Summary

IDENTIFICATION

Last updated on 3 May 2017

SCIENTIFIC NAME

Strangomera bentincki

SPECIES NAME(S)

Araucanian herring, Chilean herring, sardine, sardina común (Spanish)

(Oliva 2013) studied the parasite fauna in Araucanian herring and found evidences for the existence of two stocks, in central and southern Chile. But according to morphometry and shape of sagittal otoliths (Curin-Osorio et al. 2012) and genetic studies (Galleguillos et al. 1997) high genetic homogeneity exists along the Chilean coast. Even if more research is recommended this unique population is defended as an assessment unit by the Fisheries Development Institute (Instituto de Fomento Pesquero, IFOP) to perform stock assessments and develop management measures within the central-south Chilean regions (from Coquimbo to Chiloe), covering fishing units V-X (IFOP, 2013b).


ANALYSIS

Strengths
  • Dynamic reference points are used to monitor the status of the stock.
  • The hydroacoustic assessment method makes use of one of the most robust methodologies for assessing the spawning biomass of small pelagic fish with partial spawning.
  • Stock biomass is estimated to be well above the target reference point and fishing mortality is below the target.
  • IFOP stock assessment reports presented in last assessment biological acceptable catch options, based on different scenarios and TAC advice given by CCT-PP is more clearly defined in 2016.
  • Annual catch limit is modified in an adaptive way during the year in result of updated scientific data and has been in accordance to recommendations.
  • An Anchoveta-Araucanian herring management plan was approved, which establishes lines of action to improve the fishery.
  • Use of onboard cameras to identify and quantify bycatch discards was implemented.
  • Several marine reserves are established and also spatial closures. Temporal closures to protect juveniles and the spawning stock are redefined according to real-time analysis of the stock.
  • The fishing gear used is not expected to impact the seabed ecosystem.
Weaknesses
  • Management does not integrate the multi-species nature of the fishery that targets both Araucanian herring and anchoveta. An explicit harvest control rule is not in place, but development of harvest strategies considering the mixed nature of this fishery is included in the new management plan. 
  • The stock assessment model does not include environmental information.
  • The stock is highly dependent on recruitment and latest estimates indicated recruitment dropped significant in 2016.
  • Information on bycatch and fishery effects on PET species and habitats is scarce, but a research program to quantify and identify non-target species and discarding is underway.

SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

≥ 6

Managers Compliance:

8.2

Fishers Compliance:

10

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

10

Future Health:

9.1


RECOMMENDATIONS

RETAILERS & SUPPLY CHAIN
  • Encourage the prompt implementation of the recently approved Anchoveta-Araucanian herring management plan, including the development of a harvest strategy that considers the multi-species nature of the fishery, the reliance of the fishery on good recruitment, the role of the species in the ecosystem, and the recovery of the anchoveta stock.
  • Work with scientists to conduct research on and develop new stock assessment models that take into account environmental variables, and when adequately tested, ensure they form the basis of the management strategy
  • Support the work of scientists and managers to improve reporting of catches and discards, as well as interactions with habitats and all types of bycatch.

FIPS

No related FIPs

CERTIFICATIONS

No related MSC fisheries

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

ASSESSMENT UNIT MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
Central-South Chile Chile Chile Seine nets

Analysis

OVERVIEW

Last updated on 25 April 2017

Strengths
  • Dynamic reference points are used to monitor the status of the stock.
  • The hydroacoustic assessment method makes use of one of the most robust methodologies for assessing the spawning biomass of small pelagic fish with partial spawning.
  • Stock biomass is estimated to be well above the target reference point and fishing mortality is below the target.
  • IFOP stock assessment reports presented in last assessment biological acceptable catch options, based on different scenarios and TAC advice given by CCT-PP is more clearly defined in 2016.
  • Annual catch limit is modified in an adaptive way during the year in result of updated scientific data and has been in accordance to recommendations.
  • An Anchoveta-Araucanian herring management plan was approved, which establishes lines of action to improve the fishery.
  • Use of onboard cameras to identify and quantify bycatch discards was implemented.
  • Several marine reserves are established and also spatial closures. Temporal closures to protect juveniles and the spawning stock are redefined according to real-time analysis of the stock.
  • The fishing gear used is not expected to impact the seabed ecosystem.
Weaknesses
  • Management does not integrate the multi-species nature of the fishery that targets both Araucanian herring and anchoveta. An explicit harvest control rule is not in place, but development of harvest strategies considering the mixed nature of this fishery is included in the new management plan. 
  • The stock assessment model does not include environmental information.
  • The stock is highly dependent on recruitment and latest estimates indicated recruitment dropped significant in 2016.
  • Information on bycatch and fishery effects on PET species and habitats is scarce, but a research program to quantify and identify non-target species and discarding is underway.
RECOMMENDATIONS

Last updated on 25 May 2017

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain
  • Encourage the prompt implementation of the recently approved Anchoveta-Araucanian herring management plan, including the development of a harvest strategy that considers the multi-species nature of the fishery, the reliance of the fishery on good recruitment, the role of the species in the ecosystem, and the recovery of the anchoveta stock.
  • Work with scientists to conduct research on and develop new stock assessment models that take into account environmental variables, and when adequately tested, ensure they form the basis of the management strategy
  • Support the work of scientists and managers to improve reporting of catches and discards, as well as interactions with habitats and all types of bycatch.

