Last updated on 30 November 2016

SUMMARY

SUMMARY

IDENTIFICATION

SCIENTIFIC NAME(s)

Pollachius virens

SPECIES NAME(s)

Saithe

The stock structure is not totally clear, migrations are detected among the areas according to tagging experiments (Jakobsen and Olsen, 1987; Jákupsstovu, 1999 in ICES, 2014b). Magnitude of migrations seem to differ among the areas studied due to the topography or distance and further studies are recommended (Homrum et al., 2013). Four assessment units are considered within the NE Atlantic region for evaluation of the stock condition as well as for management purposes: 
1 – Barents Sea (Subareas I and II, Northeast Arctic)
2 – Icelandic (Division Va)
3 – North Sea, Skagerrak, west of Scotland and the Rockall (Divisions IIIa, IV and Subarea VI) 
4 – Faroe Islands (Division Vb).


ANALYSIS

Strengths

A management plan, in accordance with the precautionary approach and the ICES MSY framework, was implemented in 2013. The stock is in “full reproductive capacity”, Spawning stock is well above MSY Btrigger. The Harvest rate (HR) has been declining and is slight below HRMSY. In 2013 TAC follow scientific advice. Discarding and bycatches are considered to be low. Quick and temporary fishing area closures protect nursery areas of saithe; marine protected areas are established to protect cold-water corals.

Weaknesses

Precautionary reference points are not defined. There are high uncertainties in the assessment in terms of the Spawning stock and fishing mortality estimates due to survey and selectivity (age-specific) issues; recruitment estimates are unreliable. Catches exceeded slight the TAC in 2012/2013. Sharks and skates are taken as bycatch but catch rates are incomplete and the status of stocks is unknown.

FISHSOURCE SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

≥ 8

Managers Compliance:

10

Fishers Compliance:

9.4

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

10

Future Health:

8.2


RECOMMENDATIONS

RETAILERS & SUPPLY CHAIN
  • Monitor the progress in closing out conditions placed upon the MSC certification of the fishery and if agreed timelines are met. Offer assistance in closing conditions where possible.

FIPS

No related FIPs

CERTIFICATIONS

  • ISF Iceland saithe, ling, Atlantic wolffish and plaice:

    MSC Certified

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

ASSESSMENT UNIT MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
Icelandic waters Iceland Iceland Bottom trawls
Danish seines
Gillnets and entangling nets
Longlines
Mechanized lines

Analysis

OVERVIEW

Strengths

A management plan, in accordance with the precautionary approach and the ICES MSY framework, was implemented in 2013. The stock is in “full reproductive capacity”, Spawning stock is well above MSY Btrigger. The Harvest rate (HR) has been declining and is slight below HRMSY. In 2013 TAC follow scientific advice. Discarding and bycatches are considered to be low. Quick and temporary fishing area closures protect nursery areas of saithe; marine protected areas are established to protect cold-water corals.

Weaknesses

Precautionary reference points are not defined. There are high uncertainties in the assessment in terms of the Spawning stock and fishing mortality estimates due to survey and selectivity (age-specific) issues; recruitment estimates are unreliable. Catches exceeded slight the TAC in 2012/2013. Sharks and skates are taken as bycatch but catch rates are incomplete and the status of stocks is unknown.

RECOMMENDATIONS

Last updated on 1 November 2018

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain
  • Monitor the progress in closing out conditions placed upon the MSC certification of the fishery and if agreed timelines are met. Offer assistance in closing conditions where possible.

1.STOCK STATUS

STOCK ASSESSMENT

A separable forward-projecting statistical catch-at-age model was performed, developed in AD Model Builder, including catch-at-age commercial data (ages 3-14, years 1980-2013) and spring abundance indices at age (ages 3-10, year 1985-2014) from bottom trawl surveys (ICES, 2014a,b). Natural mortality is set at 0.2 for all age groups. Selectivity is age-specific. Migration of saithe along the Faroe–Iceland Ridge, as well as onto the East Greenland shelf is relevant in some years (ICES, 2013a,b).

Discards and by-catch are estimated to be low and not included in the assessment. The assessment is highly uncertain in terms of the Spawning stock (SSB) and fishing mortality (F) estimates, due to variations in spring survey measurements, in the fleet selectivity and to a lack of reliable recruitment estimates (MRI, 2013; ICES, 2013a). The Commercial Catch per Unit Effort (CPUE) index is considered as unreliable and was not included in the assessment for calibration (ICES, 2013a,b).

