Profile updated on 13 July 2019

SUMMARY

SUMMARY

IDENTIFICATION

SCIENTIFIC NAME(s)

Sprattus sprattus

SPECIES NAME(s)

European sprat

COMMON NAMES

Sprat

Previous attempts to identify different populations of European sprat during the 1980-1990s were unsuccessful (Nielsen 1994). Gulf of Lyon and the Adriatic Sea populations have the “biggest genetic distance” within the Mediterranean and any population differentiation was found between the Baltic Sea, the North Sea and the Bay of Biscay (Debes et al. 2008). Genetic analysis showed a clear genetic distinction from the NE Atlantic Ocean and the Baltic Sea and a high differentiation of the Adriatic Sea population from all northern samples (Limborg et al. 2012). More recently, a “complex population structure is considered across the species’ distribution” (Limborg et al. 2012). Nevertheless ICES recommends further studies to clarify this structure (e.g. apparent overlap between North Sea and English Channel spratts). This propfile considers only Baltic sprat in subdivisions 22-32.   


ANALYSIS

Strengths
  • An EU multiannual plan (MAP) for the stocks of cod, herring and sprat in the Baltic Sea was established in 2016. ICES advice is based on this MAP and is considered precautionary.
  • Spawning stock biomass has been well above the target reference point in the last years and has increased since 2014.
  • Specific management measures are incoporated in the MAP in cases where SSB is below the limit reference point.
  • Around 11% of the marine and coastal areas are currently being protected by the network of Baltic Sea Protected Areas. 
Weaknesses
  • The current multiannual plan does not include Russia. 
  • The retrospective pattern of over-estimating SSB and under-estimating F increases uncertainty.
  • Fishing mortality is above FMSY currently and historically
  • Quotas are generally set slightly higher than advised
  • A spatial management plan must consider prey availability for cod in light of fishing pressure on sprat and other Clupeids in the Baltic Sea.
  • Then last benchmark was in 2013, fairly old for a short lived stock such as sprat
  • There is a species misreporting issue which may affect the quality of the assessment.
  • Gillnetters, especially the smaller ones that usually operate closer to the shore occasionally can have rather big number of birds in the nets.

FISHSOURCE SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

≥ 8

Managers Compliance:

9.9

Fishers Compliance:

9.8

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

10

Future Health:

7.1


RECOMMENDATIONS

RETAILERS & SUPPLY CHAIN
  • Work with managers to develop a stock-wide, spatially explicit management plan for the fisheries that catch Baltic sprat (including Russia), ensuring there are adequate amounts of sprat in all areas to serve as prey for cod stocks and other ecosystem needs.
  • Ensure catch and discard data collection and reporting are adequate to support the stock assessment, including addressing species misidentification.
  • Bycatch data collection and reporting should include interactions with birds and mammals, especially for the gillnet fleet.
  • A new benchmark stock assessment is needed which should address uncertainties due to retrospective overestimation of spawning stock biomass and underestimation of fishing mortality. 
  • Ensure future TACs are set in accordance with scientific advice.
  • Ensure these recommendations are represented to the EU Pelagic Advisory Council (https://www.pelagic-ac.org/) directly or through one of the General Assembly members. 

FIPS

No related FIPs

CERTIFICATIONS

  • LFPO pelagic trawl sprat (Sprattus sprattus):

    MSC Certified

  • NZRO Gulf of Riga herring and sprat trawl fishery:

    MSC Full Assessment

  • SPPO Baltic herring and sprats:

    Withdrawn

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

ASSESSMENT UNIT MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
Baltic Sea EU Denmark Midwater trawls
Estonia Midwater trawls
Finland Midwater trawls
Germany Midwater trawls
Latvia Single boat midwater otter trawls
Lithuania Midwater trawls
Poland Midwater trawls
Sweden Midwater trawls
Russia Russian Federation Midwater trawls

