Last updated on 26 September 2016

SUMMARY

SUMMARY

IDENTIFICATION

SCIENTIFIC NAME(s)

Pleoticus muelleri

SPECIES NAME(s)

Argentine red shrimp, Camarón langostín argentine, Camarón oceánico

COMMON NAMES

langostino patagónico

Based on biological and fishery data, including reproduction areas and seasons, growth, recruitment, and fishery concentration, three independent populations have been recognized in Argentine waters for Argentine red shrimp: Mar del Plata, Bahía Blanca and Patagonia (Boschi, 1997). This profile is relative to the Patagonian stock.

The existence of three stock subunits within the Patagonian stock was recently suggested (De Carli et al., 2012), however evidence is considered not sufficient and a need of population genetic analysis was indicated to confirm this proposed population structure in Patagonian waters. Meanwhile, the Argentine red shrimp population from 43º S to 47°S is considered and managed as a single stock (INIDEP, 2014).

Within the spatial range of distribution of the Patagonian stock, there are several fishing areas for different segments of the fleet and with different jurisdictions, whether national, provincial or based on interprovincial agreements. The industrial fleet and the artisanal fleet of bottom trawlers <21m are covered separately in this profile.


ANALYSIS

Strengths

- The indicators used in the harvest strategy suggest that the stock is in good condition.
- The resource is monitored in real-time in national waters, on the basis of which the federal management body (CFP) takes decisions.
- The resolutions of the CFP directly follow the recommendations made by the scientific body (INIDEP).
- The shrimp breeding/spawning areas of Mazaredo (Santa Cruz) and Robredo (Chubut) in the San Jorge Gulf have been closed for shrimp fishing since 1985 and 2003 respectively.

Weaknesses

- There is not a management plan with reference points and harvest control rules for the stock.
- Management and assessments are not concerted in provincial and federal waters. Assessments in provincial waters are not formalized and real-time regulations are not employed.
- Since April 2014 there are no scientific campaigns by INIDEP oceanographic vessels; monitoring for opening/closing areas is done based on surveys on fishing boats with on-board observers from INIDEP.

FISHSOURCE SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

≥ 6

Managers Compliance:

≥ 6

Fishers Compliance:

≥ 6

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

≥ 8

Future Health:

≥ 6


RECOMMENDATIONS

RETAILERS & SUPPLY CHAIN
  • Support one of the existing fishery improvement projects (FIPs).
  • Contact the Consejo Federal Pesquero (CFP) and request that they develop and implement a red shrimp fishery management plan.

FIPS

  • Argentina offshore red shrimp - bottom trawl:

    Stage 4, Progress Rating A

  • Argentina onshore red shrimp - bottom trawl:

    Stage 5, Progress Rating B

CERTIFICATIONS

No related MSC fisheries

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

ASSESSMENT UNIT MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
Patagonian Argentina inshore Argentina Bottom trawls
Argentina offshore industrial - Industrial Argentina Beam trawls
Bottom trawls

Analysis

OVERVIEW

Last updated on 3 July 2016

Strengths

- The indicators used in the harvest strategy suggest that the stock is in good condition.
- The resource is monitored in real-time in national waters, on the basis of which the federal management body (CFP) takes decisions.
- The resolutions of the CFP directly follow the recommendations made by the scientific body (INIDEP).
- The shrimp breeding/spawning areas of Mazaredo (Santa Cruz) and Robredo (Chubut) in the San Jorge Gulf have been closed for shrimp fishing since 1985 and 2003 respectively.

Weaknesses

- There is not a management plan with reference points and harvest control rules for the stock.
- Management and assessments are not concerted in provincial and federal waters. Assessments in provincial waters are not formalized and real-time regulations are not employed.
- Since April 2014 there are no scientific campaigns by INIDEP oceanographic vessels; monitoring for opening/closing areas is done based on surveys on fishing boats with on-board observers from INIDEP.

RECOMMENDATIONS

Last updated on 31 January 2017

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain
  • Support one of the existing fishery improvement projects (FIPs).
  • Contact the Consejo Federal Pesquero (CFP) and request that they develop and implement a red shrimp fishery management plan.