SCIENTIFIC ADVICE

The Marine Research Institute (MRI), under the Icelandic Ministry of Fisheries and Agriculture (IMFA), monitors Icelandic fishing resources and conducts assessments that are peer reviewed by ICES. MRI/ICES advice, based on the precautionary management plan (2013), recommends a Total Allowable Catch (TAC) of 58,000 tons in 2014/2015, expecting to increase the spawning stock biomass to 157,000 tons in 2016, corresponding to Fishing Mortality at 0.24 (ICES, 2014a,b; MRI, 2013).

Reference Points

Reference points were revised in 2013. The limit reference point for biomass (Blim) is at 61,000 tons, equivalent to Bloss agreed in 2010. Bpa, Fpa and Flim are not defined. The MSY reference point for Fishing mortality is set in relation to the Harvest rate HRMSY at 20%, and is based on the assumption that SSB is 95% of the time above Blim; MSY Btrigger is set at 65,000 tons (ICES, 2014a).

CURRENT STATUS

The stock is in “full reproductive capacity”, Spawning Stock Biomass (SSB) is estimated to be at around 150,000 tons, well above MSY Btrigger. The Harvest rate (HR) has been declining since 2008 and in 2013 was at 19% (corresponding to fishing mortality of 0.22), being slight below HRMSY and considered as “appropriate”. Recruitment has been above the long-term average. Catches have been decreasing since 2006 and in 2013 were at around 52,000 tons, overpassing TAC in 2,000 tons. The majority is caught by bottom trawl (84% in 2012-2013) and the rest with gillnets and jiggers; the proportion taken by gillnets has been decreasing (ICES, 2014a; MRI, 2013).

Trends

The Harvest rate presented two maximum highs, at 0.34 in 1994 and at 0.28 in 2008. In the interim years has been oscillating, with the minimum values at 0.18 (below HRMSY) in 2012. Landings have been following the TAC trend. In 1990 reached 98,000 tons and decreased to 30,000 tons in 2000, growing again to 78,000 tons until 2006, since when have been decreasing.
Reproductive biomass (SSB) attained the maximum in 1970 with 384,000 tons. From then decreased to around 150,000 tons until presently; between 1996-1998 SSB fluctuated around Blim and BMSY. Strong recruitment was estimated in 1998-2000 and 2002, and since then has generally been above average (ICES, 2014a).

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

MANAGEMENT

The management plan (harvest control rule) was adopted by the Icelandic government in 2013; ICES considered it to be precautionary and in accordance with the ICES MSY framework (ICES, 2014a,b). According to the Harvest Control Rule (HCR), TAC is set between the 1 September and 31 August of the next year. The 20% HCR consists of two equations: when spawning stock (SSB)≥ Btrigger, the TAC set in that year is equals the average of 0.20 times the current biomass and last year’s TAC; when SSB is below Btrigger, the harvest rate is reduced below 0.20 (ICES, 2014b).

Management decisions, implemented through TAC, are decided by the IMFA; meetings with stakeholders are conducted. The Icelandic Directorate of Fisheries (IDF) is responsible for the monitoring, control, surveillance and enforcement of management measures. A Vessel Monitoring System (VMS) and an Electronic Logbook system is implemented (MRI, undated). (MRI, undated).

Since 1998, a minimum mesh size of 135 mm is allowed in the codend in all trawl fisheries not using “Polish cover” (ICES, 2009b; ICES, 2013a). Additional and support measures to protect juveniles (of different species) comprise temporal and permanent closure of fishing areas(MRI, undated). As legislation obliges the landing of all catches, no minimum landing size is in force (ICES, 2008, 2009b). Minimum landing size in EU waters is set at 35cm (MCS, 2012).

The TAC for the 2013/14 fishing year was set at 57,000 tons (ICES, 2014a), higher than last year (50,000 tons) but following the recommended values by MRI/ICES.

Recovery Plans

There are no formal recovery plans in place for the Icelandic saithe stock. In spring 2013, the Icelandic government adopted a management plan for managing the Icelandic saithe fishery (see Manager´s Decisions sections for more details).

COMPLIANCE

Since the implementation of TACs in 1987, official catches overpassed the set TAC in certain years. In 2012, landings were at 51,783 tons, slightly below the set TAC at 52,000 tons. However, in 2013 landings exceeded the TAC in 2,000 tons. Discards are not included in the assessment and are estimated to be low since 2000 (ICES, 2014a).