1.STOCK STATUS

STOCK ASSESSMENT

Last updated on 25 April 2017

Fisheries research at the national level is conducted by the Fisheries Development Institute (Instituto de Fomento Pesquero, IFOP).

The direct hydroacoustic surveys have been conducted biannually since 1999 by means of two cruises: in summer (recruitment period) and in the autumn. As this method does not take into account the stock reproductive dynamics, the assessment of the spawning stock biomass (SSB) of small pelagic fish with partial spawning – as is the case of Araucanian herring – is conducted through the robust ‘Daily Egg Production Method’ (DEPM). Indirect assessment is conducted using a statistical catch-at-age model allowing the incorporation of supplementary information, such as SSB, Catch Per Unit of Effort (CPUE), Fishing mortality (F), catch-by-age and year and recruitment indices. Since 2010, a bi-annual model is performed to include data from two surveys (RECLAS in summer and PELACES in autumn), stock vulnerability due to climatic phenomena (e.g. El Niño) and biological characteristics of the species. Updated assessment reports, based in each of the surveys are published (IFOP, 2015b).

The latest 2016 assessment (September 2016) included improvements recommended by external experts, bringing a better adjustment to the model as well detection of changes in the stock status. Landings regard the fishing season (calendar year) and the biological year (June-July) and are corrected due to Chilean jack mackerel unreported landings in 1998-2001 in the multi-species fishery (IFOP 2016). A research program was initiated in 2014 to study discard and bycatch rates in the fishery (MEFT, 2014b; MEFT, 2016). Results from this project are not yet available and were not added in the assessment model of 2016.

In the 2016 stock assessment report, IFOP also provided a preliminary Management Strategy Evaluation (EEM) analysis in order to evaluate the consistency of both the current management procedure and the evaluation model used for the management of the stock. Results showed that the used model tends to underestimate the spawning biomass and the recruitments at the same time of over-estimating the fishing mortality. Six rules for estimation of acceptable biological catch (CBA) were evaluated.

Arteaga et al. (2014) conducted a research to develop a strategic management of the multi-species fishery of Araucanian herring and anchoveta, including the identified elements regarding recruitment and environmental variables, instead of using a mono-specific model to each of the fisheries. Parada et al. (2013) also consider the importance of environmental conditions to understand stock’s trends and the use of a biophysical model. These improvements are to be considered for this multispecies fishery (IFOP, 2015b).

SCIENTIFIC ADVICE

Last updated on 25 April 2017

Stock assessments for Chilean fisheries are officially conducted by the IFOP, and include a series of catch options, based on different scenarios (IFOP 2016). Recently, Scientific and Technical Committees (‘Comités Científicos e Técnicos’, CCT) were created for the major fisheries groups in Chilean waters. The Scientific and Technical Committee for the Small Pelagics (Comité Científico Técnico de Pesquerías de Pequeños Pelágicos, CCT-PP), which includes IFOP and university scientists and managers’ representatives, meets regularly and, after analyzing IFOP’s update on stock status and catch projections, makes the catch recommendations to SUBPESCA (CCT-PP 2016). Catch recommendations consists on an advised TAC range with a lower limit of 20% of the actual TAC recommendation, in accordance to the most recent fisheries law (Law N° 20.657, SUBPESCA, 2013b). The mechanism for selecting the advised catch option is defined jointly in an ad-hoc approach.

For 2016, the CCT-PP has recommended in December 2015, an initial Total Allowable Catch range (captura biologicamente acceptable, CBA) of 227,200 -284,000 tonnes (CCT-PP, 2015). A moderate recruitment level and stable SSB was observed in the updated stock assessment, after the summer survey estimates, and TAC range between 261,280 and 326,600 tonnes was advised in April (CCT-PP 2016).

For 2017, based on IFOP’s 2016 stock assessment, the CCT-PP has recommended an initial TAC range between 218,400 and 273,000 tonnes. This catch option considers a historical recruitment level and a 30% risk of not meeting the management objective (CCT-PP 2016). The update in TAC recommendation (based on the January survey) has not been published at the time of this update.

REFERENCE POINTS

Last updated on 25 April 2017

In 2015, new reference points were adopted for main Chilean fisheries (MEFT, 2015a). These are MSY proxies dynamic reference points, relative to the virgin spawning biomass (SSB0). For both central and southern anchoveta stocks, the reference points are:

Biomass limit reference point Blim: 27.5%SSB0 
Biomass target reference point, BMSY proxy: 55%SSB0 (60%SSBPR)

Fishing mortality target reference point, FMSY proxy: F60% SSBPR 

Reference points for 2016 are very similar to the 2015 values, set at: Blim = 444,500 tonnes, BMSY proxy = 889,000 tonnes and FMSY proxy = 0.26 (CCT-PP 2016)

Target reference points (BMSY and FMSY proxies) express the management objective to exploit the resources to the maximum sustainable yield. Blim helps defining stock status, but does not work yet as a limit level for triggering management measures to reduce fishing effort, as there is no harvest control rule adopted.

CURRENT STATUS

Last updated on 25 April 2017

Recruitment has been low in the last two biological years, but the last estimate is highly uncertain. Total biomass has decreased from 2.2-2.3 million tonnes in 2014-2015 to 1.76 million tonnes in the most recent year, but SSB is stable at 1.3 million tonnes, well above BMSY proxy (890,000 tonnes), due to the recruitment in the recent years. F has been decreasing and was at 0.19 in 2015-2016, 26% below FMSY proxy (CCT-PP 2016). Therefore, the stock is in full exploitation condition.

