Last updated on 10 October 2016

SUMMARY

SUMMARY

IDENTIFICATION

SCIENTIFIC NAME(s)

Merluccius merluccius

SPECIES NAME(s)

European hake

European hake is widely distributed over the Northeast Atlantic shelf, from Norway to Mauritania, with a larger density from the British Islands to the south of Spain (Casey and Pereiro, 1995) and in the Mediterranean and Black sea. ICES assumes since the end of the 1970s two different stocks units (ICES, 2013a):

• The Northern stock is distributed throughout the Kattegat, the Skagerrak, the North Sea, the English Channel, to the west of Scotland and Ireland and into the Bay of Biscay (EC, 2004)
• The Southern stock, in Divisions VIIIc and IXa along the Spanish and Portuguese coasts.

However, there is still no consensus on the stock structure of European hake in the Northeast Atlantic. Several studies have raised the issue that there is no genetic evidence of multiple populations in the Northeast Atlantic (Roldán et al., 1998, Castillo et al., 2005, Pita et al., 2010). On the other hand, analyses by Lundy et al. (1999), suggested a differentiation between Bay of Biscay and Portugese samples, both considered by ICES as part of the Southern stock. In a recent study Pita el al. (2013) found evidence that a large genetic connectivity exists among Atlantic grounds and is mediated by significant migration rates from the Celtic Sea towards its adjacent Atlantic grounds. Therefore, the spawning biomass of the northern hake population could play a crucial role in ensuring the sustainability of southern hake fish grounds. However, the Cap Breton canyon (close to the border between the Southern part of Division VIIIb and the eastern part of Division VIIIc, i.e. approximately between the French and Spanish borders) is still considered to be a geographical boundary limiting exchanges between the two stocks (ICES, 2013a).


ANALYSIS

Strengths
  • Spawning stock biomass (SSB) and recruitment have increased in recent years, although recruitment in 2008 is lower than in previous years and estimated to be poor.
  • SSB has been slowly increasing since 2004 and close to Blim in 2009.
Weaknesses
  • The implementation of the recovery plan has not been effective. Fishing mortality has been increasing and the TAC has been overshot every year of the plan. Landings in 2008 including Cadiz were estimated to be 16,740 t, more than 2 times above the TAC for Southern Stock.
  • Furthermore discard rates are high.
  • If a 10% annual reduction in fishing mortality had been achieved since 2006 according to the recovery plan, the fishing mortality in 2010 would be at target F of 0.27.
  • The recovery plan has not been evaluated by ICES (2009a).

FISHSOURCE SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

< 6

Managers Compliance:

8.7

Fishers Compliance:

0

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

≥ 6

Future Health:

4.3


RECOMMENDATIONS

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RETAILERS & SUPPLY CHAIN
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FIPS

No related FIPs

CERTIFICATIONS

No related MSC fisheries

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

ASSESSMENT UNIT MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
NE Atlantic southern stock EU 8c, 9a, 10 France Set gillnets (anchored)
Portugal Bottom trawls
Spain Bottom trawls
Set gillnets (anchored)

Analysis

OVERVIEW

Last updated on 25 September 2009

Strengths
  • Spawning stock biomass (SSB) and recruitment have increased in recent years, although recruitment in 2008 is lower than in previous years and estimated to be poor.
  • SSB has been slowly increasing since 2004 and close to Blim in 2009.
Weaknesses
  • The implementation of the recovery plan has not been effective. Fishing mortality has been increasing and the TAC has been overshot every year of the plan. Landings in 2008 including Cadiz were estimated to be 16,740 t, more than 2 times above the TAC for Southern Stock.
  • Furthermore discard rates are high.
  • If a 10% annual reduction in fishing mortality had been achieved since 2006 according to the recovery plan, the fishing mortality in 2010 would be at target F of 0.27.
  • The recovery plan has not been evaluated by ICES (2009a).
RECOMMENDATIONS

Last updated on 10 October 2016

Improvement Recommendations to Catchers & Regulators
  • Please provide links to publicly available information on this fishery via the “Feedback” tab.
  • To apply to develop/update content for this profile register and log in and follow the links to “contribute to” / “edit this profile”. If you need more information, please use the “Contact Us” button above, and reference the full name of this profile.
Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain
  • This profile is not currently at the top of our priority list for development and/or update, and we can’t at this time provide an accurate prediction of when it will be developed. To speed up an evaluation of the sustainability status of non-prioritized fisheries we have initiated a program whereby industry can directly contract SFP-approved analysts to develop a FishSource profile on a fishery. More information on this External Contributor Program is available here.

