Summary

IDENTIFICATION

Last updated on 30 January 2018

SCIENTIFIC NAME

Plectropomus leopardus

SPECIES NAME(S)

Leopard coralgrouper, Leopard coralgrouper

COMMON NAMES

Kerapu sunu (Indonesian)

The five main grouper species that are commercially exploited in Indonesian waters are chocolate hind Cephalopholis boenak, humpback grouper Cromileptes altivelis, honeycomb grouper Epinephelus merra, greasy grouper E. tauvina, and coral trout Plectropomus leopardus (MMAF, 2012). In the small-scale fisheries of the East Java, groupers are captured together with snappers and other reef fish species. There is as yet no consensus as to the stock structure of these species. This profile may undergo restructuring in the future as new information comes to light. This profile refers to Java Sea (WPP-712) management unit.


ANALYSIS

Strengths

Indonesia has developed a road map to develop and implement an ecosystem approach to fisheries management (EAFM). Since 2010, Indonesia has taken steps to develop indicators for the implementation of an EAFM. By 2014, all fisheries management areas will be managed using an EAFM approach, including red snapper fisheries. The Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries (MMAF) has shown strong intentions of improving the fisheries management by re-licensing and reduce the numbers of fishing vessels and enhancing monitoring of harvesting.

Weaknesses

Indonesia’s Commission for Stock Assessment 2011 report classifies groupers in the Java Sea (FMA-712) as overexploited. Uncertainty in these evaluations is likely high (e.g., due to deficient catch data reporting) and the exploitation status of particular species is unknown. Information on the stock structure is also lacking. No management plan known to be in place for this fishery. Small-scale fisheries (SSFs) in Indonesia are practically unregulated, without any control over fishing capacity. The catch reporting system is deficient, with catch data being only collected for vessels > 5 GT.

SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

< 6

Managers Compliance:

NOT YET SCORED

Fishers Compliance:

NOT YET SCORED

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

< 6

Future Health:

NOT YET SCORED


FIPS

No related FIPs

CERTIFICATIONS

No related MSC fisheries

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

ASSESSMENT UNIT MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
Java Sea Java Sea (WPP-712) Indonesia Bottom-set longlines
Diving
Handlines hand operated
Hooks and lines
Set gillnets (anchored)
Traps
Trolling lines

Analysis

OVERVIEW

Strengths

Indonesia has developed a road map to develop and implement an ecosystem approach to fisheries management (EAFM). Since 2010, Indonesia has taken steps to develop indicators for the implementation of an EAFM. By 2014, all fisheries management areas will be managed using an EAFM approach, including red snapper fisheries. The Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries (MMAF) has shown strong intentions of improving the fisheries management by re-licensing and reduce the numbers of fishing vessels and enhancing monitoring of harvesting.

Weaknesses

Indonesia’s Commission for Stock Assessment 2011 report classifies groupers in the Java Sea (FMA-712) as overexploited. Uncertainty in these evaluations is likely high (e.g., due to deficient catch data reporting) and the exploitation status of particular species is unknown. Information on the stock structure is also lacking. No management plan known to be in place for this fishery. Small-scale fisheries (SSFs) in Indonesia are practically unregulated, without any control over fishing capacity. The catch reporting system is deficient, with catch data being only collected for vessels > 5 GT.

1.STOCK STATUS

STOCK ASSESSMENT

Until the early 2000s, groupers were not considered an important fishery resource from the management perspective. More recently, groupers were included in the list of Indonesia’s Commission for Stock Assessments (MMAF, 2011), but evaluations are still based on limited information (e.g., catch from the small-scale fisheries is not considered) and not disaggregated by species. The lack of reliable catch data is one of the major sources of uncertainty. The stock and exploitation status of particular species is thus unknown; information on the stock structure is also lacking.

SCIENTIFIC ADVICE

With the exception of the shared grouper fisheries in Arafura, Aru and Timor Sea, where there has been some research and specific management recommendations, information on the coastal snapper/grouper fisheries across Indonesia is very limited. Other than the national fisheries evaluations, which currently also include groupers, no specific scientific advice is known to be provided. The implementation of an effective licensing scheme and catch data reporting program, are some of the issues that need to be addressed in the SSFs sector in general (CCIF, 2013; Sunoko and Huang, 2014).

