This profile has recently been updated or completed. Leave a comment to provide feedback

SUMMARY

IDENTIFICATION

Last updated on 7 April 2017

SCIENTIFIC NAME(s)

Ammodytes spp.

SPECIES NAME(s)

Sandeels nei

The complete stock structure of North Sea sandeel is unclear, and although several reproductively isolated sub-populations have been identified, some exchange appears to take place between neighbouring populations in early life stages. From 2010 onwards ICES has presented advice for the North sea sandeel divided into 7 management areas, based on the assumption that this will better reflect the stock structure and enable improved management avoiding local depletion (ICES, 2010a). This profile represents the Dogger Bank area – SA1. Since 2017, the name of this management area changed to Sandeel Area 1r because of a change in the statistical rectangles (divisions 4.b–c,) included in management area (ICES, 2017).


ANALYSIS

Strengths
  • Stock assessments are now conducted separately for each of the sandeel management areas in the North Sea. The combination of a new assessment model “SMS-effort” with the specific area based approach is considered to have improved the quality of the assessment. This stock was benchmarked in 2016 and revised biologic reference points were set. The quality of the assessment is considered to be fairly good.
  • Spawning stock biomass (SSB) has been recovering from lowest values (2013-2014) and is now above the precautionary biomass level and the stock has been considered to be at “Full reproductive capacity”. Fishing mortality in recent years has been below the long-time average.
  • In recent years, EU have used real-time monitoring for setting TACs within the fishing year, explicitly taking in consideration closing areas known to be commercially depleted.
  • Misreporting in the Danish fleet has been overpassed with the introduction of the only one fishing area per trip rule.
  • Closures of depleted areas and for certain periods are used as a management measure on a local scale. Several coastal areas and zones of known deep-water coral communities in the North Sea have been closed to fishing.
  • Dogger Bank has been approved by the European Commission as a Site of Community Importance (SCI).
Weaknesses
  • Managers set the 2016 TAC above the scientific advice.
  • There are no fishing reference points defined.
  • A management plan needs to be developed.
  • Catches (2014-2016) have been overpass the set TAC.
  • Additional information on direct and indirect effects of sandeel fishery on PET species and over the seabed is needed.

FishSource Scores

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

≥ 6

Managers Compliance:

10

Fishers Compliance:

8.4

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

10

Future Health:

10


RECOMMENDATIONS

RETAILERS & SUPPLY CHAIN
  • Ensure that managers continue to set the TAC in line with scientific advice.
  • Press national fisheries administrations and the European Commission to develop an ecosystem-based, multi-annual management plan for North Sea pelagic fisheries.

    FIPS

    No related FIPs

    CERTIFICATIONS

    • DFPO and DPPO North Sea, Skagerrak and Kattegat sandeel, sprat and Norway pout:

      MSC Certified

    • Norway sandeel, pout and north sea sprat:

      MSC Full Assessment

    Fisheries

    Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

    ASSESSMENT UNIT MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
    Dogger Bank area Norway/EU North Sea SA 1 Denmark Small mesh bottom trawls
    Norway Small mesh bottom trawls

    Analysis

    OVERVIEW

    Last updated on 8 April 2017

    Strengths
    • Stock assessments are now conducted separately for each of the sandeel management areas in the North Sea. The combination of a new assessment model “SMS-effort” with the specific area based approach is considered to have improved the quality of the assessment. This stock was benchmarked in 2016 and revised biologic reference points were set. The quality of the assessment is considered to be fairly good.
    • Spawning stock biomass (SSB) has been recovering from lowest values (2013-2014) and is now above the precautionary biomass level and the stock has been considered to be at “Full reproductive capacity”. Fishing mortality in recent years has been below the long-time average.
    • In recent years, EU have used real-time monitoring for setting TACs within the fishing year, explicitly taking in consideration closing areas known to be commercially depleted.
    • Misreporting in the Danish fleet has been overpassed with the introduction of the only one fishing area per trip rule.
    • Closures of depleted areas and for certain periods are used as a management measure on a local scale. Several coastal areas and zones of known deep-water coral communities in the North Sea have been closed to fishing.
    • Dogger Bank has been approved by the European Commission as a Site of Community Importance (SCI).
    Weaknesses
    • Managers set the 2016 TAC above the scientific advice.
    • There are no fishing reference points defined.
    • A management plan needs to be developed.
    • Catches (2014-2016) have been overpass the set TAC.
    • Additional information on direct and indirect effects of sandeel fishery on PET species and over the seabed is needed.
    RECOMMENDATIONS

    Last updated on 3 September 2017

    Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain
    • Ensure that managers continue to set the TAC in line with scientific advice.
    • Press national fisheries administrations and the European Commission to develop an ecosystem-based, multi-annual management plan for North Sea pelagic fisheries.
      Denmark

      Last updated on 25 May 2017

      Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain
      • Engage and support the MSC Client Group to ensure progress towards meeting the conditions attached to the Certification.