1.STOCK STATUS

STOCK ASSESSMENT

Last updated on 25 September 2009

Two stocks of hake are considered in Northeastern Atlantic waters: the Northern and the Southern, although genetic studies have not yet backed up this partition (ICES, 2008a). The Southern stock is distributed along the Spanish and Portuguese coasts, south of the Cap Breton canyon, which was considered as a division between the stocks (ICES, 2008a). The stock was previously considered to extend south to the Gulf of Cádiz, but hake from this area has not been included in the assessment since 2003 due to differences in length distributions and evidence that juveniles from this stock do not recruit to the Southern stock, although findings have not been conclusive (ICES, 2008a).

A Bayesian catch-at-age separable VPA model is used to conduct an analytical assessment of the stock, using landings and commercial LPUE data and data from two surveys (ICES, 2008b). A GADGET age-length assessment was also performed (ICES, 2008a).


Discards are not contemplated in the assessment due to the short and discontinuous time-series available (ICES, 2008a). Previously a XSA model was used, with results consistent with those obtained from the Bayesian model, but the Bayesian was adopted as it explicitly provides a basis for risk assessment (ICES, 2008b).

The assessment is considered reliable, despite some uncertainty in the assessment stemming mainly from the lack of clear knowledge of intermixing with other stocks, from imprecision in growth and age estimation in the species, and from discarding not being considered in the assessment, although it constitutes around 20% of landings, mainly of juvenile fish (ICES, 2008b).

The assessment and the basis for advice are consistent with last year. F in 2007 was revised 36% downwards, SSB in 2008 were revised 46% upwards and model estimates of 2007 landings were revised 19% downwards (ICES 2009a).

SCIENTIFIC ADVICE

Last updated on 19 May 2009

According to the recovery plan, the reduction in F of 10% would result in a TAC increase greater than 15%, therefore on the basis of the exploitation boundaries in relation to precautionary limits ICES advises that landings for 2010 should not exceed 4,900 t (ICES 2009a). ICES advised zero catch for this fishery from 2004 to 2009.

Furthermore, hake is caught in mixed fisheries together with megrim and anglerfish. The present advice for megrims and anglerfishes are significant reductions in TAC and zero catches, respectively. Therefore management measures for hake should also aim to reduce catches of those species. These measures could include selective gears, gear restrictions, area closures, etc (ICES 2009a).

Reference Points

Last updated on 19 May 2009

The following precautionary reference points for the stock were last revised in 2004 and the target fishing mortality has applied since 2006 (ICES, 2008b):

Type Value
Precautionary Blim 25,000 t
approach Bpa 35,000 t
Flim 0.55
Fpa 0.40
Targets Fy 0.27

The basis for setting Blim was the level at which there are indications of impaired recruitment, and Bpa was defined as approximately 1.4*Blim (ICES, 2008b). Flim was set at the level corresponding to Floss, and Fpa at close to 0.72*Flim (ICES, 2008b). The target fishing mortality is presently that established under the EC recovery plan for the stock (EC, 2005).

The biological reference points should be reassessed due to the new analytical model used but the ICES expert group was unable to propose a new set of reference points at the latest assessment (ICES, 2008a).

CURRENT STATUS

Last updated on 25 September 2009

Based on the most recent estimates of SSB (SSB is estimated at 25,000 t in 2009), ICES classifies the stock as suffering reduced reproductive capacity. Based on the most recent estimate of fishing mortality (F = 0.52 in 2008), ICES classifies the stock as at risk of being harvested unsustainably. Fishing mortality has increased in recent years and is currently near Flim. SSB and recruitment have increased in recent years, but recruitment in 2008 is lower than in previous years and estimated to be poor (the lowest in the 27-year time series) [ICES 2009a].