REFERENCE POINTS

No reference points are defined.

CURRENT STATUS

Currently, Indonesia’s Commission for Stock Assessments conducts evaluations for the most important fisheries groupings, in which groupers are included. The most recent evaluation considered groupers in the Java Sea (FMA-712) to be “overexploited” (MMAF, 2011). However, uncertainty in this evaluation is likely high and the exploitation status of particular species is unknown (CCIF, 2013).

TRENDS

There is no data on exploitation rates or biomass trends. Specific landings data for groupers is available since 2001. During the 11-year period from 2001 to 2011, total grouper landings were lowest in 2004 (41.5 thousand tons), and have been increasing since then, with a total of 74.1 thousand tons reported in 2011. Blue-lined seabass is the most important grouper species in terms of catch, followed by coral trout. In 2011, blue-lined seabass represented 60% (44,322 tons) of total grouper landings, followed by coral trout (20%; 14,482 tons), humpback hind (12%; 8,685 tons), honeycomb grouper (6%; 4,315 tons), and finally greasy grouper (3%; 2,255 tons) (MMAF, 2012).

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

MANAGERS' DECISIONS

This fishery falls within the small-scale fisheries sector, where only small boats are used to catch snappers and other reef fish relatively close to the shore. Small-scale fisheries (SSFs) management in Indonesia (all vessels <5 GT, Law No. 45/2009) is the responsibility of District Governments (Law 32/2004), which have control over coastal waters up to 4 nm from the coast. Other than some fishing gear restrictions (e.g., the use of destructive fishing gear such as explosives or poison), SSFs are practically unregulated. Small-scale fishers allowed to operate almost anywhere inside the Indonesian EEZ. Fishing licenses are not required, meaning there’s no control over the SSFs fleet capacity (CCIF, 2013).

RECOVERY PLANS

No recovery plans are known to be in place.

COMPLIANCE

Small-scale fisheries are practically unregulated in Indonesia, thus compliance cannot be fully ascertained. Catch from the small-scale sector (including the snapper/grouper fishery) is largely unreported. There are still reports of the use of illegal fishing methods such as blast fishing in some areas (e.g., Chozin, 2008 Varkey et al., 2010).

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

ETP SPECIES

Specific effects of this fishery on protected, endangered or threatened species in Indonesia are at present unknown. There are reports of interactions of coastal gillnets with leatherback turtles Dermochelys coriacea (Vulnerable; 2013 IUCN Red List) (Adnyana, 2006), but this fishing gear is not relevant in the small-scale fisheries for reef fish.

OTHER TARGET AND BYCATCH SPECIES

The main target species of this fishery are snappers (Lutjanus spp.) and groupers (Family Serranidae). Other reef species are also captured, but detailed information on the catch composition in this fishery is almost inexistent. In other regions of Indonesia, red snappers comprised most of the catch (40.4% in average) in the bottom longline fishery. Other catches were deep-sea snapper (27.1%), groupers, and other snapper species.

HABITAT

The impact of this fishery on the bottom habitats is unknown, but likely very low for handlines and bottom longlines (Chuenpagdee et al., 2003).

MARINE RESERVES

In 2011, there were 88 marine conservation areas (in forms of marine national parks, marine nature recreational parks, marine nature reserves and marine wilderness reserves) in Indonesia, totaling 13.9 million hectares (Susanto, 2011).

 
Figure 1. Marine Protected Areas in Indonesia – consists of Nature reserve (Cagar Alam/Suaka Alam), National Park (Taman Nasional), Wildlife reserve (Suaka Margasatwa), Marine Nature Recreation Park (Taman Wisata Alam/taman Buru/Taman Wisata hutan raya) and District Marine Protected Area (kawasan Konservasi Laut Daerah) (Source: Yunia, 2010)

For small-scale fisheries in particular, other than the no-take zones within some MPAs no specific spatial or temporal restrictions are known to be in place.

FishSource Scores

SELECT SCORES

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

As calculated for 2011 data.

The score is < 6.

Small-scale fisheries in Indonesia are managed at the local districts level, but are practically unregulated and without any control over fishing capacity. For this fishery in particular, no management strategy is known to be in place.