As a small pelagic, Araucanian herring is naturally more dependent on abiotic conditions (e.g. El Niño) and primary production than on biological variables (Ramírez et al, 2012b; IFOP, 2013b; IFOP, 2015b). As of February 2015, NOAA declared "El Niño" in the Equatorial Pacific, generating since March, positive anomalies of temperature and salinity along the coast of Chile. Unlike other "El Niño" events, in 2015-2016 was regionally strong and with a greater local effect in the south-central zone of Chile, evidencing an advance of masses of oceanic waters diagonally from the equator to the central-south zone, provoking proliferation of jellyfish, massive beaching and mortality of whales, fishes and crustaceans, and red tides, among other effects (CCT-PP 2016).

Landings in 2016 were reported at 280,400 tonnes, the lowest in the last decade (IFOP 2016SUBPESCA 2017), but are still preliminary numbers.

TRENDS

Last updated on 25 April 2017

Following the TAC implementation of 2001, landings were around 300,000 tonnes until 2005. After an increase in 2006, to 580,000 tonnes, landings dropped again to around 271,000 tonnes in 2007. In 2008, a considerable increase to around 800,000 tonnes occurred, and remained at these levels until 2012, possibly because of strong recruitment events and increasing stock biomass. Since 2013, landings have fluctuated drastically, were 278,000 tonnes in 2013, around 530,000 tonnes in 2014 and 435,000 tonnes in 2015, to drop again to 280,000 in 2016.

F oscillated in early decades attaining peaks in 2000 and 2004 at 0.64; it is showing a general decreasing trend since 2005. SSB was at high levels in the beginning of the 1990s. From 1994 to 2008, it was below BMSY and inclusively below Blim between 1999 and 2006. Since then it has been rising again to high levels, reaching 1,560,000 tonnes in 2013, which is around the virginal biomass estimate. Recruitment has had significant oscillations, with most important cohorts in 1996, 2006 and from 2008 to 2012, following by a drastic decrease in 2012-2013, a small recovery in 2014-2015 and a recent drop (IFOP 2016).

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

MANAGERS' DECISIONS

Last updated on 25 April 2017

The fisheries management authority in Chile is the Ministry of Economy, Development and Tourism (Ministerio de Economia, Fomento y Turismo, MEFT) and the Undersecretariat of Fisheries and Aquaculture (Subsecretaria de Pesca y Acuicultura, SUBPESCA) (Law 20.657, SUBPESCA, 2013b).

Anchoveta and Araucanian herring were first assumed as non-target species of the Chilean jack mackerel fishery. But since 2000 they are managed as a distinct fishery which is based on an ad hoc strategy, with TAC reviewed in 3 phases – September, March, June – considering the biological characteristics of the species and when new biological information of the stock is obtained and analyzed (IFOP, 2015b).

TACs are in place since 2001 and are split at 22% for industrial and 78% for artisanal sectors since 2014 (MEFT 2016)(MEFT 2016). Currently, new access to this fishery is prohibited; new fishing licenses cannot be awarded at the moment to the industrial sector (IFOP, 2015b). A Maximum Catch Limit per Vessel Owner regime has been established for the industrial sector as well as an Artisanal Extraction Regime for the artisanal sector of Regions V, VIII and X.

Management Committee for the anchoveta and Araucanian herring mixed fishery in regions V-X, composed by SUBPESCA and SERNAPESCA members, artisanal and industrial fishermen and the processing industry (SUBPESCA, 2016a) developed a management plan, which has been officially adopted (MEFT 2016). The management plan set lines of action to addresses biological, economic, social and ecological matters. Fixed and mobile temporal closures to protect the spawning stock and juveniles have also been included. Among the actions planned, there is the evaluation of a series of harvest control rules and definition of a robust rule to allow a viable mixed fishery (SUBPESCA 2016).

For 2016, the global initial TAC was set at 284,000 tonnes in November 2015: 61,191 tonnes for the industrial sector and 216,949 tonnes for the artisanal sector. TAC was increased to 326,600 tonnes in May 2016 (MEFT 2016). For 2017, preliminary TAC was set at 273,000 tonnes (MEFT 2016). Set TACs were in line with the upper limit of the advised TAC range recommended by the Scientific Technical Committee for the Small Pelagics (CCT-PP).

Other management measures such as vessel monitoring systems (VMS) and mandatory use of onboard cameras to identify and quantify discards is (MEFT 2015).

RECOVERY PLANS

Last updated on 25 April 2017

No recovery plans are needed for this stock.

COMPLIANCE

Last updated on 25 April 2017

Total landings for this fishery (artisanal and industrial fleet combined) have been within TAC levels, with the exception of 2006, 2008 and 2010. In terms of landings by sector, artisanal and industrial landings have been below the assigned quotas until 2013 (IFOP, 2015b).

It should be noted that this is a mixed fishery where Chilean anchovy and Araucanian herring are fished together. Once the TAC for one of these two species is met, only 20% of incidental catch of that species with no remaining quota is allowed for each subsequent fishing trip.

A discard research program is since 2014 to estimate discards and bycatch rates in the industrial and artisanal purse seine fisheries of anchoveta and Araucanian herring in the V-X regions (MEFT 2014; IFOP 2016). The data collection was extended to June 2017 (MEFT, 2016a).

