken in the third quarter provided new information indicating an increase in recruitment index for the 2014 year class and ICES re-opened and updated the Advice for 2015 (ICES, 2014a).

In 2013, landings, discards and industrial bycatch have remained at or around a recent average (ICES, 2014b).

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

MANAGEMENT

The whiting stock is managed through TACs, which is split between two areas: (i) Subarea IV and Division IIa (EU waters), and (ii) Divisions VIIb-k. A long-term management plan, with a target F of 0.15 and TAC constraint of ±15%, was agreed in 2014 by the EU and Norway. This management plan imposes a review no later than 31 December 2017 (ICES, 2014a). Both decisions follow ICES advice (ICES, 2013c).

As well, ICES advice on human consumption landings for 2014 was taking into account for the North Sea area, setting TAC at 16,092 tons for Subarea IV and Union waters of IIa (EU No. 432/2014). However, management in Eastern English Channel (Division VIId) does not reflect scientific advice. ICES has recommended since 2012 that TAC for Division VIId should be separated from the rest of Subarea VII, but a combined TAC was set for Divisions VIIb-k in 2014. As a result, there is no way to track if managers follow scientific advice in setting TACs or to evaluate quota uptake from Division VIId specifically (ICES, 2014a,b).

Other technical measures for whiting include: minimum landing size of 27 cm for whiting in Subarea IV and Division VIId, and minimum mesh size of 80 mm in Division VIId, EU members’ national sampling programs (Data Collection Framework). The minimum mesh size was increased for demersal whitefish vessels to 120 mm in the northern North Sea in 2002 and more selective gears were introduced in the Nephrops fleet in 2012, these measures have contributed to a decline in catches and discard rates, and improved survival of older ages. As well, overall nominal effort (kW-days) by EU demersal trawls, seines, beam trawls, gill/trammelnets, and longlines (all mesh sizes included) in the North Sea, Skagerrak, and Eastern Channel had been substantially reduced since the implementation of two successive effort management plans in 2003 and 2008 for the protection of cod (−38% between 2003 and 2013, −17% between 2008 and 2013) (ICES, 2014b).

Recovery Plans

The whiting stock is not depleted, but SSB and recruitment have been low, therefore a management plan was agreed by EU and Norway in 2014 based on an adjusted precautionary target F of 0.15, which corresponds to 50% of previous target F in 2010 and 2013 bilateral agreements (ICES, 2012; 2013c) and follows recent ICES advice (ICES, 2013c).

COMPLIANCE

For ICES 2012 and 2013, estimated landings in Subarea IV (12,929 tons and 15,384 tons, respectively) were below the agreed TAC (17,056 tons and 18,932 tons, respectively). In Subdivision VIId quota uptake cannot be evaluated as a single TAC is set for the entire Subarea VII. Nevertheless, ICES estimated landings in Subdivision VIId for 2012 and 2013 (4,103 tons and 3,950 tons, respectively) were below the recommended by ICES (4,200 tons and 7,000 tons, respectively) for VIId (ICES, 2014a).

In general, some discarding occurs in most human-consumption fisheries, particularly when strong year classes are approaching the minimum landing size. As TACs have become more restrictive for some species (e.g. cod), an increase in discarding of marketable fish (i.e. over minimum landing size) has been observed. In the EU, national sampling programs are defined and implemented as part of the Data Collection Framework (DCF), and even the sampling programs may not sufficiently cover all issues, coverage of discard sampling programs has expanded considerably in recent years. These data have been incorporated in discard estimation in a transparent and métier-based way through the ICES InterCatch procedure since 2012 (ICES, 2014b).

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

BYCATCH
ETP Species

Whiting are targeted in mixed demersal roundfish fisheries, with several fleets involved.