Recent increases in SSB and yield are due to above average recruitment during 2003-2007, but at Fsq there is a high probability of reversing the upwards trend in SSB in medium term. Recruitment in 2008 is lower than in previous years, which will contribute to the decrease in SSB in medium term (ICES 2009a).

The latest estimated fishing mortality exerted on the stock, of 0.52 (in 2008), is well above the agreed target fishing mortality for the stock of 0.27, meaning the stock is being harvested unsustainably (ICES, 2008b, ICES, 2009a).

Recruitment has been on an increasing trend since 2001 and is now at levels close to the highest seen in the past twenty years (ICES, 2008b).

Trends

Last updated on 25 Sep 2009

Landings steadily decreased from over 20,000 t in 1983/84 to just over 5,000 t in 2004, as the spawning stock dropped from around Bpa to under 10,000 t, well below the Blim of 25,000 t. In 2008, the total landings estimates, including the Gulf of Cadiz were 16,740 t, following the continued increasing trend since 2004 when the historical minimum was achieved. 2008 landings were 12% higher than those of 2007. Spanish landings were 14.5 Kt, representing 86% of total stock landings, and Portuguese landings were 2.24 Kt being a 14% of total landings (ICES 2009b).

The fishing mortality was variable but tended to increase during this period and was consistently above Fpa (0.27). The size of the recruiting classes also fell in the interval between the mid-1980s and 2001, to less than half of their previous size, but an increasing trend has followed the decline and recruitment is presently back to mid-1980s levels. This increasing recruitment is responsible for an improvement in the size of the spawning stock from 2004, and steeply increasing landings over the same period. After a decline to close to Fpa in 2004, fishing mortality is presently increasing again and is at the historically high level of 0.52.

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

MANAGEMENT

Last updated on 25 September 2009

Although ICES advised a zero TAC for 2009, the managers set the TAC for 2009 at 8,104 t, and it applies to Division VIIIc and Subareas IX and X (EC, 2009), a larger area than the management area. Restrictions on fishing effort aimed at recovering both southern hake and the Norway lobster stock of the distribution area are also jointly applied as part of the plan (EC, 2009).

In addition to TAC, hake is also managed by effort control and technical measures. Technical measures applied to this stock include: (i) minimum landing size of 27 cm, (ii) protected areas, and (iii) minimum mesh size. These measures are set depending on areas and gears by several national regulations (ICES 2009b). A minimum mesh size of 70 mm applies to trawl gears, although exceptions apply; gillnet meshes may be between 80 and 99 mm and trammelnet meshes must be at least 100 mm (ICES, 2008b). Areas off both the Portuguese and Spanish coasts are closed to trawling for periods of the year to protect juvenile hake (ICES, 2008b).

However, there is no correspondence between minimum landing size and the current mesh size in force. This has resulted in high discards. All of these regulations and others, which were expected to reduce fishing mortality and discarding, may have contributed to the improvement of the stock status in recent years. However improved recruitment appears to have been the most important factor (ICES 2009a).

Recovery Plans

Last updated on 25 Sep 2009

The Southern hake recovery plan, approved by the Council of the European Union in December 2005, set a ten-year limit on the recovery of the stock to within safe biological limits, defined as a SSB of 35,000 t during two consecutive years (EC, 2005). A year-to-year reduction of the fishing mortality, achieved through TAC reductions and through area closures and effort limitations, was proposed as the means to reach that state (EC, 2005). According to the plan, when the fishing mortality exceeds 0.3, a TAC should be set which results in a 10% reduction of the fishing mortality in that year; at fishing mortalities below 0.3, the TAC should correspond to a fishing mortality of 0.27 for that year (EC, 2005). A constraint on TAC alterations in successive years limits that change to a maximum of 15%, however (EC, 2005).

The fishing effort system intends to complement the TAC measures, by correspondingly setting a 10% reduction in effort (ICES, 2008b), and functions through either an annual limit by gear and geographical area on the number of fishing days, or through a method of effort management defined by each Member State (EC, 2005).