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

ETP SPECIES

Last updated on 11 April 2016

The purse seine is a non-selective fishing gear in relation to fish size, since the mesh size used is small enough (1/2” or 9/16”) to prevent a mass escape through the net, even of the smallest-sized juvenile specimens of anchovy or common sardine found in summer (even of 5 cm total length). Both fishermen’s experience and the use of state-of-the-art echo sounders and sonars allow the species to be identified with some accuracy however before setting the net, and when necessary the catch trapped in the sack is released by opening the net.

Peruvian pelican Pelecanus thagus (Near Threatened in IUCN Red List; BI, 2012b) can be sighted while fishing operations are happening but the interaction is not deeply know (Arata and Hucke-Gaete, 2005); no current information is available.

OTHER TARGET AND BYCATCH SPECIES

Last updated on 11 April 2016

Araucanian herring and Chilean anchovy are harvested as part of a mixed fishery, in the sense that these resources are caught during the same period and area by an artisanal and industrial fleet that fishes for both species using the same fishing gear (which is non-selective). The MEFT has been authorizing distinct research programmes to quantify and identify non-target species and discarding of the artisanal sector in the different regions where the fishery takes place (e.g. MEFT, 2014f for region VIII; more here). According to IFOP there are no official studies about discarding (IFOP, 2015b).

The most frequently sighted species during samplings conducted on board artisanal purse seine boats were kelp gull Larus dominicanus, Franklin’s gull or small gull Larus pipixcan, South American tern Sterna hirundinacea (Arata and Hucke-Gaete, 2005), but interactions are not monitored and no current information is available. South American sea lions Otaria flavescens can be caught up in the nets while feeding but manage to escape or are later released by cutting the sack of the net (Arata and Hucke-Gaete, 2005).

HABITAT

Last updated on 11 April 2016

The fishing gear used in the common sardine fishery is the purse seine, which is assumed to have no impact on the bottom habitat, except when the water depth is less than the height of the seine during the fishing set. Common sardine is distributed at water depths ranging between 50 and 70 m during the day and between 5 and 15 m at night. In Chile, artisanal purse seines can reach dimensions of 30 fathoms depth by 240 fathoms length (approx. 55m x 249m) while industrial purse seines can reach up to 60 × 500 fathoms (approx. 110m x 915m). Also, to protect the first nautical mile fauna, the use of purse seines with nets of mesh size equal to or larger than 38 mm knot to knot and greater than 20 fathoms depth (approx. 37m) is prohibited between the coast and the first nautical mile offshore.

The stock is highly dependent on recruitment which in turn changes with environmental conditions and oceanographic conditions in the important Chilean upwelling ecosystem, like the El Niño and La Niña (Cury et al., 2000; Gatica et al., 2007; Gómez et al., 2012).

MARINE RESERVES

Last updated on 11 April 2016

In Chile, there are five marine reserves: La Rinconada in the II Region, Isla Chañaral in the III Region, Isla Choros-Damas in the IV Region, Putemún and Puliinque in the X Region. The main objective of these reserves is to conserve natural banks of northern scallop (Argopecten purpuratus), Chilean oyster (Tiostrea chilensis) and giant mussel (Choromytilus chorus) among others and also to protect aquatic vertebrates such as dolphins and penguins.

Also, since the enactment of the General Law on Fisheries and Aquaculture in 1991, a Reserve Zone for Artisanal Fishing has been established by law. It extends over 5 nautical miles measured from the coast from the I Region to 41º28,6’S (located in the first third of the X Region) and from south of 41°28,6’ up to 5 nm west of the straight baselines. This regulation is also in force around the oceanic islands and in inland waters. This measure, besides justifying the development and promotion of the artisanal fishing activity, prevents the industrial fleet from entering the coastal zone to carry out extractive fishing operations. It has also become a conservation measure for the bulk of fishery resources that spawn near the coast and inland waters. This regulation is directly related to the opportunities of protecting and recovering coastal pelagic resources, being of benefit mainly to anchovy and common sardine.

There are annually temporal closed areas for this fishery to protect spawning and juveniles. The closed areas are mobile and depend on monitoring of the biologic indicators (see Managers’ decisions).

FishSource Scores

Last updated on 3 May 2017

SELECT SCORES

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

As calculated for 2017 data.

The score is 6.0.

Management objectives for this stock are expressed as target biomass and fishing mortality reference points, BMSY proxy and FMSY proxy adopted in 2015 after internal and external expert revisions (MEFT, 2015a) and allow defining stock status. SUBPESCA makes use of real-time monitoring for deploying in-year temporary closures to protect spawning and juveniles and two hydroacoustic surveys to assess biomass and recruitment. A management plan was approved in 2016, it sets lines of action to addresses biological, economic, social and ecological matters, among which the evaluation of a series of harvest control rules and definition of a robust rule to allow a viable mixed fishery is included. However, an explicit harvest control rule is still not in place (SUBPESCA, 2016).

As calculated for 2017 data.

This measures the Set TAC as a percentage of the Average advised catch.

The Set TAC is 273 ('000 t). The Average advised catch is 246 ('000 t) .

The underlying Set TAC/Average advised catch for this index is 111%.

As calculated for 2015 data.

This measures the Estimated catch as a percentage of the Set TAC.

The Estimated catch is 436 ('000 t). The Set TAC is 478 ('000 t) .

The underlying Estimated catch/Set TAC for this index is 91.2%.

STOCK HEALTH:

As calculated for 2016 data.

This measures the SSB as a percentage of the 55%B0.

The SSB is 1320 ('000 t). The 55%B0 is 889 ('000 t) .