Analysis

OVERVIEW

Last updated on 19 July 2019

Strengths
  • An EU multiannual plan (MAP) for the stocks of cod, herring and sprat in the Baltic Sea was established in 2016. ICES advice is based on this MAP and is considered precautionary.
  • Spawning stock biomass has been well above the target reference point in the last years and has increased since 2014.
  • Specific management measures are incoporated in the MAP in cases where SSB is below the limit reference point.
  • Around 11% of the marine and coastal areas are currently being protected by the network of Baltic Sea Protected Areas. 
Weaknesses
  • The current multiannual plan does not include Russia. 
  • The retrospective pattern of over-estimating SSB and under-estimating F increases uncertainty.
  • Fishing mortality is above FMSY currently and historically
  • Quotas are generally set slightly higher than advised
  • A spatial management plan must consider prey availability for cod in light of fishing pressure on sprat and other Clupeids in the Baltic Sea.
  • Then last benchmark was in 2013, fairly old for a short lived stock such as sprat
  • There is a species misreporting issue which may affect the quality of the assessment.
  • Gillnetters, especially the smaller ones that usually operate closer to the shore occasionally can have rather big number of birds in the nets.
RECOMMENDATIONS

Last updated on 11 July 2019

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain
  • Work with managers to develop a stock-wide, spatially explicit management plan for the fisheries that catch Baltic sprat (including Russia), ensuring there are adequate amounts of sprat in all areas to serve as prey for cod stocks and other ecosystem needs.
  • Ensure catch and discard data collection and reporting are adequate to support the stock assessment, including addressing species misidentification.
  • Bycatch data collection and reporting should include interactions with birds and mammals, especially for the gillnet fleet.
  • A new benchmark stock assessment is needed which should address uncertainties due to retrospective overestimation of spawning stock biomass and underestimation of fishing mortality. 
  • Ensure future TACs are set in accordance with scientific advice.
  • Ensure these recommendations are represented to the EU Pelagic Advisory Council (https://www.pelagic-ac.org/) directly or through one of the General Assembly members. 
Latvia
Single boat midwater otter trawls

Last updated on 11 July 2019

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain
  • Monitor the performance of the fishery and its management to ensure the fishery continues to be eligible for condition-free MSC re-certification.

1.STOCK STATUS

STOCK ASSESSMENT

Last updated on 17 June 2019

This stock is assessed using an Extended Survival Analysis (XSA); an age-structured hind-casting model which uses catch-at-age, two acoustic surveys (BASS and BIAS), natural mortalities from the multispecies model (SMS) and regression of predation mortality against eastern Baltic cod spawning stock biomass (ICES 2019). Discards are not included as they are considered negligible (ICES 2019). This stock was last benchmarked in 2013 (ICES 2013). Data quality is general good, but mis-identification of  other Clupeids in the catch is an uncertainty (ICES 2019)

The most difficult aspect of the assessment is the ongoing and persistent retrospective pattern, which over-estimates stock size and under-estimates F relative to the terminal year (ICES 2019). While some reasons for this pattern have been put forth by ICES, the cause remains uncertain (ICES 2019). An additional source of uncertainty is species misreporting, which maybe affecting the quality of the assessment (ICES 2019).

SCIENTIFIC ADVICE

Last updated on 17 June 2019

ICES provides advice according to the EU multiannual plan (MAP) established in 2016 (EU 2016). As stated above three quotas are derived; one using Flower, one using Fupper, and one using FMSY.  Both Flower and Fupper result in no more than 5% reduction in long-term yield compared with MSY (EU 2016). Catches higher that those calculated using FMSY are only allowable if SSB> MSY Btrigger according to the MAP. ICES consideres the whole range as precautionary (ICES 2019)

Catch advice for 2020 has been lowered by 25% from 2019 levels due to the ageing of the strong 2014 year class. Recruitment in years since 2014 has been average to below average (ICES 2019). However, it should be noted that the retrospective uncertainty has not been accounted for in ICES advice.

There is a large spatial difference been where sprat are available compared with the forage needs of important predators such as cod (ICES 2019). Therefore, ICES also recommends that a spatial management plan is developed for the fisheries that catch sprat, with the aim to improve cod condition (ICES 2018)(ICES 2019).