Gillnet fisheries represent a high risk to harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) in the North Sea. Council Directive 92/43/EEC gives strict protection status to cetaceans in European Union (EU) waters. The Council Regulation (EC) No. 812/2004 requires monitoring programs of cetacean bycatch for ≥15m bottom gillnetters and use of acoustic deterrent devices as mitigation measures. Mitigation measures have been taken only by some countries (Sweden, Denmark, Germany and UK) and the degree of compliance and enforcement is unknown. Methods have been developed for assessing bycatch in the <15 m fleet, such as remote electronic monitoring, but have been little implemented in the North Sea. Porpoise bycatch in the North Sea and adjacent waters has been monitored for over 20 years, but a comprehensive assessment of the scale of bycatch in this area has not been achieved because it has been carried out in specific métiers and by individual Member States over a long period of time, resulting in a series of bycatch rate estimates for specific fishery sectors which covers only the minority of all gillnet fisheries in the region. Estimate of total fishing effort by all vessels, bycatch rates per fleet and region are required to estimate bycatch levels. Furthermore, reference levels against which to compare estimates of bycatch levels need to be agreed for the North Sea (ICES, 2014c).

The Council Directive 92/43/EEC, called Habitats Directive, protects lampreys (Lampetra fluviatilis and Lethenteron zanandrai) and shads (Alosa spp.) Bycatch of lamprenidae was mainly observed in beam trawls, whereas the majority of bycaught shad specimens was found in both, active gears (e.g. bottom otter trawls) as well as passive gears (gillnets) (ICES, 2014c).

Bycatch data could be improved for all fleets, however ICES indicates that efforts are continuing in North Sea states with assessing bycatch, developing alternative mitigation methods and developing frameworks for determining safe bycatch limits (ICES, 2014c).

United Kingdom
Beam trawls

In UK, information on protected species is collected primarily through a dedicated monitoring program and under the DCF for the purposes of meeting the Regulation 812/2004 and the Council Directive 92/43/EEC (Habitats Directive) (ICES, 2014c).

Single boat bottom otter trawls

In UK, information on protected species is collected primarily through a dedicated monitoring program and under the DCF for the purposes of meeting the Regulation 812/2004 and the Council Directive 92/43/EEC (Habitats Directive) (ICES, 2014c).

Other Species

For North Sea whiting there are three distinct areas of major catch: a northern zone, an area off the eastern English coast; and a southern area extending into the English Channel. In the northern area of North Sea, roundfish are caught in otter trawl and seine fisheries, with a 120 mm minimum mesh size by regulation since 2002, with cod, haddock and whiting as the predominant roundfish catch, although there can be important bycatches of other species, notably saithe and anglerfish in the northern and eastern North Sea and Nephrops in the more offshore Nephrops grounds (ICES, 2013a).

Limited information is available in relation to bycatch in the other two areas of major catch of whiting and bycatch data could be improved for all fleets, however ICES indicates that efforts are continuing in North Sea states with assessing bycatch, developing alternative mitigation methods and developing frameworks for determining safe bycatch limits (ICES, 2014c).

HABITAT

Whiting are targeted in mixed demersal roundfish fisheries, with several fleets involved. Chronic otter trawling has been shown to cause a shift in the type of organism present in benthic communities, and a century of fishing on current grounds has certainly changed the nature of seabeds, but the ongoing reduction in effort, the introduction of lighter gears and the strategic focus on known productive grounds mean no further significant changes are expected to occur. Danish seine’s impacts on benthic habitats are being studied but are thought to be low (ICES, 2014c). Both trammel and tanglenets are also used, but no information regarding impact on habitat has been stressed (ICES, 2014c).

Marine Reserves

Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) Network now covers over 5% of the OSPAR maritime area, the North-East Atlantic (OSPAR, 2014a). Most MPAs are established within waters under national jurisdiction (200 nautical miles) in the North Sea and Eastern Channel, however few but large marine protected areas have been created in the high seas in recent years (OSPAR, 2014b).