The underlying SSB/55%B0 for this index is 149%.

As calculated for 2016 data.

This measures the F as a percentage of the F management target.

The F is 0.191 (age-averaged). The F management target is 0.260 .

The underlying F/F management target for this index is 73.5%.

HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSE RISK

High Medium Low

This indicates the potential risk of human rights abuses for all fisheries operating within this stock or assessment unit. If there are more than on risk level noted, individual fisheries have different levels. Click on the "Select Scores" drop-down list for your fisheries of interest.

No data available for recruitment
DATA NOTES
  1. There is no explicit harvest control rule that anticipates reducing the target Fishing mortality if biomass drops to the limit reference point so score #1 was determined qualitatively.
  2. Dynamic reference points of main Chilean fisheries were officially adopted since February 2015 (MEFT, 2015a): the biomass target reference point, BMSY proxy (55% of the virgin spawning stock biomass SSB0). The limit reference point for biomass Blim is 27.5% of SSB0.
  3. Landings 1991-2014 regard the fishing season (calendar year) are corrected due to Chilean jack mackerel unreported landings in 1998-2001 in the multi-species fishery (IFOP 2016). Landings for 2015 is from sectorial report (SUBPESCA 2017), landings in 2016 were reported at 280,400 tonnes but are still preliminary and therefore were not computed for score calculation. No corrections for discarding are applied as no information is yet available from the discard research program.
  4. Instituto de Fomento Pesquero (IFOP) assessment report does not provide a scientific advice, the Technical Scientific Committee for Small Pelagics provides an advised TAC range (CCT-PP 2016). Average of TAC range is computed for calculation of score #2. Intra-annual updates of stock assessment, advice and quota can be conducted as updated information becomes available, e.g. research cruises, and last update of the year is shown in the data.

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Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

No related FIPs

Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

No related MSC certifications

Sources

Credits

Arata, J. and Hucke-Gaete, R., 2005. Pesca incidental de aves y mamíferos: Devastación Marina. Document no. 10. OCEANA. Santiago, Chile. March 2005. 81 pp. (In Spanish.)http://oceana.org/sites/default/files/reports/Pesca_incidental.pdf

Arteaga, M., Ernst, B., Vásquez, S., Gatica, C. 2014. Bases conceptuales para la aplicación de una evaluación de estrategias de manejo (EEM) en sardina común (Strangomera bentincki) y anchoveta (Engraulis ringens) en la zona centro-sur de Chile, Lat. Am. J. Aquat. Res., 42(3): 445-467http://www.scielo.cl/pdf/lajar/v42n3/art06.pdf

BirdLife International (BI), 2012a. Larus dominicanus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3 [Accessed 21 February 2015]http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/22694329/0

BirdLife International (BI), 2012b. Pelecanus thagus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3 [Accessed 21 February 2015]http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/22697619/0

BirdLife International (BI), 2012c. Larus pipixcan. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3 [Accessed 21 February 2015]http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/22694462/0

BirdLife International (BI), 2012d. Sterna hirundinacea. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3 [Accessed 21 February 2015]http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/22694618/0

Campagna, C. 2014. Otaria bryonia. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3 [Accessed 21 February 2015]http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/41665/0

CCT-PP, 2013. Reporte Técnico No. 1 del Comité Cientifico Técnico de Pesquerías de Pequeños Pelágicos (CCT-PP). Valparaíso. 9 December 2013. 46 pp. (In Spanish.)http://www.subpesca.cl/institucional/602/articles-82144_documento.pdf

Chilean Fisheries Research Institutehttp://www.inpesca.cl

Chilean Fisheries Subsecretariathttp://www.subpesca.cl

Chilean National Fisheries Servicehttp://www.sernapesca.cl

Comité científico técnico de pesquerías de pequeños pelágicos (CCT-PP), 2014. Determinación del estado de situación y rango de captura biológiamente aceptable de recursos pelágicos pequeños, año 2015. Informe técnico nº 01/2014, 27pp.http://www-old.subpesca.cl/transparencia/documentos/2014/CCT_PP-Informe_Tecnico_01-2014.pdf

Comité Científico Técnico – Pesquerías de pequeños pelágicos (CCT-PP), 2015. Determinación del estado de situación y rango de captura biológicamente acceptable de recursos pelágicos pequeños. Año 2016, informe técnico CCT-PP N°06/2015. Subpesca. 33pp.http://www.subpesca.cl/institucional/602/articles-91246_documento.pdf

Curin-Osorio, S., Cubillos, L.A., Chong, J. 2012. On the intraspecific variation in morphometry and shape of sagittal otoliths of common sardine, Strangomera bentincki, off central-southern Chile, Scientia Marina 76(4): 659-666http://www.icm.csic.es/scimar/index.php/secId/6/IdArt/4148/

Cury, P., A. Bakun, R. Crawford, A. Jarre, R. Quiñones, L. Shannon & H. Verheye. 2000. Small pelagics in upwelling systems: patterns of interaction and structural changes in "wasp-waist" ecosystems. ICES J. Mar. Sci., 57: 603-618http://icesjms.oxfordjournals.org/content/57/3/603.short?rss=1&ssource=mfc

Decreto Exento No. 1675/2008. Establece cuotas globales anuales de captura para las unidades de pesquería sometidas a límite máximo de captura, año 2009. Ministerio de Economía, Fomento y Reconstrucción, Subsecretaria de Pesca (SUBPESCA). Valparaíso. 23 December 2008. (In Spanish.)