CURRENT STATUS

Last updated on 17 June 2019

Catches have ranged around 250,000 tonnes since 2011 (ICES 2019) with the exception of the most recent two years which have seen them near or over 300,000 tonnes. SSB has been stable at around 1.17 million tonnes since 2016. SSB is currently well above MSY Btrigger (570,000 tonnes) and Blim (470,000 tonnes). F (fishing mortality) has declined from greater than Flim (0.39) in 2015 to slightly higher than FMSY (0.26) in 2018. As of the most recent update (ICES 2019) F is at 0.32, so still above FMSY. Recruitment has been recently near the long term average after a very large 2014 year class (ICES 2019). Stock is classified by ICES (ICES 2019) as having a stock size above MSY Btrigger and Bpa, but having fishing mortality greater than sustainable. 

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

MANAGEMENT

Last updated on 17 June 2019

Since 2016, the stocks of sprat, cod and herring in the Baltic Sea are managed through a multiannual plan (MAP) (EU 2016). The MAP establishes a range of target fishing mortality corresponding to the objective of "reaching and maintaining MSY as ranges of values which are consistent with achieving maximum sustainable yield (FMSY)" (EU 2016). Those ranges  provide managment flexibility and take into account of the latest scientific advice. The FMSY ranges are designed to deliver less than or equal to a 5 % reduction in long-term yield compared to MSY. The upper limit of the range is capped, such that the probability of the stock falling below the limit spawning stock biomass reference point (Blim) is no more than 5 %. That upper limit conforms to the  ICES advice rule, which indicates that when the spawning stock biomass is below the spawning stock biomass reference point (MSY Btrigger), F is to be reduced to a value that does not exceed an upper limit equal to FMSY  multiplied by the spawning stock biomass in the TAC year, divided by MSY Btrigger (EU 2016).

Overall, managers have generally set quotas higher than advised with a recent exception of 2017 (ICES 2019).

COMPLIANCE

Last updated on 17 June 2019

Catches are generally close, if slightly above, the set quotas (ICES 2019). Discarding is seen as negligible and not used in the assessment (ICES 2019). Overall there are no issues related to compliance in the most recent updated assessment. Uncertainties in the catch are thought to have an impact in this fishery, but the issue seems related to species identification rather than non-compliance (Acoura Marine 2018).

This fishery operates under the landing obligation of the EU (EU 2016) with no known issues realted to compliance.   

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

BYCATCH
ETP Species

Last updated on 17 June 2019

HELCOM has produced a comprehensive review and list of ETP species in the Baltic Sea (HELCOM 2013). The report includes almost 2800 species of subspecies assessment units and about 1750 were evaluated following IUCN criteria. 4% of those species were classified as vulnerable, endangered or critically endangered (HELCOM 2013). Among those, the list includes 19 benthic invertebrates, 7 macrophytes, 14 fish and lamprey species, 13 breeding bird species, 12 wintering bird species and 4 marine mammals (HELCOM 2013). The full list of species is summarized in this table included in HELCOM report:

Observer programs for ETP species in some of the countries involved in the mid-water trawl fishery of sprat in the Baltic  Seareported no bycatch of any ETP species in recent years (ICES 2018)

Other Species

Last updated on 17 June 2019

Sprat and herring are frequently taken together in a mixed pelagic fishery and even directed sprat fisheries may take significant bycatch of herring (ICES 2018). In some countries (e.g. Finland, Denmark, Estonia), the main fishery is the herring fishery, with sprat taken as bycatch, and in others (e.g. Poland, Russia) sprat if the main target with herring taken mostly as bycatch. Proportion of herring and sprat in the pelagic trawl fishery varies from country to country (ICES 2018).

Information on bycatch is taken from log books, sale slips and samplings both on board and from landings, but the quality and coverage of data varies amongst countries. For instance,  there is no evidence of missreporting in Germany, Latvia. However, ICES recognizes that species missreporting may occur in the Polish industrial pelagic trawl sprat fishery at ICES subdivisions 25 and 26 during March-May, when the highest catches occur. In Sweden reliable data on the mixing of herring and sprat are missing. Both the control agency and the industry state that there is a systematic misreporting of herring and sprat made in the logbooks and landing declarations. No information is available to assess missreporting from other countries such as Lithuania and Russia. (ICES 2018).