Last updated on 31 January 2017

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain
  • Implement research projects to gather information on habitat and ecosystem impacts, especially bycatch like hake and protected/endangered/threatened species.

Last updated on 31 January 2017

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain
  • Improve use of mandatory selectivity devices that reduce hake bycatch. 
  • Implement research projects to gather information on bycatch of sharks and rays.

1.STOCK STATUS

STOCK ASSESSMENT

Last updated on 27 June 2016

INIDEP (Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Desarrollo Pesquero) is the public body responsible for the assessment of the fishery resources in the Argentine Sea. INIDEP gives advice to the Consejo Federal Pesquero (CFP) and Subsecretaría de Pesca y Acuicultura (SSPyA) on the sustainable use of these resources, with the aim of preserving the marine ecosystem.

P. muelleri is characterized by a relatively short life cycle and high and variable growth rate, great reproductive potential, and usually an almost total replacement of available biomass between two successive fishing years (Bertuche & Fischbach, 1998). The great fluctuations in the annual recruitment generates variability in the biomass abundance available for the fleet, putting the resource at permanent risk of overfishing in the growth phase and in the recruitment phase (Bertuche & Fischbach, 1998; Fischbach & Bertuche, 1999; De la Garza, 2006).

INIDEP run a Shrimp Project, with a basis in the Precautionary Principle (UNCED, Rio de Janeiro1992), (Bertuche et al., 2000), aiming to contribute to the conservation of the shrimp stock, anticipating critical situations and applying fisheries management tools that avoid recruitment overfishing. Researchers are involved in this project since the 80s (nowadays 7 researchers comprise the group) in response to the demand for scientific knowledge on the population dynamics of P. muelleri. Since the demands from the fishing sector and the administration have increased, the project now also studies and generates estimators of future productivity scenarios and management and harvesting strategies that consider the extreme variability in yearly recruitment, the short life cycle and the high and variable growth for this species.

The harvesting strategy is based on an ongoing assessment of the daily CPUE (catches per hour and catches per day) as a proxy of shrimp abundance, the length frequency of the catches and the shrimp/hake ratio. This information allows for the periodic generation of estimates of future production scenarios and management tools appropriate to the variability of the resource. On the basis of the information obtained in real-time, pragmatic and quick decisions are proposed as required by the ecology of the resource, such as dynamic temporal and spatial closures that maximize the potential for resource renewal (Bertuche et al, 2000).

The INIDEP on board observers program evaluates the relative abundance of the stock through shrimp monthly average catch per day (CPD) expressed as kilograms per fishing day, which is considered to be more reliable than the captures per fishing hour based on logbooks (which is also monitored). Landings are equivalent to capture since the discarded shrimp is negligible (Fischbach et al, 2009; Fischbach & Bertuche, 2015). Thus, the yield is expressed in terms of kg of shrimp caught by fishing day and assumes the CPD as a proxy of the shrimp abundance. The CPUE, expressed as kilograms per fishing hour, is based on the logbooks filled out by the captains of the fishing vessel and it is also monitored on a daily basis during the fishing season. The relationship between catches of hake and shrimp per fishing hour (hake/shrimp ratio) is a key indicator for INIDEP for recommending the closure of a fishing area; this ratio goes from ~0.09 at the beginning of the fishing season to almost 1 at the end of the fishing season, which means that equal kilograms of shrimp and hake are captured per hour.

The Patagonian red shrimp fishery in Argentina has been managed since its inception as a single biological stock unit (Boschi, 1989). Based on the research done by INIDEP the processes of reproduction, recruitment and growth in P. muelleri occur continuously but variably in time and space. Therefore it is not possible to identify a cohort or real stock unit to follow for a long period of time, so the concept of stock unity and cohort monitoring could not be applied (Bertuche & Fischbach, 1998). Further research suggested the existence of three ecological subunits of reproduction and growth: Rawson’s coastline area (43° 30’ S), and the northern (45° S) and southern (47° S) areas of the San Jorge Gulf, in which spawning occurs at different times of the year (De Carli et al. 2012). A mark, release and recapture program of P. muelleri in the San Jorge Gulf carried out by INIDEP allowed the identification of two migration routes. One of these routes is used by a portion of the population that was born and grows in the southern part of the gulf, remaining in this area and possibly also reproducing there (De Carli, et al 2012).

