Last updated on 30 January 2018

SUMMARY

SUMMARY

IDENTIFICATION

SCIENTIFIC NAME(s)

Plectropomus leopardus

SPECIES NAME(s)

Leopard coralgrouper, Leopard coralgrouper

COMMON NAMES

Kerapu sunu (Indonesian)

This profile refers to Plectropomus leopardus (leopard coralgrouper, coral trout, leopard coral trout) and is known in the Indonesian fisheries trade as kerapu sunu. Leopard coralgrouper is caught in multi-species fisheries targeting snappers nei, groupers nei and to a lesser extent, emperors, sweetlips, and jobfishes species ((SFP 2018), (Nuraini 2016)). 

In terms of Fisheries Management Area, this profile refers to Fisheries Management Area (FMA) 712 assessment unit that covers the Java Sea and bordered by 8 provinces.

Leopard coralgrouper is one of the most economically important reef fish species in the global Live Reef Food Fish (LRFF) trade; with the fish sold as live reef fish and as fresh/frozen fish in Asian seafood markets, particularly in China ((Nuraini 2017)(Sadovy de Mitcheson et al. 2017) , (Sadovy de Mitcheson et al. 2017)).

This profile may undergo restructuring in the future as new information comes to light.


ANALYSIS

Strengths
  • Beginning 2004, official reported landing of groupers have been separated (from 1 lumped groupers group) into 5 individual groupers species that includes leopard coralgrouper (P. leopardus).

  • Biological study on groupers (i.e., length-weight relationship, growth and mortality models, and estimation of mortality and exploitation rates), implementation of log-book system, and other activities have been developed to improve the groupers fisheries in FMA 713 (Makassar Strait – Flores Sea), located adjacent to FMA 712 (Java Sea); these activities may encourage similar activities for the grouper fisheries in the Java Sea. 

Weaknesses
  • Most groupers catches (including leopard coralgrouper) are not recorded, especially those destined for export that go directly to the buyers’ (middlemen’s) facilities.

  • Leopard coralgrouper are aggregated into reef fish group in the assessment, resulting a high level of uncertainty on the real condition of the resources.

  • Leopard coralgrouper in FMA 712 is mainly fished by small-scale fishery, and by law, they are exempted from applying for fishing licenses ((PEMRI 2009)(PEMRI 2016)), rendering it more difficult to control and track these fisheries.

  • There are no management objectives for the leopard coralgrouper stock(s). Management decisions consist on controlling fishing effort through the limitation of the number of fishing gear to be licensed.

Options
  • Pathway to develop a FIP for the snappers and groupers in the Java Sea (FMA 712) is currently being prepared (SFP 2018).

  • Improve the statistics data collection system to obtain accurate catch data, including implementation of logbook system. 

  • Implement monitoring, control and surveillance that would fit the small-scale fishery system, of which many grouper fishers are categorized into.

  • Improve research on stock assessment for this group of pecies to estimate the potential of the fishery and the stock status as a basis for management and licensing.

FISHSOURCE SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

< 6

Managers Compliance:

< 6

Fishers Compliance:

< 6

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

< 6

Future Health:

< 6


FIPS

No related FIPs

CERTIFICATIONS

No related MSC fisheries

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

ASSESSMENT UNIT MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
Java Sea Java Sea (WPP-712) Indonesia Bottom-set longlines
Bottom trawls
Diving
Handlines hand operated
Hooks and lines
Set gillnets (anchored)
Traps
Trolling lines

Analysis

OVERVIEW

Last updated on 8 May 2018

Strengths
  • Beginning 2004, official reported landing of groupers have been separated (from 1 lumped groupers group) into 5 individual groupers species that includes leopard coralgrouper (P. leopardus).

  • Biological study on groupers (i.e., length-weight relationship, growth and mortality models, and estimation of mortality and exploitation rates), implementation of log-book system, and other activities have been developed to improve the groupers fisheries in FMA 713 (Makassar Strait – Flores Sea), located adjacent to FMA 712 (Java Sea); these activities may encourage similar activities for the grouper fisheries in the Java Sea. 