Management of main bycatch species (herring) is conducted through the EU multiannual plan which sets out harvest control rules for determining the level of fishing effort for each target species (cod, herring and sprat) (European Commission 2016).

HABITAT

Last updated on 17 June 2019

The topography of the Baltic seafloor is diverse, with around 30% of its area composed by shallow areas (< 25m), interspersed by a number of deeper basins. Benthic communities of the hard substrates are dominated by mussels, while burrowing forms dominate on soft bottoms. Some coastal areas are also colonized by seaweeds and seagrasses, which serve as important nursery grounds for fish species. The state of the Baltic Sea report produced by HELCOM (HELCOM 2018) includes a detailed description of the benthic and pelagic habitats of the Baltic Sea, including an integrated assessment. Measures are being taken to protect species and habitats in the Baltic Sea area. HELCOM has produced a Red List of biotopes, habitats and biotope complexes (HELCOM 2013). Maps of such features are available at the HELCOM map and data service (HELCOM 2018). This table taken from the "Red List of biotopes, habitats and biotope complexes" summarizes the vulnerable, endangered and critically endangered habitats and biotopes:

The pelagic trawls used in the sprat (and herring) fishery in the Baltic are not designed or constructed for contact with the seabed (Acoura Marine 2018). The nets are not sufficiently robust and very light for this. The available information is therefore that pelagic trawls do not regularly come into contact with the seabed and therefore the impact in bottom habitats can be considered negligible (Acoura Marine 2018).

Besides a number of Natura 2000 protected areas in the Baltic, there are 176 coastal and marine Baltic Sea protected areas (HELCOM MPAs). The aim of the HELCOM MPAs is “to protect valuable marine and coastal habitats in the Baltic Sea” Sites are designated based on their particular nature values within the MPAs human activities are managed. Each site has its unique management plan” (HELCOM 2016). However, protection is not equally distributed around all sub basins of the Baltic sea, and protection of offshore waters is still inadequate (HELCOM 2016).

There are four areas (described in the MAP) where trawling is forbidden from May to October each year (EU 2016).

Latvia

Last updated on 17 June 2019

In Latvia the fishery is closed 30 days in May-June and the effort is low in summer (ICES 2018).

ECOSYSTEM

Last updated on 17 June 2019

The Baltic Sea is a large, semi-enclosed brackish sea with a narrow connection to the North Sea, from which inflows of higher salinity oxygen rich water enter the Baltic (HELCOM 2018). There is a good knowledge of the ecosystem functioning in the Baltic sea (Casini et al. 2008)(Feistel et al. 2008)(Österblom et al. 2007)(Tomczak et al. 2013)(Tomczak et al. 2012). The ecosystem changes in the Baltic Sea are synthesized by the ICES WGIAB in Integrated Ecosystem Assessments (ICES 2018). Main driving forces of the observed changes are climate-related such as decreasing salinity and increasing temperature. However antrophogenic factors such as harvesting are responsible for many observed population changes in several trophic levels (fish and plankton) as a result of top-down regulation and trophic cascades (Casini et al. 2008). Ecosystem models have been constructed for some areas of the Baltic Sea which show the energy flow between different ecosystem components (Österblom et al. 2007)(Tomczak et al. 2012).

Fish fauna in the Baltic Sea is dominated by cod, sprats and herring which together make up approximately 80% of the Central Baltic Sea fish biomass (Ojaveer and Eero 2011). The interactions between these three species and the effect on fishing on their role in the ecosystem has been investigated in detail and modelled (ICES 2013)(Margonski et al. 2010). Sprat is heavily predated by cod and the fishing mortality rate that it can sustain is linked to the abundance of cod, which impacts on its natural mortality. The cod stock can thus also be affected indirectly by the exploitation rate on sprat. Besides, herring is cod’s other major prey species and both sprat and herring may be taken together in the mixed pelagic fishery (ICES 2018). On the other hand, both sprat and herring prey on cod eggs (ICES 2008). These trophic interactions may periodically strongly influence the state of fish stocks in the Baltic Sea (ICES 2008).