      1.STOCK STATUS

      STOCK ASSESSMENT

      Last updated on 8 April 2017

      Since 2010, stock assessment is conducted separately for each of the sandeel management areas in the North sea. A Seasonal age based analytical model (SMS-effort), based on data from dredge surveys and total international fishing effort, is used for the assessment. According to ICES, this combination of the new assessment model “SMS-effort” with the specific area based approach have much improved the quality of the assessment, and removed retrospective bias in Fishing mortality (F) and Spawning stock Biomaass (SSB) estimates for the recent years (ICES, 2012a). The quality of the assessment is considered to be good (ICES, 2015). In 2014 and 2015 occurred some misreporting of catches taken in SA 1, but reported to SA 3 (Central Eastern North Sea). The catches and fishing effort in SA 3 were revised based on information from VMS and previous catch distributions and ICES has reallocated a total of 44,000 tonnes in 2014 and 15,000 tonnes in 2015 from SA 3 to SA 1 (ICES, 2016a).

      An ICES assessment benchmark was undertaken in November 2016 (ICES 2016). There is good confidence level in the reproductive biomass estimates as well as in the above average recruitment estimate for 2016 because occurred large densities of age 0 over a wide range of sandeel banks at the dredge survey (ICES 2017).

      SCIENTIFIC ADVICE

      Last updated on 8 April 2017

      Following the MSY approach (Escapement strategy) for a short lived species, ICES advises that the catch in 2017 should be no more than 255,956 tonnes. This will result in a Fishing mortality (F) of 0.49 in 2017. According with ICES projection, even with this approach, the Stock Spawning Biomass (SSB) in 2018 is expected to increase 5% in relation to 2017 estimate (ICES 2017). The ICES catch advice for 2017 represents a strong increase in relation to the previous year.

      ICES recommended that management measures similar to those applied in the Danish fishery, should be taken to avoid similar misreporting in the future by other countries (ICES 2017).

      A new proposed method to monitoring the sandeel fishery based on real-time monitoring was made by the Danish Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Fisheries in 2016. This method is similar to the 2012 request, however, this new method includes an option to provide TAC advice through a TAC-setting procedure that sets a TAC from the observed catch rates of age 1 sandeel in the early 2016 fishery (in the period 15 April to 6 May 2016). This proposal was reviewed by ICES and considered suitable for monitoring sandeel abundance in SA1 (ICES, 2016b).

      REFERENCE POINTS

      Last updated on 8 April 2017

      The biologic reference points of this stock were revised in the stock assessment benchmark undertaken in November 2016 (ICES 2016). Reference points for fishing mortality have not been defined for this stock yet.

      Biomass reference points:

      MSY Approach: A MSY Bescapement has been defined at 145,000 tonnes (= Bpa). ICES introduced a ceiling on Fishing mortality (F) level on the escapement strategy  to ensure the ICES precautionary criterion (probability of Spawning Stock biomass (SSB)  being below Blim is ≤ 5%) is met. The value of Fcap was defined at Fcap=0.49.

      Precautionary approach (PA): Lower limit threshold biological reference point, Blim, has been defined at 110,000 tonnes, corresponding to lowest SSB at which a high recruitment is observed. Bpa has been defined at 145,000 tonnes (ICES 2017).

      CURRENT STATUS

      Last updated on 8 April 2017

      The stock is considered to be at “Above escapement trigger/ Full reproductive capacity”. The spawning stock biomass (SSB) is estimated at around 222 thousand tonnes (ICES 2017). In 2017, the reproductive biomass devresase 41% in relation to 2016 but it is still well above the precautionary biomass level (Bpa = MSY Bescapement). Recruitment in 2015 was one of the lowest estimates of the time-series but recruitment in 2016 was above-average (ICES 2017). Fishing mortality (F) is below long-term average and in 2016 was the lowest value estimate of the time-series. Due the TAC limitations, catches values in recent years have been the lowest of the historical series.  

      TRENDS

      Last updated on 8 April 2017

      Spawning Stock Biomass (SSB) was around or below Blim between 2000 and 2006, and reached its lowest value in 2004. From 2004 to 2010, the reproductive biomass (SSB) has showed an increasing trend (being above Bpa between 2008-2012), but between 2013 and 2015 SSB droped as a result of poor recruitments. In the last two years, the SSB has been recovering and is now above the precautionary biomass level. Fishing mortality decreased until 2005 from a high level in 2002 and has been fluctuating around 0.5 since, except in 2012 when the lowest F (= 0.1) of the historical series was observed (ICES, 2013a). Recruitment was very low in both 2010 and 2011, but has improved in 2012 (ICES, 2013a). Higher value of catches was observed in 2002, about 600,000 tonnes (ICES, 2015b) and the lower catch was observed in 2016 due to TAC constrains.