Weaknesses
  • Most groupers catches (including leopard coralgrouper) are not recorded, especially those destined for export that go directly to the buyers’ (middlemen’s) facilities.

  • Leopard coralgrouper are aggregated into reef fish group in the assessment, resulting a high level of uncertainty on the real condition of the resources.

  • Leopard coralgrouper in FMA 712 is mainly fished by small-scale fishery, and by law, they are exempted from applying for fishing licenses ((PEMRI 2009)(PEMRI 2016)), rendering it more difficult to control and track these fisheries.

  • There are no management objectives for the leopard coralgrouper stock(s). Management decisions consist on controlling fishing effort through the limitation of the number of fishing gear to be licensed.

Options
  • Pathway to develop a FIP for the snappers and groupers in the Java Sea (FMA 712) is currently being prepared (SFP 2018).

  • Improve the statistics data collection system to obtain accurate catch data, including implementation of logbook system. 

  • Implement monitoring, control and surveillance that would fit the small-scale fishery system, of which many grouper fishers are categorized into.

  • Improve research on stock assessment for this group of pecies to estimate the potential of the fishery and the stock status as a basis for management and licensing.

1.STOCK STATUS

STOCK ASSESSMENT

Last updated on 8 May 2018

Stock assessments in Indonesia are carried out by government fisheries scientists affiliated with the Research Center for Fisheries (Pusriskan). Research outputs from Pusriskan and other best scientific evidence are then reviewed and synthesized by the National Commission for Fish Stock Assessment (Komnas Kajiskan), an independent entity under (and report to) the Minister of Marine Affairs and Fisheries (KKP-RI) and whose members have expertise in fisheries resources and are drawn from various relevant organizations (KKP-RI 2016). Upon peer-reviews and synthesis, Komnas Kajiskan then make policy recommendations to the Minister (KKP-RI 2016). The Minister then stipulate, decree, and gazette a Ministerial Decree pertaining to the estimation of maximum sustainable yields (MSYs), total allowable catches (TACs), and exploitation rates (Es) of fish stocks within Indonesia’s FMAs ((KKP-RI 2016), (KKP-RI 2017)). Stock assessments are carried out continuously, although it is not always every year (Prof. Ali Suman, Senior Shrimp Expert from Pusriskan, member of Komnas Kajiskan, 2012 – present, pers. comm., 29 October 2017).

Indonesia’s fisheries are highly multispecies and multi-fleet; spanning across 11 FMAs (KKP-RI 2009). Consequently, basket or aggregated MSYs, TACs, and Es assessment system per species groups in each FMA had been chosen as an empirical solution to a very difficult and potentially very expensive problem (Prof. Ali Suman, Senior Shrimp Expert from Pusriskan, member of Komnas Kajiskan, 2012 – present, pers. comm., 25 October 2017). Fish resources are allocated into nine ecologically-related groups: small pelagic fish, large pelagic fish (except tuna and skipjack), demersal fish, reef fish, penaeid shrimp, lobster, mud crab, swimming crab, and squid. Leopard coralgrouper (Serranidae) is, thus, lumped together in the reef fish group and does not have its own MSY, TAC, or E (KKP-RI 2017).

Inter-annual variability is pronounced in the results of stock assessment between the most recent one (2016) and the last one (2015) for most ecologically-related groups, with a tendency of increased values for the basket or aggregated MSYs, TACs, and fOPT for most ecologically-related groups in 2016 (Indrajaya 2017). In this report, (Indrajaya 2017) explained that the use of limited or under-reported data (mostly from reported catches) as model inputs in the previous assessment have resulted in significantly lower assessment results. However, this is not the case for reef fish group. Results show significantly lower values for the recent (2016) assessment instead for reef fish group in FMA 712. Apart from worsening stock status for reef fish group from fully-exploited (2015, E = 0.67) to over-exploited (2016, E = 1.22), there is no explanation as to the rationale behind the plummeting estimated MSY and TAC.  The standard effort used in the stock assessment in 2015 (bottom long line) is different from that used in 2016 (drop line).