The most significant potential ecosystem impact of sprat fisheries is the removal of sprat biomass which is a source of food for demersal fish (cod), birds and sea mammals. However the populations of fish-eating birds and pinnipeds are increasing in many areas of the Baltic Sea (Acoura Marine 2018) meaning that the removal of sprat is not causing trophic cascade effects. In conclusion, current levels of sprat fishing mortality are unlikely to adversely impact ecosystem structure and function.

The HELCOM Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP) (HELCOM 2007) is an ambitious programme to restore the good ecological status of the Baltic marine environment by 2021. Among other objectives, it calls for fisheries to be managed according to the ecosystem approach, and asks for immediate action to develop long-term management plans for commercially exploited fish stocks. The Baltic Multiannual plan (MAP) is a response to the BSAP. Cod predation pressure on sprat is included of stock assessment and recommendations include directing fishing efforts targeting sprat to areas where the abundance of sprat is high and the abundance of cod is low (ICES 2018)

FishSource Scores

Last updated on 15 July 2019

SELECT SCORES

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

As calculated for 2019 data.

The score is ≥ 8.

A multiannual plan for the stocks of cod, herring and sprat was established in 2016. This plan, and ICES advice based on it, are considered precautionary. The multiannual plan incorporates specific management measures in case SSB is below the limit reference point. Russia, however is not included in this plan.

As calculated for 2019 data.

The score is 9.9.

This measures the Sum of unilateral TACs as a percentage of the Advised TAC.

The Sum of unilateral TACs is 313 ('000 t). The Advised TAC is 312 ('000 t) .

The underlying Sum of unilateral TACs/Advised TAC for this index is 101%.

As calculated for 2018 data.

The score is 9.8.

This measures the Catch as a percentage of the Sum of unilateral TACs.

The Catch is 309 ('000 t). The Sum of unilateral TACs is 305 ('000 t) .

The underlying Catch/Sum of unilateral TACs for this index is 101%.

STOCK HEALTH:

As calculated for 2019 data.

The score is 10.0.

This measures the SSB as a percentage of the MSY Btrigger.

The SSB is 1100 ('000 t). The MSY Btrigger is 570 ('000 t) .

The underlying SSB/MSY Btrigger for this index is 194%.

As calculated for 2018 data.

The score is 7.1.

This measures the F as a percentage of the Fcap.

The F is 0.320 (age-averaged). The Fcap is 0.260 .

The underlying F/Fcap for this index is 123%.

ECOSYSTEM IMPACTS

Click on the score to see subscore

Click on the score to see subscore

Click on the score to see subscore

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Bycatch Subscores

Bycatch monitoring provides some information on the type of ETP species (ICES 2018), and on the type and amount of main species taken as bycatch in this fishery (ICES 2018) but the quality of the information varies amongst countries involved in the fishery, with missreporting recognuized by ICES for some countries (ICES 2018).

Available evidence suggests that the fishery does not interact with any ETP species (Acoura Marine 2018)(ICES 2018).

Sprat is taken as part of a multispecific pelagic trawl fishery together with herring (ICES 2018), but there is no  evidence assert that bycatch of herring may jeopardize its viability. The proportion of herring in the fishery varies depending on the country: in some cases there are zero bycatch, and in other herring is actually the main target species (ICES 2018).

Sprat, herring and cod are managed together in the EU Multiannual Plan (European Commission 2016) which sets out harvest control rules for determining the level of fishing effort for each species. The MAP is specifically designed for the Baltic fisheries and there is no evidence of non-compliance.

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Habitat Subscores

Different components has different justification at the fishery level. Please look at the individual fisheries using the selection drop down above.

Different components has different justification at the fishery level. Please look at the individual fisheries using the selection drop down above.

The fishery does not contact bottom habitats meaning that the probability that it will jeopardize habitat recovery now or in the future is low.

Different components has different justification at the fishery level. Please look at the individual fisheries using the selection drop down above.

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Ecosystem Subscores

The Working Group on Integrated Assessments of the Baltic Sea (WGIAB) produce science that promotes adaptive and holistic marine management strategies in the Baltic Sea and  tools for an integrated ecosystem assessment and management. In particular, the interactions between cod, sprat and herring and the effect on fishing on their role in the ecosystem has been investigated in detail and modelled (Harvey et al. 2003)(ICES 2013)(Margonski et al. 2010)(Österblom et al. 2007) so the impacts of this fihery are understood. Results of such studies are available for managers. 