      2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

      MANAGERS' DECISIONS

      Last updated on 5 August 2017

      Following scientific advice, since 2011 separated quotas are defined for each of the seven management areas. EU has been using a real-time monitoring for setting TACs (more information at Scientific Advice section). For 2016, ICES advised catches in the Dogger bank area (SA1) should not exceed 5,000 tonnes.  However, the TAC for this management area was 13,000 tonnes due to a request by Denmark to conduct real-time monitoring to better estimate stock status. The amending regulation COUNCIL REGULATION (EU) 2016/89 recognized that the catch limit in SA1 should be reduced 8,000 tonnes from the initial set TAC (13,000 tonnes). However, due a commitment made by Denmark prior to this regulation, it was established that this reduction should be operated in respect of Denmark's subquota in management area 3, which resulted in the final TAC for SA1 being maintained at 13,000 tonnes (well above the advised by ICES for this area). The stakeholders considered the 2016 Real-Time Monitoring (RTM) TAC small to provide sufficient coverage of the stock area in that year (ICES 2017). For 2017, European Commission 2017 set the TAC and quotas provisionally at zero before ICES scientific advice has been released. The Council Regulation (EU) 2017/1398 established the final TAC value for Dogger Bank (SA 1r) in 2017 and follows the scientific advice (256 thousand tonnes).

      Temporal closures, from January 1st – March 31st and from August 1st – December 31st, apply to all management areas for towed gears with a mesh size less than 16 mm (e.g. European Commission 2017). No specific management plan is known for this fishery (ICES 2017).

      As of 1 January 2015, the landing obligation applies also to fisheries for industrial purposes (e.g. fisheries for capelin, sandeel and Norwegian pout) (Article 15 of Regulation (EU) No 1380/2013; Regulation (EU) No 2015/104).

      To avoid area misreporting, only one fishing area per trip is mandatory for the Danish fishery since 2015 (ICES, 2016a).

      RECOVERY PLANS

      Last updated on 8 April 2016

      No management plan are in place. However, EU has been using a real-time monitoring for setting TACs.

      COMPLIANCE

      Last updated on 8 April 2017

      Prior to 2010 set TACs referred to the entire North Sea area (which encompasses the zone IIIa, EC waters of Division IIa and Subarea IV). Historically compliance has been strong in the North Sea sandeel fishery; with the exception of 2007 and 2010, overall landings in the North Sea have not surpassed set TACs in recent years (ICES, 2013a).

      For the Dogger Bank area specifically, landings have considerably surpassed the TAC in 2012, 2014, 2015 and 2016. A total of 164,770 tonnes of sandeel were landed in 2015, well above the set TAC for this management area (133,000 tonnes). In 2016, landings (12,751 tonnes) no overpassed the total TAC (13,000 tonnes). IWith the reformulation of the management area into SA 1r,  the total catch estimate for this area in 2016 (14,316 tonnes) it was higher than the previous area SA 1. Discards are considered to be negligible (ICES 2017).

      In the past, misreporting occurred of catches taken in SA 1, but reported to SA 3 (Central Eastern North Sea) which ICES has reallocated a total of 44,000 tonnes in 2014 and 15,000 tonnes in 2015 from SA 3 to SA 1. This situation seems to be due the management system operated with individual vessel quotas by sandeel area (SA), which created the incentive and opportunity for misreporting through allocating small shares to vessels in the low TAC areas (ICES, 2015). Management measures adopted in 2015 (only one fishing area per trip) eliminated the misreporting issue for Danish catches. However, this situation seems to occur for other nations which ICES recommends that similar management measures should be implemented (ICES, 2016a).

      3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

      ETP SPECIES

      Last updated on 4 May 2016

      In the North Sea ecosystem, sandeel is considered a very important prey species for a variety of predators, including fish, marine mammals and seabirds. In general, fishing on sandeel aggregations at a distance less than 100 km from seabird colonies has been found to affect some surface feeding bird species, especially kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla; IUCN, 2012: “Least Concern”) and sandwich tern (Sterna sandvicensis; IUCN, 2012: “Least Concern”) (ICES, 2010a; ICES, 2010d). There are some concerns that the industrial fishery may indirectly impact predatory fishes by depriving them of food (Engelhard et al., 2008; Cook et al., 2014). According to Daunt et al. (2008), years of bad recruitment in sandeels have led to poor breeding success in seabirds (e.g., little tern and black-legged kittiwakes) that feed mainly the 0-group cohorts. Fish and mobile marine mammals’ populations are assumed to be less vulnerable to local sandeel depletion (ICES, 2010c). Bycatch of protected species occurs on a small scale (ICES, 2008a), but recent data on the dimension of these direct impacts are not available.