The latest official stock assessment carried out for reef fish group use drop line (pancing ulur) as the standard effort in the assessment (Indrajaya 2017). Total allowable catch (TAC) was determined at 80% of MSY, and there were no referral to uncertainties or sensitivity analyses ((Suman et al. 2016)(Indrajaya 2017)). The stock is considered as one big unit of biomass and no attempt is made to model on an age- or length-based. Despite several studies on demersal fish in the Java Sea area (e.g., (Wiadnyana et al. 2010), (Badrudin et al. 2011), (Wahyuningsih et al. 2013)), comprehensive biological stock assessment for leopard coralgrouper is not available.

SCIENTIFIC ADVICE

Last updated on 8 May 2018

In the 2016 stock assessment (KKP-RI 2017) for the reef fish group in the Java Sea (FMA 712), MSY and TAC are determined at 29,951 tons and 23,961 tons, respectively. This advised TAC is more or less equal to 14,968 units of standardized drop line, reflecting the optimal level of fishing effort, or fOPT

Based on this most recent assessment, the reef fish group in FMA 712 is considered as 'over-exploited' with an E value of 1.22 (note: E < 0.5 = moderately-exploited; 0.5 ≤ E < 1 = fully-exploited;  E ≥ 1 = over-exploited).

Reference Points

Last updated on 08 May 2018

No biological reference points have been officially assessed for leopard coralgrouper in FMA 712.

CURRENT STATUS

Last updated on 8 May 2018

Based on the 2016 assessment, the exploitation rate for reef fish (in which leopard coralgrouper is included) in FMA 712 was found to have reached over-exploited state (E = 1.22) (KKP-RI 2017). Compared to the 2015 assessment (KKP-RI 2016) where E was estimated to be 0.67 (fully-exploited), the current status of reef fish group in FMA 712 seems to have been worsening.

Earlier assessments on snappers and groupers (categorized as ‘demersal fish’ in the papers) in the Java Sea (e.g., (Wiadnyana et al. 2010), (Badrudin et al. 2011), and (Wahyuningsih et al. 2013)) found that demersal fish in the Java Sea had been overfished; in fact, the demersal fish stocks in the inshore (< 40m deep) area of northern coast of Java can be considered as depleted given increasing combined fishing effort of many types of gear. No account on discarding was mentioned.

Leopard coralgrouper is also classified as Near Threatened under the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species given its declining trend in many countries (IUCN 2004). In Hong Kong, as the global trade hub of LRRF, leopard coralgrouper contributed 30% by volume of all LRFF imports in 2016, of which the majority came from Indonesia ((Sadovy de Mitcheson et al. 2017). (Sadovy de Mitcheson et al. 2017)) also noted that leopard coralgrouper from Indonesia represent an average of 43% (±6%, standard deviation) by volume of total LRFF imports from Indonesia. Although the landing trend of leopard coralgrouper at Indonesia level has been increasing, at the Java Sea level, however, the landing pattern trend is the reverse (see Scores section for time-series data of landings).

Trends

Last updated on 08 May 2018

Reported grouper landing data are available from 1975 to 2015. However, from 1975 to 2003, all grouper catches are lumped into one group called ‘groupers’, where leopard coralgrouper is aggregated into. By 2004, the ‘grouper’ catch is split into: chocolate hind (Cephalopholis boenak), humpback hind (Cromileptes altivelis), honeycomb grouper (Epinephelus merra), estuary rockcod (Epinephelus tauvina), and leopard coralgrouper (Plectropomus leopardus). In the datafile, we plotted the reported landing of leopard coralgrouper from 2004 to 2015.

We present the leopard coralgrouper’s annual official catch records from eight (8) provinces in FMA 712 (DG Capture Fisheries KKP-RI, 2004 – 2015) and they are from: the eastern Sumatera coast of Lampung province, the northern coasts of Banten, DKI Jakarta, West Java, Central Java, and East Java provinces, and the western/southern coasts of Central Kalimantan and South Kalimantan provinces.