Decreto Exento No. 1925/2009. Establece cuotas globales anuales de captura para las unidades de pesquería sometidas a límite máximo de captura, año 2010. Ministerio de Economía, Fomento y Reconstrucción. , Subsecretaria de Pesca (SUBPESCA). Valparaíso. 24 December 2009. (In Spanish.)http://www.leychile.cl/Navegar?idNorma=1009793

Decreto Exento No. 195/2013. Modifica Decreto Exento nº 1336 de 2012 y nº 38 de 2013, ambos del Ministerio de Ecnonomia, Fomento y Tursimo. Ministerio de Economia, Fomento y Turismo, Subsecretaria de Pesca (SUBPESCA). Santiago. 11 February 2013. 15 pp. (In Spanish)http://www.subpesca.cl/institucional/602/articles-80424_documento.pdf

Decreto Exento No. 1409/2013. Establece cuotas globales anuales de captura de unidades de pesquería de recursos pelágicos pequeños que indica sometidas a licencias transables de pesca, año 2014. Ministerio de Economia, Fomento y Turismo, Subsecretaria de Pesca (SUBPESCA). Santiago. 24 December 2013. 4 pp. (In Spanish.)http://www.subpesca.cl/institucional/602/articles-82132_documento.pdf

Decreto Exento No. 575/2009. Modifica Decreto Exento No. 1675 de 2008, que estableció cuotas globales anuales de captura para las unidades de pesquería sometidas a límite máximo de captura, año 2009. Ministerio de Economía, Fomento y Reconstrucción, Subsecretaria de Pesca (SUBPESCA). Valparaíso. 3 April 2009. 3 pp. (In Spanish.)http://www.subpesca.cl/institucional/602/articles-9436_documento.pdf

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García-Godos, I., 2007. Revisión de las interacciones entre cetáceos y la pesquería marina peruana; perspectivas para la conservación de los cetáceos en Perú. Memorias del Taller de Trabajo Sobre el Impacto de las Actividades Antropogénicas en Mamíferos Marinos en el Pacífico Sudeste. Bogotá, Colombia: 28-29. (In Spanish.)http://www.researchgate.net/profile/Ignacio_Garcia-Godos/publication/257985273_REVISIN_DE_LAS_INTERACCIONES_ENTRE_CETCEOS_Y_LA_PESQUERA_MARINA_PERUANA_PERSPECTIVAS_PARA_LA_CONSERVACIN_DE_CETCEOS_EN_PER/file/3deec52689e15a3fc9.pdf

Gatica, C., Arteaga, M., Giacaman, J., Ruiz, P. 2007. Tendencias en la biomasa de sardina común (Strangomera bentincki) y anchoveta (Engraulis ringens) en la zona centro-sur de Chile, entre 1991 y 2005. Invest. Mar., Valparaíso, 35(1): 13-24http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?pid=S0717-71782007000100002&script=sci_arttext

Gertosio, A.R. 2013. Manejo con enfoque ecosistémico y nuevo marco legal, Subsecretaria de Pesca, 24pp.http://www.fundacionchinquihue.cl/web/wp-content/uploads/2013/12/MEE_Ley_de-Pesca-Modo-de-compatibilidad.pdf

Gomez, F., Montecinos, A., Hormazabal, S., Cubillos, L.A., Correa-Ramirez, M., Chavez, F. P. 2012. Impact of spring upwelling variability off southern-central Chile on common sardine (Strangomera bentincki) recruitment, Fisheries Oceanography 21(6): 405–414http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-2419.2012.00632.x/epdf

IFOP, 2008. Investigación, Evaluación de Stock y CTP Sardina común centro-sur, 2008. Instituto de Fomento pesquero (IFOP). 53 pp. (In Spanish)

IFOP, 2009a. Investigación, Evaluación del Stock y CTP Sardina común y sardina austral centro sur, 2009. Instituto de Fomento pesquero (IFOP). 72 pp. (In Spanish)

IFOP, 2009b. Investigación del estatus y evaluación de estrategias de explotación sustentables en sardina común centro sur y sardina austral aguas interiores de la X región, 2010: Pre Informe Final. Instituto de Fomento pesquero (IFOP). October 2009. 81 pp. (In Spanish.)CTP_PRE_SCOMUN_Y_SAUSTRAL_CS_2010.pdf

IFOP, 2013a. Evaluación hidroacústica del reclutamiento de anchoveta y sardina común entre la V y X regions, año 2013. Instituto de Fomento pesquero (IFOP). June 2013. 104 pp. (In Spanish.)2o_informe_avance_FIP_2012-12_PELACES_2013.pdf

IFOP, 2013b. Estatus y posibilidades de explotación biológicamente sustentables de los principals recursos pesqueros nacionales, año 2013: Sardina común V-X regions. Quinto Informe. Instituto de Fomento pesquero (IFOP). July 2013. 224 pp. (In Spanish.)IFOP_2013_CTP_2013_sardina_com_n_V-X_Regi_n_julio.pdf

IFOP, 2015a. Primer documento técnico. Convenio Desempeño 2015 - Estatus y posibilidades de explotación biológicamente sustentables de los principales recursos pesqueros nacionales al año 2016: Sardina común V-X Regiones 2016, junio 2015, Subpesca. 95pp.http://www.portaltransparencia.cl/PortalPdT/ingreso-sai-v2?idOrg=843