      OTHER TARGET AND BYCATCH SPECIES

      Last updated on 8 April 2017

      Sandeel catches include several Ammodytoidei species but consist largely of Ammodytes marinus. At some of the grounds in the Dogger Bank area the smooth sandeel Gymnammodytes semisquamatus can be important (ICES, 2007c). The levels of bycatch in the sandeel fishery are considered to be very low. In years with low abundance of sandeel, bycatches of sprat, herring, mackerel and whiting may occur, however in recent years, those species represented less than 1% of sandeel (Scheveningen Group, 2014). Heath et al. (2014) alerts for possible ecological effects of eliminating fishery discards.

      Sandeel fishing effort on the Dogger Bank is concentrated when and where sandeels are most available and where, in turn, they are locally preyed upon by at least 10 predatory fish species (e.g. (e.g. e dab, whiting, lesser weever and grey gurnard), including 8 commercially important ‘human consumption’ species. Therefore, concerns that industrial sandeel fishery may indirectly impact predatory fishes by depriving them of a high-quality prey species might have some basis (Engelhard et al., 2008).

      HABITAT

      Last updated on 8 April 2017

      Sandeels are the principal species targeted by the small fish bottom trawl fishery in which small meshed-gear is used (i.e. trawls with mesh sizes < 16 mm) (ICES, 2007b,c, 2008a). Bottom trawling can have significant impacts on benthic communities and habitats and this has been shown to have occurred effectively in several parts of the North Sea in the past (Hiddink et al., 2006; Callaway et al., 2007). ). Seabed habitats in the North Sea and the distribution of trawling activities have been mapped to some extent. However, specific research on the impact of the sandeel trawl fishery on bottom habitats is scarce

      Sandeel distribution is mainly influenced by the availability of suitable substrates for settlement and burrowing (Lancaster et al., 2014). The distribution of sandeels in the North Sea is very patchy and their most common habitat are the tidal sandbanks. Tagging studies indicated that once settled on the seabed, sandeels remain settled within a small area which means that local aggregations may be easily depleted (JNCC, 2014).

      Several coastal areas and zones of known deep-water coral communities in the North Sea have been closed to fishing, in order to protect both benthic communities/habitats and juvenile demersal fish (OSPAR, 2009).

      Besides fishery, there are other factors that influence the sandeels stocks. Eigaard et al (2014) mentioned cannibalism on sandeels larvaes: however, this behaviour may not only be a key factor in explaining recruitment fluctuations in North Sea sandeel stocks. A recent study of Deurs et al., (2015) suggested that changes in prey quality induced by climate change or other factors can have major implications for growth, survival, and reproduction of zooplanktivorous fish. This author mentioned that a shift from large energy-rich Calanus copepods to smaller non-diapausing copepod species will impact the specific growth potential of sandeels. Also, Wright et al.  (2017) suggests that the rising of sea water temperature could have impacts on the reproductive investment of this species. There is also spatial differences in the growth of the sandeels in the North Sea: mean length at age is higher in central/north eastern fishing grounds (Rindorf et al. 2016).

      MARINE RESERVES

      Last updated on 8 April 2017

      Closures of depleted areas and for certain periods are used as a management measure on a local scale. Since 2004, the sandeel fishery in the Norwegian EEZ is restricted to the April 1 – June 23 period. In 2017, the Norwegian fishery starts early (15th April).  The EU sandeel fishery fishing season runs from April 1st to July 31st.

      In 2003, a joint ministerial meeting of the Helsinki and OSPAR commission (JMM), agreed to establish a Network of Marine Protected Areas (MPA) in the Northeast Atlantic (OSPAR Commission, 2011). In 2010, the OSPAR Network of MPAs included a portion of the Dogger Bank area (OSPAR, 2010). The UK Government has submitted the Dogger Bank to the European Commission to be included within the European ‘Natura 2000’ network of protected areas. Dogger Bank has now been approved by the European Commission as a Site of Community Importance. The site is candidate Special Area of Conservation (see more detailed information).

      North Sea Regional Advisory Council’s (NSRAC) developed a zoning plan of fisheries management measures to submit to ICES and ultimately to the European Commission by the end of 2012 to take fisheries management measures for the Dogger Bank under the Common Fisheries Policy (CFP)(NSRAC, 2012).

      FishSource Scores

      Last updated on 5 August 2017

      SELECT SCORES

      MANAGEMENT QUALITY

      As calculated for 2017 data.

      The score is ≥ 6.

      Since 2011, ICES bases the advice on the MSY approach, allowing for sufficient stock (MSY Bescapement) to remain for successful recruitment. No formal management plan is in place, but in recent years EU have used real-time monitoring for setting TACs within the fishing year, explicitly taking in consideration closing areas known to be commercially depleted.