Total combined reported landing of leopard coralgrouper from these eight provinces in FMA 712 continuously decline from 2004 (1,948 tons) to 2015 (82 tons). Meanwhile, at Indonesia’s scale, the catches dipped around 2005 – 2007 and increased continuously with a mean annual increase of 25% from 2008 – 2015. Compared to the total catches of leopard coralgrouper throughout Indonesia, the contribution of catches from these 8 provinces in FMA 712 is very low, at around 5% throughout these 12 years (estimated/computed from dataset of DG Capture Fisheries KKP-RI, 2004 – 2015). (see Scores section for time-series data of landings, incl. the landings of leopard coralgrouper from all over Indonesia).

There is no other data on exploitation rates or biomass trends for leopard coralgrouper fishery in FMA 712.

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

MANAGEMENT

Last updated on 8 May 2018

The official assessment advise for reef fish (to which leopard coralgrouper is aggregated into) in FMA 712 for 2015 (Suman et al. 2016) and 2016 (Indrajaya 2017) that were adopted as management decision were legally decreed ((KKP-RI 2016), (KKP-RI 2017)) and officially set as follows:

Year

MSY (tons)

TAC (tons)

fOPT (units)

E

Standard effort

2015 (decreed)

59,146

47,317

24,320

0.67

Bottom long line

2016 (decreed)

29,951

23,961

12,238

1.22*

Drop line

                            Note: E < 0.5  = moderately-exploited;  0.5 ≤ E < 1 = fully-exploited;  E ≥ 1 = over-exploited (*)

Management decisions consist on controlling fishing effort through the number of fishing gear as the limit. It is not clear how these advices would be heeded by the fishers and controlled by the management body, since most fishing units are considered as small scale and are operated mainly using boats of 1-5 GT. According to the Fisheries Act No.45/2009 (PEMRI 2009), small scale fishing households operating with boats ≤ 5 GT or without boats (and later its definition is changed to ≤ 10 GT in Fishers’ Protection Act No.7/2016 (PEMRI 2016)) are exempted from applying for fishing licenses (SIPI, Surat Izin Penangkapan Ikan) and fishing business licences (SIUP, Surat Izin Usaha Perikanan) (PEMRI 2009). Without these official documents, it is difficult to control and track.

Recovery Plans

Last updated on 08 May 2018

Specific Fishery Management Plan (Rencana Pengelolaan Perikanan, RPP) for Indonesia’s Grouper fisheries does not exist yet, let alone for leopard coralgrouper fishery. Therefore, the corresponding road map and recovery plans for leopard coralgrouper fishery are also non-existent. However, an RPP for the entire FMA 712 assessment unit does exist (KKP-RI 2016) and covers all fisheries in the 8 provinces and provided a more general strategic plan and road map for the nine ecologically-related group fisheries as aggregated groups (i.e., small pelagic fish, large pelagic fish, demersal fish, reef fish (where leopard coralgrouper is categorized into), penaeid shrimp, lobster, mud crab, swimming crab, and squid).

COMPLIANCE

Last updated on 8 May 2018

Typical fishing gear used to catch groupers (including leopoard coralgrouper) in the Java Sea (FMA 712) are ((Mous and Pet 2018)(Wahyuningsih et al. 2013)(SFP 2018)): bottom long line (rawai dasar/pancing rawai) that are set horizontally along the bottom at depths ranging from 50 to 150 meters on the shelf area as well as on the top of the slopes that drop to deeper waters, mostly on and around the border between FMA 712 and FMA 713, and drop lines (pancing ulur), active vertical hook-and-lines operating at depths from 50 to 500 meters and mostly in the adjacent deep-slope areas of FMA 713. In the shallower parts (< 50 meters) of the Java Sea shelf area, bottom trawlers, other net fisheries (e.g., gillnet/pukat), and traps (bubu) are used, and they possibly overlap with the long line fisheries only.

Bottom trawlers have been banned throughout Indonesia (except Arafura Sea) since 1980 (PEMRI 1980), however, compliance remains poor; they have evolved into different designs and sizes, and would go under different names. They have been continuously used throughout Indonesia, particularly in the Java Sea. The ban of trawlers has been reaffirmed in 2015 (KKP-RI 2015) and 2016 (KKP-RI 2016) with outcomes that are still far from satisfactory. As noted by (Mous and Pet 2018), “It is unclear however how much bottom trawling still continues ‘illegally’, especially in the Java Sea, with dragging gear that is simply given different names.”