SCIENTIFIC ADVICE

Last updated on 28 June 2016

Specifically related with the red shrimp fishery, the Crustaceans Fisheries Program in INIDEP carries out several projects to determine the relative abundance and distribution of breeding individuals, the stages of gonadal development, the distribution and density of eggs and larvae, the female size at maturity and indexes of potential and the relative fertility of the species. The program also provides information on the environmental variables related to the processes of recruitment and biomass abundance available for fishing. (Fernández et al., 2001; 2002; 2003; Fernández and Macchi, 2004; 2005; 2006; 2007; 2008; 2009; 2010; 2012; 2014). Unfortunately the scientific survey conducted annually with INIDEP oceanographic vessels has been suspended since April 2014 due to an unsolved trade union claim.

Besides the scientific surveys, INIDEP conducts an ongoing shrimp fishery assessment on fishing vessels with on board observers which includes the collection of fishery data (CPUE, CPD, size frequency, bycatch and discards) for the estimation of shrimp biomass relative abundance and the hake/shrimp ratio during the fishing season. The management body (Consejo Federal Pesquero – CFP) authorizes INIDEP to run the initial assessment surveys for the opening of the fishing season. This is done on commercial fishing vessels under INIDEP technical considerations (including number of vessels, area surveyed and days per area). As the shrimp stock migrates, new areas are petitioned to be opened by the fishing sector; INIDEP survey the new area and recommends its opening or not based on CPD and shrimp size frequency indicators. When the CPD reduces and the hake/shrimp ratio increases beyond certain thresholds, INIDEP recommends the closure of the fishery and the CFP approves a closure resolution. The resolutions of the CFP for opening/closing areas have historically directly followed the recommendations made by INIDEP.

Reference Points

Last updated on 28 Jun 2016

The main indicators used in the assessment and management of the fishery are:
1) Monthly average catch per day (CPD) – The effective day of fishing is considered as the unit of effort effectively applied. Landings are equivalent to catches because discarding of shrimp is negligible. Thus, the yield is expressed in terms of kilograms of shrimp caught by fishing day and assumes the CPD as a proxy indicator of the shrimp abundance.

CPD have been used as indicators of the abundance of shrimp in different periods in the history of the shrimp Patagonian fishery. It is calculated based on a representative sample of fishing vessels that have been in the fishery for several years and have no limitations on fishing throughout the range of the Patagonian shrimp stock. When the monthly series spend several months at lower values than the historical annual average minimum obtained (1995), it can be considered in a precautionary manner that it is a period of potential risk of failure of the renewal of the resource available for fishing (recruitment) (Fischbach et al., 2009).

2) Daily captures per unit effort (CPUE) – effective hours of fishing based on onboard logbooks is considered as the unit of effort. The average yields (daily hours trawling) are used to track the resource dynamic throughout the fishing season, and jointly with the CPD is taken into account to determine the opening or closure of the fishing zones.

3) Hake/shrimp ratio – given that the shrimp fishery is closely related to the hake fishery, the amount of hake bycatch thorough the season is used as an indicator to close the shrimp fishery activities in the hake reproductive area. In 2003 INIDEP recommended that the total catch of hake in the shrimp fishery did not exceed the 34,325 t, considered the biologically acceptable threshold. During the period 2000-2013 the annual average hake bycatch was 30,000 t, and since 2008 the biological threshold has not been surpassed (Villarino & Simonazi 2015). The hake/shrimp ratio threshold for closing fishing areas is not clearly defined for decision making.