A comprehensive network of Marine Protected Areas has been designated in the UK (JNCC, 2012), which includes several kinds of habitats. In 2008 a real-time closures system (RTCs) was implemented under the Scottish Conservation Credits Scheme (CCS). In 2013, 166 RTCs were implemented. The scheme aim is reducing the capture of cod through avoiding areas with elevated abundances of cod, although it may also have an effect on the mortality of associated species. The effect of this scheme on the whiting stock is still under investigation (ICES, 2014c).

United Kingdom
Set gillnets (anchored)

Both trammel and tangle nets are used, but no information regarding impact on habitat has been stressed (ICES, 2014c).

Single boat bottom otter trawls

Chronic otter trawling has been shown to cause a shift in the type of organism present in benthic communities, and a century of fishing on current grounds has certainly changed the nature of seabeds, but the ongoing reduction in effort, the introduction of lighter gears and the strategic focus on known productive grounds mean no further significant changes are expected to occur (ICES, 2014c).

FishSource Scores

SELECT SCORES

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

As calculated for 2014 data.

The score is ≥ 8.

A fishing mortality at maximum sustainable yield FMSY and biomass reference points could not be estimated for whiting (ICES, 2013a, 2014b). A long-term management plan, with a target F = 0.15 and TAC constraint of ±15%, was recently agreed in 2014 by the EU and Norway, and is considered precautionary by ICES (ICES, 2013b; 2014a,b).

As calculated for 2014 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

Some but not all of the key recommendations made by the scientific organization responsible for the stock assessments are being taken into account by the management bodies; areas comprised by the ICES advice and the TAC defined by the European Commission do not match (ICES, 2014a) in all its extension. The set TAC for Subarea IV (North Sea) and EU waters of IIa is at 16,092 tons (EU No. 432/2014) and coincides with ICES advice (ICES, 2014a). For Division VIIb, ICES recommended landings of no more than 5,106 tons in 2014; however, a combined TAC continues to be established for Divisions VIIb-k (ICES, 2014a,b); for 2014 at 20,668 tons (EU 432/2014).

As calculated for 2014 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

Landings for human consumption in Subarea IV have been below the agreed TAC throughout the whole time series, starting in 1989, even since 2005 when figures became stricter and have been lower than advised since 2012; landings in Subdivision VIId were below the advised values 4,200 and 7,000 tons in 2012 and 2013 at around 3,800 tons (ICES, 2014a). Total catch began to be added in ICES Advice since 2013, to consider discards and industrial bycatch (ICES, 2014a).

STOCK HEALTH:

As calculated for 2014 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

Biomass reference points could not be estimated for whiting with standard approaches (ICES, 2013a, 2014b). The stock is not below a limit but is close to the minimum value of the time-series, considered a provisional Blim (SSB in 2007, 184,000 t) and is considered to be below recent average (ICES, 2014b).

As calculated for 2013 data.

The score is 8.7.

This measures the F as a percentage of the F management limit.

The F is 0.186 (age-averaged). The F management limit is 0.225 .

The underlying F/F management limit for this index is 82.7%.

To see data for biomass, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for catch and tac, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for fishing mortality, please view this site on a desktop.
No data available for recruitment
No data available for recruitment
To see data for management quality, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for stock status, please view this site on a desktop.
DATA NOTES

1)* Scientific advice and Management areas do not match: ICES issues scientific advice to North Sea (ICES Subarea IV) and Eastern English Channel (ICES Division VIId). The TAC for the ICES subarea IV and EU waters of IIa is defined upon bilateral agreements between the European Commission and Norway. A combined TAC is given for all Divisions VIIb–k (ICES, 2014a,b). As a result, there is no way to track if managers follow scientific advice in setting TACs or to evaluate quota uptake from Division VIId specifically, thus qualitative scores were assigned to scores #2 and #3.  
*2)* As no harvest control rule has been explicitly defined, a qualitative score was assigned for score #1. Given the absence of biomass reference points, a qualitative score was assigned to score #4 as well (ICES, 2013a; 2014b). 
*3)* Advised TAC, Set TAC and Catches series in the scores data sheet are landings; discards and industrial bycatch are recorded separately (ICES, 2014a).