Fishing boats that target snappers and groupers (including leopard coralgrouper) in the Java Sea can be categorized into ‘one-day fishing boats’ and ‘weekly fishing boats’ (Wahyuningsih et al. 2013). The one-day fishing boats (5 – 10 GT) would go along the nearshore waters (within 30 – 210 miles) of the northern coast of Java. Meanwhile, the weekly fishing boats (> 10 GT) would go further east towards the islands of Bawean, Masalembo, Kangean, and Matasiri, and towards the south along the coast of Banyuwangi in the Bali Strait, and further up across the Java Sea along the coasts of Kalimantan.

Both FMA 712 and 713 are part of a continuous habitat and fishing ground for snappers and groupers where fishing fleets from both FMAs freely operate in both FMAs (Mous and Pet 2018), rendering difficulties in fisheries management by FMA, and as  (Mous and Pet 2018) noted, “… many vessels fish right at the border, often fishing in both these WPP even within single fishing trips. Also landings made at ports in any specific WPP, are not necessarily fish caught in that particular WPP, and this is especially true for snappers, groupers and emperors landed and processed in East Java, on the coast of WPP 712.” (note: WPP is the Indonesian term for FMA, Fisheries Management Area).

Moreover, most grouper catches (particularly of species important for exportation like leopard coralgrouper) go directly to the buyers’ (i.e., middlemen’s) facilities. Meanwhile, official enumeration of catches take place in government fish landing sites, and thus these catches are, unfortunately, most likely not recorded or under-reported. Although compliance assessment has not been conducted, stakeholders in the grouper fishery and supply chains have acknowledged problems about catch data recording and its consequential under-reporting  ((SFP 2017)(SFP 2018)).

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

BYCATCH
ETP Species

Last updated on 8 May 2018

Specific study on the effects of the leopard coralgrouper or grouper fisheries on ETP species in the Java Sea is presently not available. However, a study on the shark and rays bycatch from deep-slope (50-500m) dropline and demersal longline fisheries targeting various snapper, grouper and emperor species in central and eastern Indonesia exists (Jaiteh 2017).  In this study (Jaiteh 2017), sharks and rays caught were recorded by captains onboard fishing vessels as part of the Captain Operated Data Recording System (CODRS). Photographs were taken by 27 vessels on 81 days between 17 October 2015 and 29 October 2016. An estimated 207 individuals in the images were distinct individuals that belonged to at least 36 species and 18 families.

Bycatch was dominated (56% of the catch, n = 110) by Carcharhinids (requiem/whaler sharks), followed by Sphyrnidae/hammerhead sharks (11%, n = 22, mainly of the species Sphyrna lewini, scalloped hammerhead) and Rhynchobatidae/guitarfish (9%, n = 17, mainly whitespotted guitarfish, Rhynchobatos australiae); meanwhile, the remaining 15 families contributed 5% or less to the total catch. 

In Indonesia, Carcharhinid shark of the species Ocean Whitetip Shark (Carcharhinus longimanus) is protected by law (KKP-RI 2016), so is hammerhead sharks (Sphyrnidae, Sphyrna spp.) (KKP-RI 2016). Other species of sharks that are protected by law in Indonesia are: whale shark, Rhincodon Typus (KKP-RI 2013), thresher shark, Alopias pelagicus, A. supreciliosus (KKP-RI 2013) and Saw Shark (Pristis mocrodon) (PEMRI 1999).

Future studies on the shark and rays bycatch from snapper and grouper fisheries in more areas of Indonesian waters will be carried out in due course (Dr Peter Mous,TNC Indonesia Fisheries Conservation Program, pers. comm., 13 March 2018).

Other Species

Last updated on 8 May 2018

Specific study on the effects of the leopard coralgrouper or grouper fisheries on other target and bycatch species in the Java Sea (FMA 712) is presently not available.

Other than the shark species noted in the study of (Jaiteh 2017), the deep-water drop line fisheries targeting snappers, groupers, and emperors in central and eastern Indonesia (including in FMA 712) are considered fairly clean in terms of non-target species being caught (Mous and Pet 2018). In their report, (Mous and Pet 2018) concluded that the deep-water drop line fisheries are admittedly much more species-rich than sometimes assumed, but they are still within the target species category (snappers and groupers).