4) Size frequency of shrimp individuals. The harvest strategy delays the opening of the fishing season until the shrimp recruited in the fishing gear in the national area reach the best individual sizes (Fischbach & Bertuche 2015). The shrimp sizes are classified in six commercial categories (from L1 to L6, from 10-20 to >80 individuals per kilogram respectively) (Fernández & Machi 2015). Categories from L1 to L4 (from 10 to 60 indiv./kg) are over the size at first maturity (Iorio et al. 2000). The indicator CPD10/60 is the CPD for only L1-L4 categories and it is used to delay the opening of the areas. An ongoing historic series of this indicator starts in 1992.

Last updated on 1 July 2016

The first on board observer program carried out in Argentina was funded by the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) and monitored the coastal inshore fleets from 1993 to 1996 to obtain a diagnostic of the Patagonian inshore fisheries and to know the non-target species captured (Caile et al, 1997). After this, each coastal province developed their own program. The Chubut province established in 2000, and still ongoing, the POBCh (Programa de Observadores a bordo de la Secretaria de Pesca de Chubut) for collecting biological information about target species and bycatch, contributing to strengthen the knowledge on ecosystem and biodiversity of their fishing areas. The program covers all the fleets which operates in their jurisdiction (offshore beam and bottom trawl, and inshore artisanal).
The artisanal fleet (flota amarilla de Rawson) operates in three fishing zones:
(1) the inshore waters of Chubut province (<12 miles) between the latitudes 43º and 44º56’ N.
(2) the ZEPR area (Zona de esfuerzo pesquero restringido para buques de menos de 21m, artisanal fleet) in inshore waters of the San Jorge Gulf, and
(3) the AIER (Área Interjurisdiccional de Esfuerzo Pesquero Restringido) area located in national waters adjacent to the limit of provincial jurisdiction and only accessible by the artisanal fleet (<21m); mainly the artisanal fleet from Rawson

Areas 1 and 2 are managed exclusively by Chubut province. The Subsecretaria de Pesca de la Provincia de Chubut takes into account the information obtained by POBCh, but do not have a formal assessment and the information provided by the program and the specific regulation of the fishery is not public. The AIER is managed by National authorities and consequently is under INIDEP’s assessment and the CFP authorization for regulating the fishing activities.

The industrial fleet operates in two contiguous areas:
(1) The offshore national waters which overlap with the hake juvenile closure area (AVJM: Área de veda de juveniles de merluza), and
(2) the internal waters of San Jorge Gulf under the jurisdiction of Chubut and Santa Cruz provinces. The first are under INIDEP assessment and CFP authorization to open the fishing activities. In the second each province has independent management strategies for regulating the fishery in their areas. Both run their own assessment surveys with their on board observers programs (INIDEP observers are also hired) for opening/closing the different areas of the fishery. Since it is provincial jurisdiction, CFP authorization is not needed for managing the fishery. Vessels from Chubut and Santa Cruz can operate in the entire gulf, regardless whether in the north area off the coast of Chubut or in the south in Santa Cruz, due to an agreement between both provinces.

Reference Points

The stock evaluation is closely related to the industrial fishery, but sometimes the information provided by the POBCh observers program is used in management decisions. For example the hake/shrimp ratio in the waters under Chubut province jurisdiction, when the hake/shrimp ratio threshold was established between 0.5-2 for closing fishing areas. Nevertheless since 2006 this harvest control rule has not been followed and the ratio has reached higher values exceeding 5 (Góngora, 2010).

CURRENT STATUS

Last updated on 28 June 2016

In the shrimp fishery discarding of shrimp is negligible and therefore the catch is considered to be representative of the abundance (Fischbach & Bertuche, 2015). Since 2006 landings have been increasing and in 2015 the total catch reported was 142,846 tons, representing a historical record in the fishery (Ministerio de Agroindustria y Desembarques, 2015). The magnitude of increase in the shrimp abundance registered in recent years does not seem to relate solely to the current harvest strategy nor is it related to increases in effort by fleets. Also in 2014 and 2015 the industrial fleet used new areas where shrimp concentrations were not observed before; northeastern waters in the national area, the San Matias and San Jose Gulfs off the coasts of Chubut and Rio Negro (Fischbach and Bertuche, 2015).