      As calculated for 2017 data.

      The score is 10.0.

      This measures the Set TAC as a percentage of the Advised TAC.

      The Set TAC is 256 ('000 t). The Advised TAC is 256 ('000 t) .

      The underlying Set TAC/Advised TAC for this index is 100%.

      As calculated for 2016 data.

      The score is 8.4.

      This measures the Catch as a percentage of the Set TAC.

      The Catch is 14.3 ('000 t). The Set TAC is 13.0 ('000 t) .

      The underlying Catch/Set TAC for this index is 110%.

      STOCK HEALTH:

      As calculated for 2017 data.

      The score is 10.0.

      This measures the SSB as a percentage of the B=Bmsy.

      The SSB is 222 ('000 t). The B=Bmsy is 145 .

      The underlying SSB/B=Bmsy for this index is 153%.

      As calculated for 2016 data.

      The score is 10.0.

      This measures the F as a percentage of the F management limit.

      The F is 0.0260 (age-averaged). The F management limit is 0.490 .

      The underlying F/F management limit for this index is 5.31%.

      HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSE RISK

      High Medium Low

      This indicates the potential risk of human rights abuses for all fisheries operating within this stock or assessment unit. If there are more than on risk level noted, individual fisheries have different levels. Click on the "Select Scores" drop-down list for your fisheries of interest.

      No data available for recruitment
      DATA NOTES

      1) From 2010 onwards ICES presented advice for the North Sea sandeel divided into 7 management areas, based on the assumption that this will better reflect the stock structure and enable improved management avoiding local depletions (ICES, 2010a).  

      2) This profile refers to the central and southern North Sea, Dogger Bank Area – SA1r.

      3) Advised TAC (256 thousand tonnes) is based on the ICES MSY approach (ICES, 2017). 

      4) The Council Regulation (EU) 2017/1398 established the final TAC value for Dogger Bank (SA 1r) in 2017 and follows the scientific advice (256 thousand tonnes).

      5) Spawning Stock Biomass (SSB) estimate for 2017 was calculated using mean weight-at-age from 2012 to 2016 and proportion mature from December 2016 (ICES, 2017).

      6) The Fishing mortality (F) management target here is taken as the defined reference point Fcap=0.49, the ceiling fishing mortality (upper limit).

      7) Catches are represented as the ICES estimated catches for the SA1r area. Catches for 2016 are preliminary. 

      Download Source Data

      Registered users can download the original data file for calculating the scores after logging in. If you wish, you can Register now.

      Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

      No related FIPs

      Certifications

      Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

      SELECT MSC

      NAME

      DFPO and DPPO North Sea, Skagerrak and Kattegat sandeel, sprat and Norway pout

      STATUS

      MSC Certified on 17 March 2017

      SCORES

        Sandeel Sprat  Pout  
      Principle Trawl   Trawl     Purse seines

      Trawl

      Principle 1 - Target Species 82.3 84.4 81.3
      Principle 2 - Ecosystem 82.3 82.3 85.0 82.3
      Principle 3 - Management System 87.5