The plan also contemplates monitoring, inspection and surveillance measures (EC, 2005).

The implementation of the recovery plan has not been effective. Fishing mortality has been increasing and the TAC has been overshot every year of the plan. Furthermore discard rates are high. If a 10% annual reduction in fishing mortality has been achieved since 2006 according to the recovery plan, the fishing mortality in 2010 would be at target F of 0.27. The recovery plan has not been evaluated by ICES (2009a).

COMPLIANCE

Last updated on 25 September 2009

Compliance had been strong in the fishery up to 2004. The TAC has not been effective in limiting catches since then, and has been increasingly overshot, with landings having reached two and a half times the TAC in 2007 (ICES, 2008a).

The agreed TAC for Southern Hake, including Cadiz, in 2008 was 7,047 t and in 2009 was 8,104t. Landings in 2008 including Cadiz were estimated to be 16,740 t, more than 2 times above the TAC for Southern Stock (ICES 2009b).

A discrepancy between the minimum landing size and allowed mesh sizes means that fish just below the minimum landing size are frequently retained and suffer a high discarding rate (ICES, 2008b).

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

BYCATCH
ETP Species

Last updated on 19 May 2009

The hake fishery is known to be responsible for the bycatch of small cetacean species in the Bay of Biscay Spanish trawl fishery and of harbour porpoise Phocoena phocoena and other small cetaceans in fixed net fisheries along the continental shelf edge (SFGEN, 2002) and the number of harbour porpoises in the region is suspected to be decreasing (ICES, 2008c).

Large populations of wintering or migrating seabirds are found on the Iberian Peninsula at certain times of the year (ICES, 2008c). Fisheries may affect their distribution, particularly of scavenging species, as they serve as a source of discards (ICES, 2008c). Seabird bycatch is particularly an issue for longlines but no estimates of the problem in this fishery are available.

Two species of endangered marine turtle: the loggerhead Caretta caretta and the leatherback Dermochelys coriacea are found year-round in the region and a further three: Chelonia mydas, Eretmochelys imbricate and Lepidochelys kempii are occasionally sighted (ICES, 2008c) although no bycatch reports were found.

Other Species

Last updated on 19 May 2009

The Spanish trawl fleet targets anglerfish, megrim, Norway lobster, blue whiting, horse mackerel and mackerel in addition to hake (ICES, 2008a). Portuguese trawl and artisanal mixed fisheries also target horse mackerel, anglerfish, megrim, mackerel, Spanish mackerel, blue whiting, red shrimp (Aristeus antennatus), rose shrimp (Parapenaeus longirostris) and Norway lobster (ICES, 2008a).

HABITAT

Last updated on 19 May 2009

Hake is part of mixed trawl and artisanal fisheries for both Spanish and Portuguese fleets: Spanish trawls are mainly pair or bottom trawl and the artisanal gears used include traps, gillnets and longlines (ICES, 2008a). Artisanal gear target different sized fish, with small gillnets targeting the smallest and longlines catching mainly large fish (ICES, 2008a).

Fisheries in the Cantabrian Sea are known to have impacted on the ecosystem, affecting its structure and dynamics: a decline in mean trophic level is reflected in fewer high-level piscivorous groundfish such as hake and increases in lower trophic level planktivorous fish including blue whiting and horse mackerel (ICES, 2008c). Adverse effects of trawling on benthic communities have also been observed (ICES, 2008c).

Marine Reserves

Last updated on 19 May 2009

In an effort to protect juvenile hake, trawling is not permitted in Spanish waters from La Coruña to Cedeira in the period from October 1st to January 31st and in Portuguese waters between Milfontes and Arrifana from December 1st to the end of February (ICES, 2008b).

No bottom trawling or fishing with static gear, including bottom set gill-nets and longlines, is permitted within the El Cachucho area to the North of Spain (EC, 2009) and the site has been proposed as a Natura 2000 site (ICES, 2008d).

Furthermore, there are four Spanish coastal marine protected areas within the stock’s distribution and ten along the Portuguese coast although fishing is often not regulated (Wood, 2007).