Other indices also show a positive trend. The CPD shows a steady increase from 2005 to 2014 (Fischbach & Bertuche 2015). Bycatch of hake has not exceeded the threshold recommended by INIDEP since 2008 (Villarino & Simonazzi, 2015). Based on scientific surveys done in oceanographicvessels in January at the beginning of the fishing season, in 2014 the bigger size categories of commercial shrimp(L1, L2 and L3) represented15.7% of the total catch, showing an increasing trend from 2007 when it was 7.7% (de la Garza 2014),

The density of eggs and larvae shows the same pattern over the years and suggests that it may be related to the parental stock. This could be the result of declining fish stocks in Patagonia causing a change in ecosystem oriented to invertebrate dominance; in addition to shrimp, the squat lobster Munida gregaria, the southern king crab Lithodes santolla and the shortfin squid Illex argentinus have reached record abundance levels (Moriondo Danovaro, 2015; Fischbach & Bertuche, 2015).

Trends

Last updated on 28 Jun 2016

The management strategy of the Patagonian red shrimp has changed since the development of the fishery 30 years ago, based on the better understanding of the spatial-temporal dynamics of the species. The following graph shows the evolution of total shrimp landings from 1989 to 2015 and identifies critical periods of lower abundance (in red circles) and management measures applied in the fishery.

Source data : Ministerio de Agroindustria Argentina

- 1985: the largest shrimp breeding area (Mazaredo in Santa Cruz province) is permanently closed to fishing.
- 1990: the beam trawl vessels began to operate in the fishery.
- Between 1995 and 1997 the minimum abundance levels were registered.
- 1999: establishment of the hake emergency fishing and trawling banned areas and beginning of the spatial-temporal system of closures and openings of fishing areas.
- Although some areas was closed to fishing activities, there was an increase in fishing effort from 2000, both in number of vessels and fishing days, leading to a new period of decline.
- 2003: summer closure to protect the reproductive processes of northern San Jorge Gulf (Chubut)
- 2005: critical shrimp abundance year. The decrease was a result of low recruitment and the previous years of fishing pressure; consequently the fleet could only operate for six months.
- 2006: all fishing activity was banned in the spawning area of Robredo (north of San Jorge Gulf, Chubut).
- 2006-2015: period of increasing landings


Source data : Ministerio de Agroindustria Argentina

Last updated on 28 June 2016

Trends

Last updated on 28 Jun 2016

The landings of the artisanal fleet have exponentially increased in the last 6 years, up to almost 35,000 tons, following the boom in the shrimp abundance and the opening of new areas for fishing.

Source data : Ministerio de Agroindustria Argentina

Trends

The beam trawl fleet (tangoneros) has historically been the main fleet capturing shrimp, with landings fluctuating between 5,000-60,000 tons. From 2006 a steady increase in landings was observed, reaching 90,000 tons in 2015.

Source data : Ministerio de Agroindustria Argentina

The bottom trawl fleet (fresqueros) is in terms of landing the smallest one of the three shrimp fleets, nevertheless, it has also experienced lately an exponential increase, with a fourfold increase in landings in only the last 3 years, from ~3,000 to more than 13,000 tons. 

Source data : Ministerio de Agroindustria Argentina

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

MANAGEMENT

Last updated on 28 June 2016

The Federal Fisheries Regime established by Law No.24, 922 promulgated in 1997 recognizes the CFP as the body that sets the national fisheries policy, the fisheries research policy and the national fisheries development plans. The CFP sets the maximum allowable catch by species taking into account the maximum sustainable yield, according to data provided by INIDEP. The CFP has a collegial composition with representatives of the coastal provinces and the national state.

There is no management plan for this fishery. The management of the Patagonian shrimp fishery is based on fishery effort restrictions and spatial – temporal closures. There is no quota system, but in 1988 a maximum annual catch limit of 500 t was set for beam trawl operating in San Jorge Gulf and the National area (Resolution No. 1113 SAGPyA). Recently and based on the positive evolution of the fishery and the increasing catches of recent years (from 17,800 to 127,000 tons between 1988 and 2014), the CFP has invalidated this catch limit (Res. 3 24/04/2014).