      Certification Type: Silver

      Sources

      Credits
      1. Bergman, M.J.N., and van Santbrink, J. W. 2000. Mortality in megafaunal benthic populations caused by trawl fisheries on the Dutch continental shelf in the North Sea in 1994. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 57: 1321–1331.Bergman_and_Santbrink_impact_trawl_North_Sea_IJMS_2000.pdf
      2. Callaway, R., Engelhard, G.H., Dann, J., Cotter, J. and Rumohr, H., 2007. A century of North Sea epibenthos and trawling: comparison between 1902-1912, 1982-1985 and 2000. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 346: 27-43.http://www.int-res.com/articles/meps_oa/m346p027.pdf
      3. Cook, Aonghais S.C.P., Dadam, D., Mitchell, I., Ross-Smith, V.H., Robinson, R.A., 2014. Indicators of seabird reproductive performance demonstrate the impact of commercial fisheries on seabird populations in the North Sea.Ecological Indicators 38:1-11http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1470160X13003981
      4. Council Regulation (EU) No 2016/72 of 22 January 2016 fixing for 2016 the fishing opportunities for certain fish stocks and groups of fish stocks, applicable in Union waters and, for Union fishing vessels, in certain non-Union waters, and amending Regulation (EU) 2015/104. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:32016R0072&from=EN
      5. Council Regulation (EU) No 297/2013 of 27 March 2013 amending Regulations (EU) No 44/2012, (EU) No 39/2013 and (EU) No 40/2013 as regards certain fishing opportunities.http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2013:090:0010:0047:EN:PDF
      6. Daunt, F., Wanless, S., Greenstreet, S.P.R., Jensen, H., Hamer, K.C. & Harris, M.P., 2008. The impact of the sandeel fishery closure in the northwestern North Sea on seabird food consumption, distribution and productivity. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 65: 362-381https://core.ac.uk/download/files/79/62542.pdf
      7. Deurs, M.,Jørgensen, C., Fiksen, Ø., 2015. Effects of copepod size on fish growth: a model based on data for North Sea sandeel. Marine Ecology Progress Series.520: 235–243.http://www.int-res.com/articles/meps_oa/m520p235.pdf
      8. Eigaard, O.R., Deurs, M., Behrens, J.W., Bekkevold, D., Brander, K., Plambech, M., Plet-Hansen, K.S., Mosegaard, H., 2014. Prey or predator—expanding the food web role of sandeel Ammodytes marinus. Marine Ecology Progress Series 516:267-273doi:10.3354/meps11064http://www.int-res.com/abstracts/meps/v516/p267-273/
      9. Engelhard, G.H.,van der Kooij, J.,Bell, E.D., Pinnegar, J.K., Blanchard, J.L., Mackinson, S., Righton, D.A., 2008. Fishing mortality versus natural predation on diurnally migrating sandeels Ammodytes marinus. Marine Ecology Progress Series, Vol. 369: 213–227http://www.int-res.com/articles/meps2008/369/m369p213.pdf
      10. European Commission (EC), 2011a. Council Regulation (EC) No 57/2011 of 18 January 2011, fixing for 2011 the fishing opportunities for certain fish stocks and groups of fish stocks, applicable in EU waters and, for EU vessels, in certain non-EU waters. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2011:024:0001:0125:EN:PDF
      11. European Commission (EC), 2011b. Council Regulation (EC) No 476/2011 of 17 May 2011, amending Council Regulation (EU) No 57/2011 as regards catch limits for the fisheries on sandeel in EU waters of ICES zones IIa, IIIa and IV.http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2011:131:0012:0013:EN:PDF
      12. European Commission (EC), 2012a. Council Regulation (EU) No 44/2012 of 17 January 2012, fixing for 2012 the fishing opportunities available in EU waters and, to EU vessels, in certain non- EU waters for certain fish stocks and groups of fish stocks which are subject to international negotiations or agreements.http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2012:025:0055:0147:EN:PDF
      13. European Commission (EC), 2012b. Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) No 368/2012 of 27 April 2012 amending Council Regulation (EU) No 44/2012 fixing for 2012 the fishing opportunities available in EU waters and, to EU vessels, in certain non-EU waters for certain fish stocks and groups of fish stocks which are subject to international negotiations or agreement.http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2012:116:0017:0018:EN:PDF
      14. European Commission (EC), 2013a. Council Regulation (EU) No 40/2013 of 21 January 2013 fixing for 2013 the fishing opportunities available in EU waters and, to EU vessels, in certain non- EU waters for certain fish stocks and groups of fish stocks which are subject to international negotiations or agreements.http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2013:023:0054:0153:EN:PDF
      15. Greenstreet S., Armstrong E., Mosegaard H., Jensen H., Gibb I., Fraser H., Scott B., Holland G. and Sharples J. 2006. Variation in the abundance of sandeels Ammodyes marinus off southeast Scotland: an evaluation of area-closure fisheries management and stock abundance assessment methods. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 63: 1530 - 1550.Greenstreet_et_al_ICES_J_M_Sci_2006.pdf