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

BYCATCH
ETP Species

The seabird community in Icelandic waters is composed of relatively few but abundant species, accounting for roughly ¼ of total number and biomass of seabirds within the ICES area.

At least 12 species of cetaceans occur regularly in Icelandic waters, and an additional 10 species have been recorded more sporadically (ICES, 2011b). Of the commonly recorded cetacean species, Blue whale Balaenoptera musculus, Sei whale Balaenoptera borealis and Fin whale Balaenoptera physalus are Endangered (2008 IUCN Red List), and the Sperm whale Physeter macrocephalus is Vulnerable (2008 IUCN Red List); the Blue skate Dipturus batis is also listed (Critically Endangered; 2006 IUCN Red List) (IUCN, 2012). Other PET species include sharp nosed skate, Greenland, porbeagle, basking, blue and thresher sharks, blue fin tuna and leatherback turtle (DNV, 2012).

Interactions with and impacts on Protected, Endangered and Threatened (PET) species by the fishery are very unlikely, apart from a small risk of seabird entanglement (DNV, 2012). Data is collected by an MRI observer program. Icelandic-registered fishing vessels are encourage to record marine mammal bycatch in the e-logbook (DNV, 2012). Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus) is within a rebuilding plan in Iceland since 2012 (Regulation 470/2012), which requires live Atlantic halibut to be returned to the sea (Vottunarstofan Tún., 2014). Cold water corals Lophelia pertusa are in the OSPAR List of Threatened and/or Declining Species and Habitats and protected by closure areas (Gunnarsson et al., 2011; DNV., 2012).

Other Species

This species is caught in directed fisheries, as well as in mixed demersal fisheries. There are differences between the different gears used in the main retained species (cod, haddock, saithe, golden redfish, etc), i.e. species contributing more than 5% to the total demersal catch by gear (Chaudhury and Lockwood, 2013). However, fishermen can have a relatively good control of the relative catch composition of the different species (ICES, 2014b). Catches of retained species are recorded in exactly the same manner as target species and quantities are set against vessel quota for the species and the national TAC (DNV, 2012). Discarding of non-commercial species is permitted but such species are small fishes so the likelihood of being retained by demersal fishing gear is very small as the meshes are too large . The number of fishes taken as bycatch will be extremely small and the potential effect on their respective populations infinitesimally small relative to their widespread distributions throughout the North Atlantic (Chaudhury and Lockwood, 2013). There is some catch of Blue skates in the longline and Danish seine fisheries, but in a small portion. Grey or common skate (Dipturus batis) was not considered a main retained species but it is however vulnerable (Vottunarstofan Tún., 2014), and more information on their status is required.

HABITAT

In Iceland, the effects of otter trawling have been investigated and the results suggested that only a few species were affected by trawling (MRI, 2011). Cold water corals, areas with aggregation of large sponge, maerl beds are identified as vulnerable habitats by MRI regarding the bottom trawl fishery; other fishing gears do not interact with the seabed (Gunnarsson et al., 2011; IMR, 2011). Numerous areas off Icelandic waters are closed temporarily or permanently to all fisheries to protect juveniles and benthic habitats (ICES, 2012a), including Hard-coral (Lophelia pertusa )(DNV, 2012).

However, in recent years there has been an increased effort on mapping the distribution of benthic communities and habitats vulnerable to trawling (MRI, 2011; Lockwood et al., 2012). The most up-to-date map showing the areas in which fishing is restricted or prohibited to protect sensitive marine habitats and ecosystems is available here (Chaudhury and Lockwood, 2013). Important and vulnerable ecosystems such as cold-water coral (CWC) reefs, with the predominance of Lophelia pertusa, occur mainly in the southern Icelandic coast (Hall-Spencer and Stehfest, 2009). Implemented in 2009, the Electronic logbook system helps to monitor the interaction of the fishery (based on the fishing effort) with CWC (Burgos and Ragnarsson, 2012). The BIOICE program has been in operation since 1992 with the aim of producing a basic inventory of benthic fauna within Icelandic territorial waters. Following a scientific mapping, 14 coral areas with Lophelia pertusa have been closed for all fisheries using bottom contact gear. The vulnerable habitats identified by OSPAR overlap with fisheries to some extent, but also all have some depth refuge from fisheries impacts in Icelandic waters (Gascoine et al., 2014; Vottunarstofan Tún., 2014).