FishSource Scores

SELECT SCORES

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

As calculated for 2011 data.

The score is < 6.

ICES has not evaluated the recovery plan agreed by EU in 2005 (EC Reg. No. 2166/2005) but the target biomass is no longer valid due to a shift in the perception of the stock (ICES, 2011a).

As calculated for 2011 data.

The score is 8.7.

This measures the Set TAC as a percentage of the Advised TAC.

The Set TAC is 10.7 ('000 t). The Advised TAC is 9.90 ('000 t) .

The underlying Set TAC/Advised TAC for this index is 108%.

As calculated for 2010 data.

The score is 0.0.

This measures the Catch as a percentage of the Set TAC.

The Catch is 17.3 ('000 t). The Set TAC is 9.30 ('000 t) .

The underlying Catch/Set TAC for this index is 186%.

STOCK HEALTH:

As calculated for 2011 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

SSB has increased in recent years and is above the time-series average (ICES, 2011a).

As calculated for 2010 data.

The score is 4.3.

This measures the F as a percentage of the F management target.

The F is 0.521 (age-averaged). The F management target is 0.270 .

The underlying F/F management target for this index is 193%.

To see data for biomass, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for catch and tac, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for fishing mortality, please view this site on a desktop.
No data available for recruitment
No data available for recruitment
To see data for management quality, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for stock status, please view this site on a desktop.
DATA NOTES
  1. A fishing mortality of 0.27 is the target of the current recovery plan but no fishing mortality to be applied at low biomass has been explicitly defined in the plan so score #1 has been determined qualitatively.
  2. The previous provisional Fpa is uncertain and no longer used.
  3. The previous Bpa is no longer applicable so score #4 has ben determined qualitatively.
  4. Catches include discards data since 1992.

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Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