However, as for the bottom long line fishery in FMA 712 (and the adjacent FMA 713) that ply the shelf areas and tops of slopes (50 – 150 meters), (Mous and Pet 2018) wrote: “The bottom long line fishery is characterized by a more substantial by-catch of small sharks, cobia and trevallies, which are currently not preferred by the processors who are buying the target species. Bycatch species are usually sun-dried by the crew and sold separately, outside of the catch of snappers, groupers and emperors, which belongs to the owner of the boat and goes to the processors for middle and higher end local and export markets.”.

Studies on the other target and bycatch species of bottom trawlers and other net fisheries that specifically target groupers in FMA 712 were not found.

HABITAT

Last updated on 8 May 2018

Studies by ((Mous et al. 2018)(Mous et al. 2018)(Mous and Pet 2018)) concluded that both drop line and longline fisheries are characterized  by a very low and relatively low impact on habitat at the fishing ground, respectively. In longline fishery, however, (Mous et al. 2018) noted that there will be some tangling with various life forms or structure on the bottom at the fishing grounds, but captains avoid areas with high or complicated structure as they do not want to lose their gear.

In both fisheries, impact to habitat is nothing near the impact from destructive dragging gears (i.e., bottom trawlers), for example, and also much less than could be expected from other demersal fisheries with nets or traps  ((Mous et al. 2018)(Mous et al. 2018)(Mous and Pet 2018)).

Studies on the habitat impact of the other fishing gear that target leopard coralgrouper in FMA 712 were not found.

Marine Reserves

Last updated on 08 May 2018

Complete list of Marine Protected Areas in FMA 712 can be found in the Marine Protected Area Database. This MPA database recorded eight (8) marine protected areas located in FMA 712. Some fishing ground of snappers and groupers (including leopard coralgrouper) might overlap with some of these MPAs, however, there is no information of leopard coralgrouper’s fishing grounds in these listed MPAs. Moreover, none of these MPAs have any specific plans to protect the habitat and spawning ground of groupers per se.

No.

Name

MPA type

Areal extent

IUCN Category

1.

District-based MPA Biawak Island, West Java

District-based MPA (Kawasan Konservasi Perairan Daerah)

720 ha

VI (Protected area with sustainable use of natural resources)

2.

District-based MPA Pantai Ujungnegoro - Roban (Batang), Central Java

District-based MPA (Kawasan Konservasi Perairan Daerah)

4,015.20 ha

VI (Protected area with sustainable use of natural resources)

3.

District-based MPA Karang Jeruk, Tegal, Central Java

District-based MPA (Kawasan Konservasi Perairan Daerah)

53,460 ha

VI (Protected area with sustainable use of natural resources)

4.

District-based MPA Kepulauan Sepanjang (Sumenep), Madura, East Java

District-based MPA (Kawasan Konservasi Perairan Daerah)

118,406.20 ha

VI (Protected area with sustainable use of natural resources)

5.

District-based MPA Pasir Putih Kabupaten Situbondo, East Java 

District-based MPA (Kawasan Konservasi Perairan Daerah)

195.20 ha

6.

Marine National Park (MOF) Karimun Jawa, Central Java

Marine National Park (Taman Nasional Laut)

110,117.30 ha

II (National Park)

7.

Marine National Park (MOF) Kepulauan Seribu, DKI Jakarta 

Marine National Park (Taman Nasional Laut)

107,489.00 ha

II (National Park)

8.

Marine Wildlife Reserve Pulau Rambut dan Perairan, DKI Jakarta

Marine Wildlife Reserve (Suaka Margasatwa Laut)

90 ha

IV (Habitat/Species Management Area)

 

FishSource Scores

Last updated on 14 May 2018

SELECT SCORES

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

As calculated for 2016 data.

The score is < 6.

There are no management objectives for the leopard coralgrouper stock(s) in FMA 712. Existing management objectives per FMA are set for aggregated reef fish group only (KKP-RI 2017).