      16. Hiddink J.G, Kennings S., and Kaiser, M.J., 2006. Indicators of the ecological impact of bottom-trawl disturbance on seabed communities. Ecosystems, 9: 1190-1199. Hiddink_et_al._Ecosystems.pdf
      17. ICES, 2007a. Report of the Working Group on the Assessment of Demersal Stocks in the North Sea and Skagerrak – Combined Spring and Autumn (WGNSSK); 4 – Sandeel in IV. 66 p.04-Sandeel__WGNSSK_Sep_07_.pdf
      18. ICES, 2007b. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee on Fishery Management, Book 6 – North Sea, section 6.4.24 – Sandeel in subarea IV. 12 p.san-nsea_advice07.pdf
      19. ICES, 2007c. North Sea sandeel Quality Handbook. In Report of the Working Group on the Assessment of Demersal Stocks in the North Sea and Skagerrak – Combined Spring and Autumn (WGNSSK) – Annex 2 (Stock Annexes). 04-Sandeel__WGNSSK_Sep_07__-_ANNEXES.pdf
      20. ICES. 2008a. Report of the Working Group on the Assessment of Demersal Stocks in the North Sea and Skagerrak – Combined Spring and Autumn (WGNSSK), 7–13 May 2008 (ICES CM 008/ACOM:09).http://www.ices.dk/products/icesadvice/2008/ICES%20ADVICE%202008%20Book%206.pdf
      21. ICES. 2008b. Report of the Ad Hoc Group on Sandeel (AGSAN), 25 ‐ 30 August 2008, ICES Headquarters, Copenhagen. Diane. 68 pp. http://www.ices.dk/reports/ACOM/2008/AGSAN/AGSAN08.pdf
      22. ICES, 2009a. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee. Book 6: North Sea. 6.4.22 Sandeel in Subarea IV excluding the Shetland area.http://www.ices.dk/committe/acom/comwork/report/2009/2009/san-nsea.pdf
      23. ICES, 2009b. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee. Book 6: North Sea. 6.4.23 Sandeel in Division IVa North of 59ºN and West of 0ºE (Shetland area).http://www.ices.dk/committe/acom/comwork/report/2009/2009/san-shet.pdf
      24. ICES, 2009c. Report of the Ad hoc group on Sandeel – II, 19-21 October 2009, Copenhagen, Denmark. ICES Advisory Committee (ICES CM 2009\ACOM:51).http://www.ices.dk/reports/ACOM/2009/AGSAN/AGSAN-2%20report%202009.pdf
      25. ICES, 2009d. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee. Book 6: North Sea. 6.3.3.1 EC and Norway request on in-year management advice for sandeel in the North Sea http://www.ices.dk/committe/acom/comwork/report/2009/Special%20Requests/EC%20Norway%20in-year%20management%20advice%20for%20Sandeels-2009.pdf
      26. ICES, 2010a. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee. Book 6: North Sea. 6.4.21 Sandeel in Division IIIa and Subarea IV.http://www.ices.dk/committe/acom/comwork/report/2010/2010/san-34.pdf
      27. ICES, 2010b. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee. Book 6: North Sea. 6.3.3.1 EC request on in-year management advice for sandeel in the North Seahttp://www.ices.dk/committe/acom/comwork/report/2010/Special%20Requests/EC%20in-year%20management%20advice%20for%20sandeel.pdf
      28. ICES, 2010c. Report of the Working Group on the Assessment of Demersal Stocks in the North Sea and Skagerrak (WGNSSK), 5 -11 May 2010, ICES Headquarters, Copenhagen (ICES CM 2010/ACOM:13). 1058 pp.http://www.ices.dk/reports/ACOM/2010/WGNSSK/WGNSSK%202010.pdf
      29. ICES, 2010d. Report of the Benchmark Workshop on Sandeel (WKSAN), 6–10 September 2010, Copenhagen, Denmark (ICES CM 2010/ACOM:57). 201 pp.http://www.ices.dk/reports/ACOM/2010/WKSAN/wksan_2010.pdf
      30. ICES, 2011a. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee. Book 6: North Sea. 6.4.21 Sandeel in Division IIIa and Subarea IV.http://www.ices.dk/committe/acom/comwork/report/2011/2011/san-34.pdf
      31. ICES, 2011b. Report of the Working Group on the Assessment of Demersal Stocks in the North Sea and Skagerrak (WGNSSK Feb. 2011); 4 – Sandeel in IV. 95 pp.http://www.ices.dk/reports/ACOM/2011/WGNSSK/Sec%2004%20Sandeel.pdf
      32. ICES, 2012a. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee. Book 6: North Sea. 6.4.21 Sandeel in Division IIIa and Subarea IV.http://www.ices.dk/committe/acom/comwork/report/2012/2012/san-34.pdf
      33. ICES, 2012b. Report of the Working Group on the Assessment of Demersal Stocks in the North Sea and Skagerrak (WGNSSK), 27 April - 3 May 2012, ICES Headquarters, Copenhagen. ICES CM 2012/ACOM:13. 1346 pp.http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Expert%20Group%20Report/acom/2012/WGNSSK/WGNSSK%202012.pdf
      34. ICES, 2012c. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee. Book 6: North Sea. 6.3.3.1 Sandeel real-time monitoring assessment. Special request, Advice May 2012. 7 pp.http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2012/Special%20Requests/EC_Sandeel_Real_Time_Monitoring_assessment.pdf
      35. ICES, 2013a. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee. Book 6: North Sea. 6.4.21 Sandeel in Division IIIa and Subarea IV. Advice February 2013. 33 pp.http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2013/2013/san-34.pdf