Marine Reserves

Several areas off Icelandic waters are closed temporarily or permanently to all fisheries, presumably to protect not only juvenile fish stocks, but also other species groups and benthic habitats (ICES, 2011a; Lockwood et al., 2012); effects are not assessed (ICES, 2013a). 14 coral areas of Lophelia pertusa have been closed to fisheries with bottom contact (Burgos and Ragnarsson, 2012; Vottunarstofan Tún., 2014). In addition, a quick-response (real-time) closure system has been in force since 1976, aimed at protecting juvenile fish. Fishing is prohibited for at least two weeks in areas where the number of small fish in the catches has been observed by inspectors to exceed threshold percentages (25% or more of <55 cm cod and saithe, 25% or more of <45 cm haddock and 20% or more of <33 cm redfish) (DNV, 2012). Preliminary results indicate that relatively small areas closed for a short time do not contribute for the protection of juveniles. On the other hand, several consecutive quick closures often lead to closures of larger areas for a longer time and force the fleet to operate in other areas. The effect of these longer closures has not been evaluated. Spawning areas have been closed during the spawning season for all fisheries, from 1995, for 2-3 weeks, to protect the spawning stock (ICES, 2013a).

Seven designated Nature Reserves, established from 1974 to 1988, and one Conservation Area, designated in 1995, exist along the Icelandic coast and off Surtsey Island totaling 3,507 km2 (Wood, 2007). Iceland has 39 marine protected areas (in accordance with the OSPAR definition), including 11 relative large areas and 16 offshore areas, which are closed year-round or seasonally or have restricted access for fisheries management purposes (detailed information in Hoyt, 2005).

FishSource Scores

Last updated on 22 January 2017

SELECT SCORES

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

As calculated for 2014 data.

The score is ≥ 8.

The management plan introduced in 2013 by the Icelandic government, which is determined to be precautionary, defines a harvest control rule to determine the TAC in relation to the Spawning Stock Biomaass (SSB) level (ICES, 2013a).

As calculated for 2014 data.

The score is 10.0.

This measures the Set TAC as a percentage of the Advised TAC.

The Set TAC is 57.0 ('000 t). The Advised TAC is 57.0 ('000 t) .

The underlying Set TAC/Advised TAC for this index is 100%.

As calculated for 2013 data.

The score is 9.4.

This measures the Reported landings as a percentage of the Set TAC.

The Reported landings is 52.0 (' 000 t). The Set TAC is 50.0 ('000 t) .

The underlying Reported landings/Set TAC for this index is 104%.

STOCK HEALTH:

As calculated for 2014 data.

The score is 10.0.

This measures the SSB as a percentage of the MSY Btrigger.

The SSB is 150 ('000 t). The MSY Btrigger is 65.0 ('000 t) .

The underlying SSB/MSY Btrigger for this index is 231%.

As calculated for 2013 data.

The score is 8.2.

This measures the Harvest rate as a percentage of the Target harvest rate U.

The Harvest rate is 0.190 (Y/SSB). The Target harvest rate U is 0.200 .

The underlying Harvest rate/Target harvest rate U for this index is 95.0%.

To see data for biomass, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for catch and tac, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for fishing mortality, please view this site on a desktop.
No data available for recruitment
No data available for recruitment
To see data for management quality, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for stock status, please view this site on a desktop.
DATA NOTES


*1)* A harvest rate time series is represented instead of fishing mortality as the management plan target is defined as a harvest rate.
*2)* A reduction in the TAC at low biomass is defined in the 2013 management plan - ICES has evaluated the plan and found it to be precautionary; a qualitative score #1 has been determined accordingly.
*3)* The fishing season ends in August 31 thus 2014 data corresponds to the 2013/2014 fishing year. 
*4)* The advice for 2014/2015 is based on the precautionary management plan implemented in 2013. In 2001/2002 ICES recommended “no directed fishery” and in 2003/2004 and 2007/2008 no advice was provided (ICES, 2014a).
*5)* Uncertainties in the assessment, in terms of the Spawning stock and fishing mortality estimates due to survey and selectivity (age-specific) issues, should be considered while addressing the stock status.