In 1990 INIDEP observed signs of over-exploitation of hake and from 1998national landings decreased, establishing a fishing emergency in 1999 (DNU Nº189/99 of the National Executive), which remains in force until today. This led to defining a permanent area of total ban for all types of trawling vessels. Since then the opening and closing of limited zones within the closed area of hake to catch shrimp is determined annually by the CFP on the basis of recommendations and surveys results from INIDEP.

Recovery Plans

Last updated on 28 Jun 2016

The basic management measures in the fishery are the zoning of fishing effort by fleet type and openings and temporary closures according to the resource status and the protection of reproductive and spawning areas. After the management measures taken during the 90s and 2000s and the increasing abundance of shrimp from 2005, no recovery plan is presently necessary.

Last updated on 27 June 2016

The fishing season in the waters of Chubut province is held between the months of September and February. The artisanal fleet is not subject to the limitations and open/closing areas management that affects others national shrimp fishing zones.

In 2004 the AIER area was declared in national waters, opening the fishing activity to the artisanal fleet exclusively. Since the management in the AIER area depends on the national authorities, the fishing activity is opened by CFP based on INIDEP surveys and recommendations.

The abundance of shrimp in the San Jorge Gulf promoted the establishment of a formal agreement in 1988 between the Chubut and Santa Cruz provinces to jointly manage the fishery. This agreement allowed the shrimp industrial fleets to operate throughout the Gulf independently of the provincial administration who granted permission to each fishing vessel.

In Santa Cruz jurisdiction the largest shrimp breeding area (Mazaredo) is permanently closed to fishing since 1985. The fishing activity in the Gulf was spatially planned and distributed according to the fleet use since 1999. The beam trawl fleet is currently allocated in South east Gulf areas and spatial and temporal closures are enforced to prevent growth overfishing.

In the Chubut jurisdiction the management is focused on protecting spawning areas, especially when the abundance of adult shrimp is very low, and to control bycatch of hake. Since 2003 there is a summer closure (between November and March, depending on the season), which protects the reproductive processes of northern San Jorge Gulf. Since 2006 all fishing activity was banned in the spawning area of Robredo, in the north of the Gulf.

In the San Jorge Gulf the Patagonian shrimp fishery occurs in parallel with the hake fishery with a spatial and temporal overlap of both fisheries. The San Jorge Gulf is an important breeding area for hake throughout the year, reaching 70% of the total juvenile biomass stock in Patagonia. Hake is discarded by the hake fishery itself (discard by size) and by the shrimp fishery (discard bycatch).

COMPLIANCE

Last updated on 28 June 2016

This fishery does not have a TAC established but is managed under effort control on different areas/periods.

The magnitude of illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing is unknown, nevertheless there are no indications that IUU fishing is a real problem.

Since 2003 it is mandatory for the industrial fishing vessels to have a GPS and a satellite communication system (INMARSAT Std.C) to be monitored by the Subsecretaría de Pesca y Acuicultura (SSPyA). The information from this satellite-based vessel monitoring system (VMS) is also shared with INIDEP and incorporated into a comprehensive database in which oceanographic and fishing information is integrated under the Sistema Integrado de Información Oceanográfica Pesquera - SIOP). The SSPyA also has a team of inspectors on board for at-sea controls. It is supported in this function by the maritime police (Prefectura Nacional Argentina). The SSPyA and the provincial authorities are in charge of the land controls at ports and processing plants.

The principal problem in the Patagonian shrimp fishery is the bycatch of hake juveniles due to the overlap of the shrimp fishery with hake reproductive areas. This bycatch is discarded since there is a ban on landing undersized individuals of hake. Since 1998 there are regulations that require the industrial fishing vessels to use selectivity devices that have been tested by INIDEP to avoid the capture of hake juvenile. The latest resolution from the CFP that regulates this issue is from 2010 and mandates the use of two proved devices: DISELA II and HARGRIL (Resolución 7/2010). Several effective devices have been proposed by the fishery sector, mainly during the last 10 years, and HARGRIL was designed by a fishing company. Nevertheless it is known that not all vessels use these devices, but there has not yet been an assessment of the level of compliance and impacts on effectively reducing hake bycatch (Góngora, 2012).