Download Source Data

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Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

No related FIPs

Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

SELECT MSC

NAME

SFSAG Northern Demersal Stocks

STATUS

MSC Recertified on 29 October 2010

SCORES

In July 2018 this fishery extended the scope and changed the certified name of the fishery from Scottish Fisheries Sustainable Accreditation Group (SFSAG) North Sea haddock to SFSAG Northern Demersal Stocks.

Principle Level Scores:

Principle Haddock  Saithe     Plaice     Hake    Whiting 
Principle 1 – Target Species 92.4 95.0 93.8 92.5 86.5
Principle 2 - Ecosystem 80.0 80.0 82.0 80.0 82.0
Principle 3 – Management System 94.6 96.5 94.6

Certification Type: Silver

Sources

Credits

Council Regulation (EU) No 432/2014 of 22 April 2014 amending Regulation (EU) No 43/2014 as regards certain fishing opportunities.http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/HTML/?uri=CELEX:32014R0432&from=EN

ICES, 2005. Report of the Study Group on Stock Identity and Management Units of Whiting (SGSIMUW), 15–17 March 2005, Aberdeen, UK. ICES CM 2005/G:03. 50 pp.http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Expert%20Group%20Report/lrc/2005/sgsimuw/sgsimuw05.pdf

ICES, 2012. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee, Book 6: 6.4.5 Ecoregion: North Sea; Stock: Whiting in Subarea IV (North Sea) and Division VIId (Eastern Channel). Advice summary for 2013. 13 pp. http://www.ices.dk/committe/acom/comwork/report/2012/2012/whg-47d.pdf

ICES, 2013b. Joint EU–Norway request to evaluate the long-term management plan for whiting in the North Sea. In Report of the ICES Advisory Committee, 2013. ICES Advice 2013, Book 6, Section 6.3.5.2.http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2013/Special%20requests/EU-Norway%20LTMP%20for%20whiting.pdf

ICES, 2013c. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee, Book 6:3.34b Ecoregion: North Sea; Stock: Whiting in Subarea IV (North Sea) and Division VIId (Eastern Channel). Advice summary for 2014. 15 pp.http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2013/2013/whg-47d.pdf

ICES, 2014a. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee, Book 6:3.34 Ecoregion: North Sea; Stock: Whiting in Subarea IV (North Sea) and Division VIId (Eastern Channel). Advice summary for 2015 (updated November, 2014). 13 pp.http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2014/2014/whg-47d.pdf

ICES, 2014b. Report of the Working Group on the Assessment of Demersal Stocks in the North Sea and Skagerrak (WGNSSK), 30 April–7 May 2014. ICES CM 2014/ACOM:13. 1510 pp.http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Expert%20Group%20Report/acom/2014/WGNSSK/01%20WGNSSK%20report%202014.pdf

ICES, 2014c. Report of the Working Group on Bycatch of Protected Species (WGBYC), 4–7 February, Copenhagen, Denmark. ICES CM 2014/ACOM:28. 96 pp. http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Expert%20Group%20Report/acom/2014/WGBYC/wgbyc_2014.pdf

ICES. 2013a. Report of the Benchmark Workshop on Roundfish Stocks (WKROUND), 4–8 February 2013, Aberdeen, UK. ICES CM 2013/ACOM:47.http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Expert%20Group%20Report/acom/2013/WKROUND/WKROUND%20Report%202013.pdf

JNCC, 2012. Marine Protected Area Network of the UK. Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC) website. [Accessed on 31 August 2012].http://jncc.defra.gov.uk/page-4549

OSPAR, 2014a. Annual Report 2013/2014. 19 pp.http://ospar.org/documents/dbase/publications/p00608/p00608_annualreport2014%20single%20pages_online.pdf

OSPAR, 2014b. Key figures of the MPA OSPAR network. [Assessed on 5 December 2014]. http://mpa.ospar.org/home_ospar/keyfigures

References

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