There is a very good knowledge of the current status and functioning of the Baltic sea available at reports from BalticSTERN (Blyh et al. 2013) and HELCOM (HELCOM 2018), or scientific publications (Casini et al. 2008)(Feistel et al. 2008). This information identifies the key elemets of the Baltic Sea ecosystem and how if has changed over the last years in response to climate and human impacts. In addition models (including ECOPATH) have been developed do describe ecosystem dynamics in recent years  (Österblom et al. 2007)(Tomczak et al. 2013).

At current levels of fishing mortality sprat fishing mortality is not believed to cause any negative impact on the trophic cascades of the Baltic sea ecosystem (ICES 2018)(Acoura Marine 2018).

The HELCOM Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP) (HELCOM 2007) is an ambitious programme to restore the good ecological status of the Baltic marine environment by 2021. Among other objectives, it calls for fisheries to be managed according to the ecosystem approach, and asks for immediate action to develop long-term management plans for commercially exploited fish stocks. The Baltic Multiannual plan is a response to the BSAP. Cod predation pressure on sprat is included of stock assessment and recommendations include directing fishing efforts targeting sprat to areas where the abundance of sprat is high and the abundance of cod is low (ICES 2018)

To see data for biomass, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for catch and tac, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for fishing mortality, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for recruitment, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for management quality, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for stock status, please view this site on a desktop.
DATA NOTES
  • Although specific management measures are provided in the multiannual plan in case SSB is below the limit reference point, no fishing mortality to be adopted at low biomass is defined, so score #1 was determined qualitatively.
  • ICES quota advice is based on the use of FMSY and associated ranges; Flower , Fupper. These are derived to deliver no more than 5% reduction in long-term yield compared with FMSY.  ICES only gives advice between Flower and FMSY
  • For scoring purposes Ftarget=FMSY.
  • Advised TAC corresponds to the upper advised catch by ICES. Managers compliance score is based in the advised catch limit using FMSY.
  • The spawning stock biomass estimate for 2019 is a predicted value from the model (ICES 2019)
  • Set TAC and catch is calculated as EU + Russian autonomous quota.
  • Ecosystem impact scores were not updated in 2019.

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Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

No related FIPs

Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

SELECT MSC

NAME

LFPO pelagic trawl sprat (Sprattus sprattus)

STATUS

MSC Certified on 22 May 2017

SCORES

Principle Level Scores:

Principle Score
Principle 1 – Target Species 93.3
Principle 2 – Ecosystem 90.3
Principle 3 – Management System 87.1

Re-scored by the 2nd surveillance audit (July 2019).