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

BYCATCH
ETP Species

Last updated on 28 June 2016

Information is only available from the industrial fishery; no public information is available about the interactions between the artisanal fleet and endangered, threatened or protected (ETP) species.

Eight species of sharks are caught in the industrial Patagonian red shrimp fishery and five of them are considered ETP species: Prionace glauca (Near Threatened), Galeorhinus galeus (Vulnerable), Squalus acanthias (Vulnerable), Squatina guggenheim (Endangered) and Mustelus schmitti (Endangered), (Gongora et al, 2009). Schroederichthys bivius is also recorded as incidental capture species and although IUCN lists this species as Data Deficient (DD) a recent study shows that between 1997 and 2001 the abundance of S. bivius has decreased, which adds to the loss of breeding areas for the species detected in the southern Patagonia and identifies the Patagonian shrimp fishery as a potential threat to S. bivius (Cedrola et al.,2012)

In the batoids group eleven species are part of the bycatch of this fishery: Atlantoraja cyclophora, Bathyraja albomaculata, Dipturus flavirostris, Dipturus trachydermus are listed as vulnerable (VU) and Rhinoraja macloviana and Discopyget schudii near threatened (NT) (Góngora et al 2009, Cedrola et al, 2004).

The management strategy of the Patagonian red shrimp fishery has prioritized controlling hake bycatch and to our knowledge no measures have been implemented to avoid captures of other species, including PET species, in the fishing gear operation.

Other Species

Last updated on 28 June 2016

The coastal fleet targets shrimp as their main fishing resource. Traditionally it has been considered to be monospecific, although information about bycatch is scarce. Recently a INIDEP report estimated hake bycatch in 2013 using data of only one fishing trip in the AIER area (Villarino & Simonazzi, 2015). It is important to note that the AIER overlaps with the closure of hake (AVJM) and in this estimation is not reflected the low impact of the fleet in their others and traditional fishing areas.

CEDEPESCA, a regional NGO, is developing a Fishery Improvement Project which includes an onboard observer progam. Preliminary results shows that in the Chubut jurisdiction the bycatch is only 6.42% of catches and only 3.83% correspond to hake bycatch.

The only target species in the industrial Patagonian red shrimp fishery is the shrimp P. muelleri; the rest of the species caught are discarded. Argentine hake (Merluccius hubssi) is the main bycatch species captured, because the operation zone of the shrimp fishery overlaps the hake breeding area; hake is usually discarded and not declared. In a frequency of species occurrence analysis of the bycatch run between 2003 and 2007 in beam trawl vessels, hake was considered dominant in 30% of the hauls, abundant in 39%, common in 18% and rare in 13%, and totally discarded 81% of the times (Góngora et al. 2009). Hake is one of the principal resources in Argentinean fisheries and is managed by a quotas system. In 1990 INIDEP noted symptoms of overexploitation of hake and from 1998 national landings decreased, establishing recovery efforts in 1999 which remain in force because the stock has not yet recovered. The bycatch estimation is made by an on-board observer program run by INIDEP and data are used in the hake assessment and for the determination of their biological allowable catch (Villarino & Simonazzi, 2015). In 2003 INIDEP recommended that the total catch of hake in the shrimp fishery not exceed 34.325 t, considered the biologically acceptable threshold. During the period 2000-2013 the annual average hake bycatch was 30,000 t, and since 2008 the biologically threshold has not been surpassed (Villarino & Simonazi 2015). The hake/shrimp ratio threshold for closing fishing areas is not clearly defined for decision making.

Between 2000 and 2013 the average value of hake bycatch was 30,000 tons per year. During this period two peaks with high levels of bycatch were reported; the first (2002-2003) was related to a year of strong hake recruitment, an increase in fishing effort in the shrimp fishery and the non-use of selectivity devices in the fishing gears. The decrease observed in 2005 corresponds to a year of very low shrimp recruitment, so the shrimp fleet operated only during six months. From 2008-2009 a new period of increasing values of bycatch was recorded and finally a further decrease which could be linked to high and sustained recruitment of shrimp and the management measures in place.