IFOP, 2015b. Informe de estatus. Convenio Desempeño 2015 - Estatus y posibilidades de explotación biológicamente sustentables de los principales recursos pesqueros nacionales al año 2016: Sardina común V-X Regiones 2016, Septiembre 2015, 145pp.http://www.portaltransparencia.cl/PortalPdT/ingreso-sai-v2?idOrg=843

IUCN, 2013. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. Downloaded on 21 November 2013.http://www.iucnredlist.org

Ministerio de Economia, Fomento y Turismo (MEFT), 2014b. Decreto Exento nº 156 de 2014 Modifica Decreto Exento nº 1409 de 2013, del Ministerio de Economia, Fomento y Turismo. Subsecretaria de Pesca y Acuicultura, 2pp.http://www.subpesca.cl/institucional/602/articles-82848_documento.pdf

Ministerio de Economia, Fomento y Turismo (MEFT), 2014c. Decreto Exento nº 952 de 2014 Establece cuotas anuales de captura de unidades de pesquería de recursos pelágicos pequeños que indica sometidas a licencias transables de pesca, año 2015. Ministerio de Economia, Fomento y Turismo, Subsecretaria de Pesca y Acuicultura, 4pp.http://www.subpesca.cl/normativa/605/articles-86508_documento.pdf

Ministerio de Economia, Fomento y Turismo (MEFT), 2014d. Decreto Exento nº 3511 de 2014 Establece distribución de las fracciones artesanales de las cuotas anuales de captura, por región, año 2015. Ministerio de Economia, Fomento y Turismo, Subsecretaria de Pesca y Acuicultura, 10pp.http://www.subpesca.cl/normativa/605/articles-86517_documento.pdf

Ministerio de Economia, Fomento y Turismo (MEFT), 2014e. Decreto Exento nº 713 de 2014 Establece veda biológica para los recursos sardina común y anchoveta entre la V y XIV regiones por período que indica. Ministerio de Economia, Fomento y Turismo, Subsecretaria de Pesca y Acuicultura, 2pp.http://www.subpesca.cl/normativa/605/articles-85250_documento.pdf

Ministerio de Economia, Fomento y Turismo (MEFT), 2014f. Decreto Exento nº 946 de 2014 Autoriza porgrama de investigación del descarte de pesqueiras de anchoveta, sardina común y fauna acompañante. Ministerio de Economia, Fomento y Turismo, Subsecretaria de Pesca y Acuicultura, 3pp.http://www.subpesca.cl/normativa/605/articles-85250_documento.pdf

Ministerio de Economia, Fomento y Turismo (MEFT), 2014g. Decreto Exento nº 748 de 2014. Modifica Decreto Exento nº 713 de 2014, del actual Ministerio de Economia, Fomento y Turismo, respecto de la veda biológica de las espécies sardina común y anchoveta, entre la V y XIV regiones, Ministerio de Economia, Fomento y Turismo, Subsecretaria de Pesca y Acuicultura, 2pp.http://www.subpesca.cl/normativa/605/articles-85291_documento.pdf

Ministerio de Economia, Fomento y Turismo (MEFT), 2015a. Decreto Exento nº 291 de 2015. Establece puntos biológicos de referencia para pesquerías administradas com licencias transables de pesca. Ministerio de Economia, Fomento y Turismo, Subsecretaria de Pesca y Acuicultura, 4pp.http://www.subpesca.cl/normativa/605/articles-86859_documento.pdf

Ministerio de Economia, Fomento y Turismo (MEFT), 2015b. Decreto Exento nº 943 del 11 Noviembre 2015. Establece cuotas globales anuales de captura de unidades de pesquería de recursos pelágicos pequeños que indica, año 2016. Subsecretaria de Pesca y Acuicultura, 4pp.http://www.subpesca.cl/normativa/605/articles-91225_documento.pdf

Oliva, M. E. 2013. Is Anisakis simplex s.l. a biological marker for stock identification of Strangomera bentincki from Chile? Journal of Fish Biology 83: 412 – 416http://www.researchgate.net/publication/254259848_Is_Anisakis_simplex_s.l._a_biological_marker_for_stock_identification_of_Strangomera_bentincki_from_Chile

Parada, C., Yannicelli, B., Hormazábal, S., Vásquez, S., Porobić, J., Ernst, B., Gatica, C., Arteaga, M., Montecinos, A., Núñez, S., Gretchina, A. 2013. Variabilidad ambiental y recursos pesqueros en el Pacífico suroriental: estado de la investigación y desafíos para el manejo pesqueiro, Lat. Am. J. Aquat. Res., 41(1): 1-28http://www.scielo.cl/pdf/lajar/v41n1/art01.pdf

Schlatter, R., Paredes, E., Ulloa, J., Harris, J., Romero, A., Vásquez, J., Lizama, A., Hernández, C. and Simeone, A., 2009. Mortandad de pingüino de Magallanes (Spheniscus magellanicus) en Queule, región de la Araucanía, Chile. Boletín Chileno de Ornitología, 15, 2: 78-86. (In Spanish.)http://aveschile.cl/boletin/PDF/15.2/03.pdf

SUBPESCA, 2006. Cuota global anual de captura anchoveta (Engraulis ringens) y sardina común (Strangomera bentincki), V a X Regiones, año 2007. Informe Técnico (R. PESQ.) No. 103/06. Subsecretaria de Pesca (SUBPESCA). Valparaíso. November 2006. 69 pp. (In Spanish)

SUBPESCA, 2007a. Modificación cuota global anual de captura de anchoveta y sardina común, Regiones V a X, año 2007. Informe Técnico (R. PESQ.) No. 014/07. Subsecretaria de Pesca (SUBPESCA). Valparaíso. February 2007. 18 pp. (In Spanish)

SUBPESCA, 2007b. Cuota global anual de captura para las unidades de pesquerías de anchoveta (Engraulis ringens) y sardina común (Strangomera bentincki), V a X Regiones, año 2008. Informe Técnico (R. PESQ.) No. 093/07. Subsecretaria de Pesca (SUBPESCA). Valparaíso. November 2007. 55 pp. (In Spanish.)