Download Source Data

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Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

No related FIPs

Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

SELECT MSC

NAME

ISF Iceland saithe, ling, Atlantic wolffish and plaice

STATUS

MSC Certified on 11 September 2014

SCORES

Principle Level Scores:

Principle  Saithe     Ling     Wolfish Plaice
Principle 1 – Target Species - Saithe 91.9 82.5 80.0 84.4
Principle 2 - Ecosystem - Demersal trawl 87.0
Principle 2 - Ecosystem - Longline 84.3
Principle 2 - Ecosystem - Danish seine 89.0
Principle 2 - Ecosystem - Handline 86.3
Principle 2 - Ecosystem - Nephrops trawl 87.3
Principle 3 – Management System 90.3

Atlantic wolfish and plaice certified in 2017.

Certification Type: Silver

Sources

Credits

Burgos, J. and Ragnarsson, S.A. 2012. Examining interactions between fisheries and coral areas in Icelandic waters using fishing effort estimates at high spatial resolution, THEME C - Monitoring tools for deep-water fisheries and ecosystems. In: Ecosystem based management and monitoring in the deep Mediterranean & N. Atlantic Symposium, Galway, August 28‐31, 2012, 77 pp.http://www.conference.ie/content/EcoDeepSea_final.pdf

Chaudhury, S., Lockwood, S. 2013. Marine Stewardship Council Fishery 1st Surveillance Audit report for ISF Icelandic haddock fishery. Det Norske Veritas AS (DNV), June 2013. 31 pp http://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/fisheries-in-the-program/certified/north-east-atlantic/isf_icelandic_haddock/assessment-downloads-1/20130704_SR_HAD232.pdf

Det Norske Veritas (DNV), 2012. MSC Fishery Assessment Report Final Report for: Icelandic Group PLC. Icelandic Haddock Fishery.http://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/certified/north-east-atlantic/igp_icelandic_haddock/assessment-downloads-1/20120427_PCR.pdf

Gascoigne, J., Daníelsson, A., Marteinsdóttir, G., Powers, J.E., le Roux, L., Steingrímsson, S.A., 2014. ISF Iceland Saithe Fishery - Final Report. Vottunarstofan Tún ehf, June 2014. 382pp http://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/fisheries-in-the-program/in-assessment/north-east-atlantic/isf_icelandic_saithe/assessment-downloads-1/20140609_FR_SAI405.pdf

Gunnarsson, G. A., Gísladóttir, S., Daníelsson, A. Marteinsdóttir G., Stefánsson, G., Steingrímsson, S. 2011. Atlantic Cod, Haddock and Wolffish Handline, Longline and Danish Seine Fisheries, Public Certification Report, Marine Stewardship Council Sustainable Fisheries Assessment, Vottunarstofan Tún ehf. - Sustainable Fisheries Scheme, 292 p http://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/certified/north-east-atlantic/atlantic-cod-haddock-longline-handline-and-danish-seine/assessment-downloads-1/Public_Certification_Report_june_2011.pdf

Hall-Spencer, J. M. and Stehfest, K. M. 2009. Assessment of Lophelia pertusa reefs in the OSPAR area (draft version), Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC), OSPAR Commission, 29 pp.http://www.ospar.org/html_documents/ospar/html/p00423_at%20bdc%20revised%20version%20uk_lophelia.pdf

Hoyt, E. 2005. Habitat protection for cetaceans around the world: status and prospects. In: Marine Protected Areas for Whales, Dolphins and Porpoises: A World Handbook for Cetacean Habitat Conservation (eds E. Hoyt), 1st Edn. Earthscan, Wiltshire, pp. 87-418 http://www.google.com/books?hl=pt-PT&lr=&id=k_vKoL6mKWcC&oi=fnd&pg=PR5&dq=%22marine+protected+areas%22+iceland+2008&ots=RmXE67x8hW&sig=B2kDTxyiX5a013PPgAB3TjXAfZs#v=onepage&q=iceland&f=false

Iceland Responsible Fisheries (IRF), 2012. News: “Increased cod quota for 2012/2013”. 16 July 2012.http://www.responsiblefisheries.is/news-and-media/news/increased-cod-quota-for-2012-2013/94/

ICES, 2008. Report of the North‐Western Working Group (NWWG), 21 ‐ 29 April 2008, ICES Headquarters, Copenhagen. ICES CM 2008 /ACOM:03. 604 pp. http://www.ices.dk/reports/ACOM/2008/NWWG/NWWG08.pdf