STOCK HEALTH:

As calculated for 2011 data.

The score is < 6.

The most recent evaluation from the Indonesia Commission for Stock Assessments considered groupers in the Java Sea (FMA-712) to be overexploited (MMAF, 2011). But uncertainty in this evaluation is likely high and the exploitation status is not provided at the species level.

HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSE RISK

High Medium Low
No data available for biomass
No data available for fishing mortality
No data available for recruitment
DATA NOTES

1) Landings data refer to national landings. Landings are for the Serranidae family, i.e., include pooled data for chocolate hind Cephalopholis boenak, humpback grouper Cromileptes altivelis, honeycomb grouper Epinephelus merra, greasy grouper E. tauvina, and coral trout Plectropomus leopardus (source: MMAF, 2012).
2) Advised TAC, set TAC, and biomass or fishing mortality reference points are not defined; thus none of the scores can be computed. Qualitative scores have been attributed for scores #1 and #4, based on available information.

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Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

No related FIPs

Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

No related MSC certifications

Sources

Credits
  1. Adnyana, W., 2006. Status of leatherback turtles in Indonesia. Indian Ocean & SE Asian Leatherback-Tsunami Assessment - February 2006 DRAFT. pp. 56-105. http://www.ioseaturtles.org/UserFiles/File/meeting_files/MT_IO4_DOC09_DC-tsunami_report_Part3_Indonesia-Oman.pdf
  2. CCIF, 2013. Assessment of the Enabling Conditions for Rights-Based Management of Fisheries and Coastal Marine Resources. July 2013. Conservation and Community Investment Forum (CCIF). San Francisco, CA. 34 pp.http://www.trustforconservationinnovation.org/sponsored/inc/CCIF_ExecutiveSummary_web.pdf
  3. Chozin, M., 2008. Illegal but Common: Life of Blast Fishermen in the Spermonde Archipelago, South Sulawesi, Indonesia. Master of Arts, Center for International Studies of Ohio University. 144. http://www.seas.ohio.edu/SharingParadise/chozin.pdf
  4. Chuenpagdee, R., Morgan, L.E., Maxwell, S.M., Norse, E.A. and Pauly, D., 2003. Shifting gears: assessing collateral impacts of fishing methods in US waters. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 1, 10: 517-524.http://www.esajournals.org/doi/abs/10.1890/1540-9295%282003%29001%5B0517:SGACIO%5D2.0.CO%3B2
  5. IUCN, 2013. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. Downloaded on 5 June 2013. http://www.iucnredlist.org
  6. MMAF, 2011. Minister Decree of MMAF No 45/MEN/2011 on the Estimation of Fishery Resources Potential in Fishery Management Areas of Republic of Indonesia. Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries (MMAF).STATUS_TINGKAT_EKSPLOITASI_SDI_WPP_RI_2011.pdf
  7. MMAF, 2012. Capture Fisheries Statistics of Indonesia, 2011. Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries (MMAF). Directorate General of Capture Fisheries. Jakarta. Vol. 12, No. 1. 182 pp. http://statistik.kkp.go.id/index.php/arsip/file/58/statistik-pt-tahun-2011.pdf/
  8. Sunoko, R. and Huang, H.-W., 2014. Indonesia tuna fisheries development and future strategy. Marine Policy, 43, 0: 174-183.http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X13001255
  9. Susanto, H. A. 2011. Progres Pengembangan Sistem Kawasan Konservasi Perairan Indonesia: A Consultancy Report. Kerjasama Kementerian Kelautan dan Perikanan dengan Coral Triangle Support Partnership (CTSP). Jakarta.http://www.usctsp.org/document/Progres_Pengembangan_Sistem_Kawasan_Konservasi_Perairan_Indonesia-Handoko_Adi_Susanto.pdf
  10. Varkey, D.A., Ainsworth, C.H., Pitcher, T.J., Goram, Y. and Sumaila, R., 2010. Illegal, unreported and unregulated fisheries catch in Raja Ampat Regency, Eastern Indonesia. Marine Policy, 34, 2: 228-236.http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X09000980
References

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    Leopard coralgrouper - Java Sea

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