SUBPESCA, 2008a. Modificación de la cuota global anual de captura de sardina común, Regiones V a X, año 2008. Informe Técnico (R. PESQ.) No. 017/08. Subsecretaria de Pesca (SUBPESCA). Valparaíso. April 2008. 15 pp. (In Spanish.)

SUBPESCA, 2008b. Cuota global anual de captura para las unidades de pesquerías de anchoveta (Engraulis ringens) y sardina común (Strangomera bentincki) V a X Regiones, año 2009. Informe Técnico (R. PESQ.) No. 085/08. Subsecretaria de Pesca (SUBPESCA). Valparaíso. November 2008. 54 pp. (In Spanish.)

SUBPESCA, 2009a. Modificación de la cuota global anual de captura de sardina común, Regiones V a X, año 2009. Informe Técnico (R. PESQ.) No. 031/09 (Addendum). Subsecretaria de Pesca (SUBPESCA). Valparaíso. March 2009. 13 pp. (In Spanish.)

SUBPESCA, 2009b. Modificación de la cuota global anual de captura de sardina común, Regiones V a X, año 2009. Informe Técnico (R. PESQ.) No. 050/09. Subsecretaria de Pesca (SUBPESCA). Valparaíso. April 2009. 17 pp. (In Spanish.)

SUBPESCA. 2009c. Informe sectorial de Pesca y Acuicultura. Subsecretaria de Pesca (SUBPESCA). Valparaíso. December 2009. (In Spanish.)

SUBPESCA, 2010a. Informe sectorial de Pesca y Acuicultura. Subsecretaria de Pesca (SUBPESCA). Valparaíso. December 2010. 24 pp. (In Spanish.)

SUBPESCA, 2010c. Cuenta publica: Por la sustentabilidad de los recursos pesqueros y de acuicultura. Subsecretaria de Pesca (SUBPESCA). Valparaíso. 27 pp. (In Spanish.)

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SUBPESCA, 2011a. Cuota global anual de captura para las unidades de pesquería de Anchoveta (Engraulis ringens) y Sardina común (Strangomera bentincki) V a X regiones, año 2012. Informe Técnico (R. PESQ.) N°115/11. Subsecretaría de Pesca (SUBPESCA). Valparaíso. November 2011. 59 pp. (In Spanish.)RPESQ_115-2011.pdf

SUBPESCA, 2012. Cuota global anual de captura para las unidades de pesquería de Anchoveta (Engraulis ringens) y Sardina común (Strangomera bentincki) V a X regiones, año 2013. Informe Técnico (R. Pesq.) nº 210/12. Subsecretaria de Pesca y Acuicultura (SUBPESCA). Valparaíso. December 2012. 33 pp. (In Spanish.)http://www.subpesca.cl/transparencia/documentos/RPESQ210-2012Cuota_sardina_comun_y_anchoveta_2013.pdf

SUBPESCA, 2013a. Fraccionamiento y distribución de la cuota global anual de captura Anchoveta y Sardina común, regiones V a X, año 2014. Informe Técnico (R. Pesq.) nº 193/13. Subsecretaria de Pesca y Acuicultura (SUBPESCA). Valparaíso. December 2013. 10 pp. (In Spanish.)http://www.subpesca.cl/institucional/602/articles-82143_documento.pdf

SUBPESCA, 2013b. Cuotas Anuales de Captura, Año 2014. Subsecretaria de Pesca y Acuicultura (SUBPESCA). Valparaíso. 1 p. (In Spanish.)http://www.subpesca.cl/prensa/601/articles-82142_recurso_1.pdf

SUBPESCA, 2014a. Taller para la Constitución del Comité de Manejo de sardina común y anchoveta. Chilean Anchovy and Araucaninan herring Management Committee website. Valdivia. 17 January 2014. (In Spanish.)http://comitedemanejo.wordpress.com/

SUBPESCA, 2014b. Suspende veda reproductiva complementaria para anchoveta y sardine común, V a VIII regiones, aSUBPESCA, 2014b. Suspende veda reproductiva complementaria para anchoveta y sardine común, V a VIII regiones, año 2014, 5pp. ño 2014, 5pp.http://www.subpesca.cl/institucional/602/articles-85307_documento.pdf

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SUBPESCA, undated 1. Especies hidrobiológicas: Sardina Común V - X Regiones (In Spanish.). Subsecretaria de Pesca (SUBPESCA) website. Accessed on 17 March 2014.http://www.subpesca.cl/institucional/602/w3-article-825.html

SUBPESCA, undated 2. Áreas Marinas Protegidas (AMPS) en Chile (In Spanish.). Subsecretaria de Pesca (SUBPESCA) website. Accessed 17 March 2014.http://www.subpesca.cl/institucional/602/w3-propertyvalue-50832.html

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References

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