No related FIPs

Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

No related MSC certifications

Sources

Credits
  1. Casey, J and Pereiro, J., 1995.European Hake (M. merluccius) in the Northeast Atlantic. In Hake: Biology, Fisheries and markets. 125–147, (Chapman & Hall, London. ISBN).http://books.google.es/books/about/Hake.html?id=A-Y1msyf0I8C
  2. Castillo, A. G. F., Alvarez, P., and Garcia-Vazquez, E. 2005. Population structure of Merluccius merluccius along the Iberian Peninsula coast. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 62: 1699-1704.http://icesjms.oxfordjournals.org/search?fulltext=castillo&submit=yes&x=15&y=8
  3. EC, 2002. Council Regulation (EC) No 2371/2002 of 20 December 2002 on the conservation and sustainable exploitation of fisheries resources under the Common Fisheries Policy. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2002:358:0059:0080:EN:PDF
  4. EC, 2004. Council Regulation (EC) No 811/2004 of 21 April 2004 establishing measures for the recovery of the northern hake stock.http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2004:185:0001:0003:EN:PDF
  5. EC, 2005. Council Regulation (EC) No 2166/2005 of 20 December 2005 establishing measures for the recovery of the Southern hake and Norway lobster stocks in the Cantabrian Sea and Western Iberia peninsula and amending Regulation (EC) No 850/98 for the conservation of fishery resources through technical measures for the protection of juveniles of marine organisms. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2005:345:0005:0010:EN:PDF
  6. EC, 2009. Council Regulation (EC) No 43/2009 of 16 January 2009, fixing for 2009 the fishing opportunities and associated conditions for certain fish stocks and groups of fish stocks, applicable in Community waters and, for Community vessels, in waters where catch limitations are required.http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2009:022:0001:0205:EN:PDF
  7. ICES, 2008a. Report of the Working Group on the Assessment of Southern Shelf Stocks of Hake, Monk and Megrim (WGHMM), 30 April - 6 May 2008, ICES Headquarters, Copenhagen (ICES CM 2008/ACOM:07).http://www.ices.dk/reports/ACOM/2008/WGHMM/WGHMM08.pdf
  8. ICES, 2008b. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee on Fishery Management, Advisory Committee on the Marine Environment and Advisory Committee on Ecosystems, Book 7: The Bay of Biscay and Iberian Seas. 7.4.1 Hake – Southern Stock (Divisions VIIIc and IXa).http://www.ices.dk/committe/acom/comwork/report/2008/2008/hke-soth.pdf
  9. ICES, 2008c. Report of the Working Group for Regional Ecosystem Description (WGRED), 25-29 February 2008, ICES, Copenhagen, Denmark (ICES CM 2008/ACOM:47).http://www.ices.dk/reports/ACOM/2008/WGRED/wgred_2008.pdf
  10. ICES, 2008d. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee on Fishery Management, Advisory Committee on the Marine Environment and Advisory Committee on Ecosystems, Book 7: The Bay of Biscay and Iberian Seas. 7.3.3.1 Answer to a special request from the European Commission on a proposed Natura 2000 site at El Cachucho.http://www.ices.dk/committe/acom/comwork/report/2008/Special%20Requests/EC%20El%20Cachucho%20Natura%202000%20Site.pdf
  11. ICES. 2009a. ICES Advice 2009, Book 7. 7.4 Stock summaries. 7.4.1 Hake in Divisions VIIIc and IXa (Southern stock) http://www.ices.dk/committe/acom/comwork/report/2009/2009/hke-soth.pdf
  12. ICES, 2011a. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee, Book 7: The Bay of Biscay and Atlantic Iberian waters 7.4.1 Ecoregion: Bay of Biscay and Atlantic Iberian waters. Stock: Hake in Divisions VIIIc and IXa (Southern stock). Advice summary for 2012, 9 pp.http://www.ices.dk/committe/acom/comwork/report/2011/2011/hke-soth.pdf
  13. ICES, 2013a. Report of the Working Group on the Assessment of the Southern Shelf Stocks of Hake, Monk and Megrim (WGHMM). 10-16 May 2013. ICES CM 2013/ACOM:11A.http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Expert%20Group%20Report/acom/2013/WGHMM/WGHMM%202013.pdf
  14. Lundy, C.J., Moran, P., Rico, C., Milner, R.S. and Hewitt, G.M., 1999. Macrogeographical population differentiation in oceanic environments: a case study of European hake (Merluccius merluccius), a commercially important fish. Molecular Ecology, 8, 11: 1889-1898.http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-294x.1999.00789.x
  15. Pita A., Pérez M., Balado M, Presa P. 2013. Out of the Celtic cradle: The genetic signature of European hake connectivity in South-western Europe. Journal of Sea Research 11/2013; 93:90-100.http://www.researchgate.net/publication/258540089_Out_of_the_Celtic_cradle_The_genetic_signature_of_European_hake_connectivity_in_South-western_Europe
  16. Pita A., Pérez M., Cerviño S., Presa P. 2010. What can gene flow and recruitment dynamics tell us about connectivity between European hake stocks in the Eastern North Atlantic? Continental Shelf Research 31: 376–387http://www.researchgate.net/journal/1873-6955_Continental_Shelf_Research
  17. Report of the Working Group on the Assessment of Southern Shelf Stocks of Hake, Monk, and Megrim. 5–11 May 2009 (ICES CM 2009/ACOM:08). 7 Southern Stock of Hake http://www.ices.dk/reports/ACOM/2009/WGHMM/Sec%2007%20Southern%20Stock%20of%20Hake.pdf
  18. Roldán, M.I.; García-Marín, J.L.; Utter, F.M. and Pla, C. 1998. Population genetic structure of European hake, Merluccius merluccius. Nature 81(3): 327–334.http://www.nature.com/hdy/journal/v81/n3/full/6883830a.html
  19. SFGEN, 2002. Report of the second meeting of the Subgroup on Fishery and Environment (SFGEN) of the Scientific, Technical and Economic Committee for Fisheries (STECF), Commission of the European Communities: Incidental catches of small cetaceans, Brussels, 11-14 June 2002. http://ec.europa.eu/fisheries/publications/factsheets/legal_texts/sec_2002_1134_en.pdf
  20. Wood L J, 2007. MPA Global: A database of the world's marine protected areas. Sea Around Us Project, UNEP-WCMC & WWF.http://www.mpaglobal.org
References

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