      36. ICES, 2014a. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee. Book 6: North Sea. 6.4.22. Sandeel in Division IIIa and Subarea IV. Advice s for 2014. 33 pphttp://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2014/2014/san_34.pdf
      37. ICES, 2015b. Report of the Herring Assessment Working Group for the Area South of 62° N. Sec. 11 Sandeel in IV and IIIa (HAWG Feb. 2015). 116pp http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Expert%20Group%20Report/acom/2015/HAWG/13%20HAWG%20Report%20-%20Sec%2011%20Sandeel%20in%20IV.pdf
      38. ICES, 2015. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee. Book 6: North Sea. 6.3.42. Sandeel (Ammodytes spp.) in Divisions IVb and IVc, SA 1 (central and south North Sea, Dogger Bank)ICES Advice on fishing opportunities, catch and effort Greater North Sea Ecoregion. 8 pp http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2015/2015/san-ns1.pdf
      39. ICES, 2016a. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee. ICES Advice on fishing opportunities, catch and effort Greater North Sea Ecoregion. 6.3.41 Sandeel (Ammodytes spp.) in Divisions 4b and 4c, SA 1 (Central and South North Sea, Dogger Bank) http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2016/2016/san-ns1.pdf
      40. ICES, 2016b. ICES Special Request Advice Greater North Sea Ecoregion. 6.2.3.1 Danish request regarding real-time monitoring for sandeel in Divisions 4b and 4c, SA 1 (Central and South North Sea, Dogger Bank).http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2016/Special_Requests/Denmark_RealTimeMonitoring.pdf
      41. IUCN, 2012. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. Downloaded on 18 February 2012.http://www.iucnredlist.org
      42. JNCC, 2014. Scottish MPA Project – Fisheries Management Guidance. Sandeels (Ammodytes marinus and A. tobianus). July 2014. 5pp http://jncc.defra.gov.uk/pdf/Sandeels_Fisheries_Management_Guidance_v2_0_July14.pdf
      43. Lancaster, J. (Ed.), McCallum, S., Lowe A.C., Taylor, E., Chapman A. & Pomfret, J.,2014. Development of detailed ecological guidance to support the application of the Scottish MPA selection guidelines in Scotland’s seas. Scottish Natural Heritage Commissioned Report No.491. Sandeels – supplementary documenthttp://www.snh.gov.uk/docs/A1211586.pdf
      44. MFCA, 2010. Agreed Record of Fisheries Consultations between Norway and the European Union for 2011, Bergen, 4 December 2010. Ministry of Fisheries and Coastal Affairs.http://www.regjeringen.no/upload/FKD/Vedlegg/Kvoteavtaler/2011/EU/Final-Agreed_record-North_Sea-2011.pdf
      45. NSRAC, 2012.Final Position Paper April 2012. Fisheries management in relation to nature conservation for the combined area of 3 national Natura 2000 sites (SACs) on the Dogger Bank. The North Sea Regional Advisory Council. April 2012. 31pphttp://nsrac.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/07/NSRAC-1112-7-2012-04-09-Dogger-Bank-SACs-Position-Paper-FINAL.pdf
      46. OSPAR, 2009. OSPAR assessment of the environmental impact of fishing. Publ. no. 465/2009. OSPAR Commission. 89 pp.http://qsr2010.ospar.org/media/assessments/p00465_JAMP_QSR_fisheries_assessment.pdf
      47. OSPAR, 2010. 2009/10 Status Report on the OSPAR Network of Marine Protected Areas. Publ. no. 493/2010. OSPAR Commission: Biodiversity Series. 61 pp.http://www.ospar.org/documents/dbase/publications/p00493_Status%20report%20MPAs.pdf
      48. OSPAR Commission, 2011. OSPAR Network of Marine Protected Areas. [Assessed on 09 June 2011].http://www.ospar.org/
      49. Regjeringen, 2010. Agreed Record of Conclusions of Fisheries Consultations between the European Union and Norway for 2010, Brussels, 26 January 2010.http://www.regjeringen.no/upload/FKD/Vedlegg/Kvoteavtaler/2010/EU/fiskeriavtale%20Norge%20EU.pdf
      50. Regulation (EU) No 1380/2013 ofthe European Parliament and the Council of 11 December 2013 on the Common Fisheries Policy, amending Council Regulations (EC) No 1954/2003 and (EC) No 1224/2009 and repealing Council Regulations (EC) No 2371/2002 and (EC) No 639/2004 and Council Decision 2004/585/EC. Official Journal of the European Union 28.12.2013.http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:32013R1380&from=EN
      51. Regulation (EU) No 43/2014 of 20 January 2014 fixing for 2014 the fishing opportunities for certain fish stocks and groups of fish stocks, applicable in Union waters and, to Union vessels, in certain non-Union waters . Official Journal of the European Union.http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2014:024:0001:0145:EN:PDF
      52. Scheveningen Group, 2014. Joint recommendation of the Scheveningen Group Discard plan for the industrial fisheries in Kattegat, Skagerrak and the North Sea. http://www.nsrac.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/07/Sch-Ind-Fish-NS-final-2014-07-17.pdf
      References

        Comments

        This tab will disappear in 5 seconds.

        Comments on:

        Sandeels nei - Dogger Bank area

        comments powered by Disqus