Certification Type: Silver

Sources

Credits
  1. Aps, R. and Lassen, H. 2010. Recovery of depleted Baltic Sea fish stocks: a review, ICES J. Mar. Sci. 67 (9): 1856-1860http://icesjms.oxfordjournals.org/content/67/9/1856.full
  2. ASCOBANS, 2012. Strategies for the Prevention of Bycatch of Seabirds and MarineMammals in Baltic Sea Fisheries. 19th ASCOBANS Advisory Committee Meeting. Galway, Ireland, 20-22 March,. 69pp http://www.ascobans.org/pdf/ac19/AC19_4-17_BycatchPreventionBaltic.pdf
  3. BirdLife International, 2012a. Clangula hyemalis. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, Version 2013.2 [Accessed 08 April 2014]http://www.iucnredlist.org
  4. BirdLife International, 2012b. Somateria mollissima. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, Version 2013.2 [Accessed 08 April 2014]http://www.iucnredlist.org
  5. BirdLife International, 2012c. Aythya marila. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, Version 2013.2 [Accessed 08 April 2014]http://www.iucnredlist.org
  6. BirdLife International, 2013a. Melanitta fusca. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, Version 2013.2 [Accessed 08 April 2014]http://www.iucnredlist.org
  7. BirdLife International, 2013b. Melanitta nigra. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, Version 2013.2 [Accessed 08 April 2014]http://www.iucnredlist.org
  8. Callaway, R., Engelhard, G.H., Dann, J., Cotter, J.and Rumohr, H., 2007. A century of North Sea epibenthos and trawling: comparison between 1902-1912, 1982-1985 and 2000. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 346: 27-43.http://www.int-res.com/abstracts/meps/v346/p27-43/
  9. Dagys, M., Ložys, L., Žydelis, R., Stipniece, A., Minde, A., Vetemaa, M., 2009. Action C1 – Assessing and reducing impact of fishery by-catch on species of community interest. Final report. LIFE Nature project “Marine Protected Areas in the Eastern Baltic Sea” Reference number: LIFE 05 NAT/LV/000100. 48pphttp://www.balticseaportal.net/media/upload/File/Deliverables/Action%20reports/C1_final_report.pdf
  10. EC 1088/2012. Council Regulation (EU) No 1088/2012 of 20 November 2012 fixing for 2013 the fishing opportunities for certain fish stocks and groups of fish stocks applicable in the Baltic Sea. Official Journal of the European Union, 22.11.2012.http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2012:323:0002:0009:EN:PDF
  11. EC 1256/2011, Council Regulation (EU) No 1256/2011 of 30 November 2011 fixing for 2012 the fishing opportunities for certain fish stocks and groups of fish stocks applicablein the Baltic Sea and amending Regulation (EU) No 1124/2010http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2011:320:0003:0011:EN:PDF
  12. EC, 2010. Council Regulation (EC) No 1124/2010 of 29 November 2010 fixing the fishing opportunities and associated conditions for certain fish stocks and groups of fish stocks applicable in the Baltic Sea for 2011.http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2010:318:0001:0009:EN:PDF
  13. Eero, M. 2012. Reconstructing the population dynamics of sprat (Sprattus sprattus balticus) in the Baltic Sea in the 20th century. ICES J. Mar. Sci. 69 (6): 1010-1018. http://icesjms.oxfordjournals.org/content/69/6/1010.full
  14. European Comission (EC), 2013. Proposal for a Council Regulation fixing for 2014 the fishing opportunities for certain fish stocks and groups of fish stocks applicable in the Baltic Seahttp://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=COM:2013:0598:FIN:EN:PDF
  15. European Commission, 2008. Environment: Nature & Biodiversity.http://ec.europa.eu/environment/nature/index_en.htm
  16. European Commission (EC), 2012. Directorate-General for Maritime Affairs and Fisheries. Baltic Sea, North Sea and Landlocked Member States, State of play with the Management plan for Baltic stocks of cod, herring and sprat, 7 pp.http://www.fishsec.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/08/Baltfish-Sept2012-LTMP-note-V2.pdf
  17. FIRMS (Fishery Resources Monitoring System). 2006. Marine Resource Fact Sheet. Stock Status Report: Sprat - Baltic Sea. 2006. Sprat in Sub-divisions 22-32http://firms.fao.org/firms/resource/10472
  18. HELCOM, 1994. HELCOM Recommendation 15/5: System of Coastal and Marine Baltic Sea Protected Areas (BSPA).http://www.helcom.fi/Recommendations/en_GB/rec15_5/
  19. HELCOM, 2008a. Baltic Sea Protected Areas (BSPA).http://www.helcom.fi/environment2/biodiv/en_GB/bspas/
  20. HELCOM, 2008b. Helsinki Commission Nature Protection and Biodiversity Group, Tenth meeting, Warsaw, Poland, 5-9 May 2008.http://meeting.helcom.fi/c/document_library/get_file?folderId=84208&name=DLFE-33541.pdf
  21. Helsinki Commission (HELCOM), 2010. Press release - HELCOM Information Service. 16.02.2010. HELCOM passes the 10% landmark for the Baltic Sea protected areas.http://www.helcom.fi/press_office/news_helcom/en_GB/HABITAT_Meeting_12/?u4.highlight=protected%20areas
  22. Helsinki Commission (HELCOM), 2013. HELCOM Red List of Baltic Sea species in danger of becoming extinct. Balt. Sea Environ. Proc. No. 140, 106 pp.http://helcom.fi/Lists/Publications/BSEP140.pdf
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References

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