ICES, 2009a. ICES Advice 2009, Book 2 2.4.4 Saithe in Division Va (Icelandic saithe). 7 pp.http://www.ices.dk/committe/acom/comwork/report/2009/2009/sai-icel.pdf

ICES, 2009b. Report of the North Western Working Group (NWWG), 29 April - 5 May 2009, ICES Headquarters, Copenhagen. Diane Lindemann. 22 pp. http://www.ices.dk/reports/ACOM/2009/NWWG/NWWG09.pdf

ICES, 2010. ICES Advice 2010, Book 2, 2.4.2 Saithe in Division Va (Icelandic saithe). 8 pp.http://www.ices.dk/committe/acom/comwork/report/2010/2010/sai-icel.pdf

ICES, 2011a. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee, Book 2: The Iceland and East Greenland; 2.4.4 Ecoregion: Iceland and East Greenland; Stock: Saithe in Division Va (Icelandic saithe). Advice summary for 2012, 6 pp. http://www.ices.dk/committe/acom/comwork/report/2011/2011/sai-icel.pdf

ICES, 2012a. Saithe in Division Va (Icelandic saithe). ICES Advice 2012 Book 2, 2.4.4. 8pp http://www.ices.dk/committe/acom/comwork/report/2012/2012/sai-icel.pdf

ICES, 2013a. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee, Book 2: The Iceland and East Greenland; 2.4.4 Ecoregion: Iceland and East Greenland; Stock: Saithe in Division Va (Icelandic saithe). Advice summary for 2013/2014, 7 pp.http://ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2013/2013/sai-icel.pdf

ICES, 2013b. Report of the North Western Working Group (NWWG), 25 April - 02 May 2013, ICES Headquarters, Copenhagen. ICES CM 2013/ACOM:07. 1538 pp.http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Expert%20Group%20Report/acom/2013/NWWG/NWWG%202013.pdf

ICES, 2014a. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee, Book 2: The Iceland and East Greenland; 2.4.4 Ecoregion: Iceland and East Greenland; Stock: Saithe in Division Va (Icelandic saithe). Advice summary for 2013/2014, 7 pp http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2014/2014/sai-icel.pdf

ICES, 2014b. Report of the North-Western Working Group (NWWG), 24 April-1 May 2014, ICES HQ, Copenhagen, Denmark. ICES CM 2014/ACOM:07. – Icelandic saithe: 257-280pp http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Expert%20Group%20Report/acom/2014/NWWG/10%20NWWG%20Report%20-%20Sec%2008%20Icelandic%20Saithe.pdf

ICES. 2012. Report of the North-Western Working Group (NWWG), 26 April - 3 May 2012, ICES Headquarters, Copenhagen. ICES CM 2012/ACOM:07. 1375 pp. http://www.ices.dk/reports/ACOM/2012/NWWG/Sec%2008%20Icelandic%20Saithe.pdf

IUCN 2012. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. Downloaded on 20 October 2012. http://www.iucnredlist.org

Lockwood, S., Jónsson, B., Chaudhury S. 2012. Final Report for: Icelandic Haddock Fishery. Report nº. 2011-0002. Marine Stewardship Certification February 2012, 361 pp. http://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/in-assessment/north-east-atlantic/igp-icelandic-haddock/assessment-downloads-1/20120220_final_report.pdf

Marine Conservation Society (MCS), 2012. FishOnline – Coley, Saithe [Accessed 14 August 2013] http://www.fishonline.org/fish/coley-saithe-53

Marine Research Institute (MRI), 2013. State of Marine Stocks in Icelandic Waters 2012/2013, Prospects for the Quota Year 2013/2014, pages 25-27 http://www.hafro.is/undir_eng.php?ID=26&REF=4

Marine Research Institute (MRI), undated. Fisheries management plan – Icelandic saithe [Accessed 15 August 2013] http://www.fisheries.is/main-species/codfishes/saithe/management-plan/

Vottunarstofan Tún, 2014. Surveillance Visit - Report for the ISF Icelandic Haddock fishery. 2nd Annual On-Site Surveillance Report. June 2014. 24pp http://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/fisheries-in-the-program/certified/north-east-atlantic/isf_icelandic_haddock/assessment-downloads-1/20140623_SR_HAD232.pdf

Wood LJ, 2007. MPA Global: A database of the world’s marine protected areas. Sea Around Us Project, UNEP-WCMC & WWF http://www.mpaglobal.org

References

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