As calculated for 2016 data.

The score is < 6.

Leopard coralgrouper fishery in FMA 712 is mostly small-scale (≤ 5 GT) and practically unregulated by law. Scientific advice (MSY, TAC, and fOPT) existed at aggregated biomass level (i.e., reef fish group) per FMA, however, there is no direct operational connection to the small scale fishing units plying the waters targeting the fish.

As calculated for 2016 data.

The score is < 6.

Most of the leopard coralgrouper catches (particularly species of export quality) go directly to the buyers'/middlemen’s facilities. Meanwhile, official enumeration of catches take place in government fish landing sites, and thus these catches are most likely not recorded or under-reported.

STOCK HEALTH:

As calculated for 2016 data.

The score is < 6.

Recent assessment in 2016 considered ‘reef fish group' in FMA 712 as “over-exploited (E = 1.22)” (KKP-RI 2017), a deterioration from "fully-exploited (E = 0.67)" in the 2015 assessment (KKP-RI 2016a). However, there were no referrals to uncertainties or sensitivity analyses (Suman et al. 2016; Indrajaya 2017). Reported landings of leopard coralgrouper in FMA 712 also show declining trend.

As calculated for 2016 data.

The score is < 6.

Catch under-reporting has been problematic and may have impacted the fishery over time. Exploitation status is worsening from 2015 to 2016. Pathway to a FIP is currently being prepared, to improve, among others, the catch data quality.

HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSE RISK

High Medium Low
No data available for biomass
No data available for biomass
To see data for catch and tac, please view this site on a desktop.
No data available for fishing mortality
No data available for fishing mortality
No data available for recruitment
No data available for recruitment
To see data for management quality, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for stock status, please view this site on a desktop.
DATA NOTES
  1. Reported landing data for groupers are available from 1975 to 2015. However, from 1975 to 2003, all grouper catches are lumped into one group called ‘groupers’, where leopard coralgrouper is aggregated into. From 2004, the ‘grouper’ catch is split into: chocolate hind (Cephalopholis boenak), humpback hind (Cromileptes altivelis), honeycomb grouper (Epinephelus merra), estuary rockcod (Epinephelus tauvina), and leopard coralgrouper (Plectropomus leopardus). In the datafile, we plotted the reported landing of leopard coralgrouper from 2004 to 2015.

  2. Official reported landings, which is official government data, has no reference to discards or bycatch.

  3. Reported landing data of Plectropomus leopardus were computed from 8 provinces in FMA 712: the eastern Sumatera coast of Lampung province, the northern coasts of Banten, DKI Jakarta, West Java, Central Java, and East Java provinces, and the western/southern coasts of Central Kalimantan and South Kalimantan provinces.

  4. Total leopard coralgrouper landings in Indonesia are represented above as Landings.

  5. Scientific advice and the consequential manager’s decisions are based on basket stock assessment system, in which all groupers, including leopard coralgrouper, are lumped into the reef fish group, together with other reef fish species. Therefore the quoted maximum sustainable yields (MSYs), total allowable catches (TACs), exploitation rates (Es), and optimum fishing effort (fOPT) in this profile refer to those of reef fish and not of leopard coralgrouper per se. Meanwhile, the plotted reported landing refers to the landing of leopard coralgrouper. Therefore, the plotted data of MSY/TAC cannot be compared at face value with the plotted data of reported landing.

  6. The standard effort used in the stock assessment in 2015 (bottom long line) is different from that used in 2016 (drop line).

  7. Qualitative scoring is chosen due to the lack of quantitative data.

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Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

No related FIPs

Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

No related MSC certifications

Sources

Credits

SFP is grateful to the following persons for contributing with information to the development of this fishery profile: 

  • Prof. Ali Suman, Senior Shrimp Expert from Research Center for Fisheries (Pusriskan), member of National Commission for Fish Stock Assessment (Komnas Kajiskan), 2012 – present, Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries of the Republic of Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia.

  • Mr. Muhammad Anas, Staff at Directorate General of Capture Fisheries, Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries of the Republic of Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia.

  • Dr Peter Mous, The Nature Conservacy Indonesia Fisheries Conservation Program.

References

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