During the fishing season, the monthly evolution of hake bycatch shows an increase from September coinciding with a decrease in yields of shrimp and increasing fishing effort. Although the performance of the fishery in October-November is the lowest of the season, it still remains profitable for the fishing companies; this leads to an increase of the hake/shrimp ratio because of the beginning of the hake aggregations related to the onset of the breeding season. Currently INIDEP recommends anticipating the industrial trawling shrimp fishery (tangoneros and fresqueros) closure to the beginning of hake reproductive season (Villarino & Simonazzi, 2015).

Another 66 fish species were recorded in the Patagonian shrimp fishery based on an on-board observers program from 2003 to 2007 and 18,718 hauls checked (Góngora et al., 2009; Góngora et al., 2012) but the occurrence is far lower than hake. However the impact of the shrimp fishery on these species cannot be assessed due to the scarcity of information on them (Góngora et al., 2012).

Argentina
Beam trawls

Recently the data recorded by the POBCh related to the beam trawl fleet bycatch have been published in the OBIS (Ocean biogeographic information system) database. The next step is to incorporate the data of the bottom trawl industrial fleet and the artisanal fleet.

Taxonomic list of fish species reported as bycatch in the Patagonia shrimp fishery
(outrigger freezing fleet) from 2003 to 2007 (Gongora et al, 2009).


Bottom trawls

The following table shows the frequency of occurrence (FO) of bycatch by species in the central and north area of the San Jorge Gulf for the offshore (industrial) bottom trawl fleet, when red shrimp is the target species (n: number of hauls in which the species was identified, : FO of each species in the fishing hauls, 0.05 and 0.95: confidence intervals 0.05 to 0.95) (Bovcon et al, 2013). The list of bycatch species is very long, with hake (M. hubbsi) recorded as the main one in both areas. In the north area a total of 70 species were recorded, with 10 of them with a FO over 40 (M. hubbsi, L. santolla, M. gregaria, Loligo spp., Renilla sp., S. brasiliensis, P. normani, P. ramsayi, I. argentinus and G. blacodes). Only 13 species of the bycatch (19%) are partially or totally utilized. Similar results were observed in the central area, with 49 species and 9 of them with a FO over 40% (M. hubbsi, G. blacodes, P. ramsayi, Z. chilensis, Pterygosquilla armata armata, Loligo spp., L. santolla, Libidoclaea granaria and I. argentinus). Only 9 species of the bycatch (18%) are partially or totally utilized.

HABITAT

Last updated on 3 July 2016

A mapping of the benthic communities in San Jorge Gulf has been conducted, to establish preliminary relationships between the benthic system and the spatial distribution of the Patagonian shrimp; a clear correspondence exists between the benthic associations and granulometric characteristics of the substrate which determine two particular areas. The area including the extremes (capes Dos Bahías and Tres Puntas) is characterized by coarse sediments and the associated fauna is mainly colonial. The area consisting of the northern, southern and mouth regions of the gulf is characterized by fine sediments and the representative taxa are mollusks, echinoderms, crustaceans and polychaetes (Roux et al, 1995). In the Northern part of San Jorge Gulf there are unsuitable grounds for trawling that are core reservoirs maintaining species diversity and richness of natural benthic communities (Roux, 2000; 2009).

Specific studies on the impact of the red shrimp fishery on the ocean floor and on the ecosystem have not been developed. The activity of the fleet is mainly over sandy and muddy bottoms. Around 35% of the offshore bottoms are not viable for trawling and a large area for hake conservation is also protected from trawling, covering ~50% of the hake spatial distribution range (CFP, 2009). The San Jorge Gulf also has a marine park for protecting areas of relevant ecosystems and biodiversity.

Marine Reserves

Last updated on 03 Jul 2016

Under the Patagonian red shrimp fishery strategy there are year-round closed areas and seasonal/spawning closures. Two identified shrimp spawning and recruitment areas are totally protected and closed year-round to any fishing activity: the permanent closed areas of Robredo and Mazaredo.

The “Parque Interjurisdiccional Marino Costero Patagonia Austral” is located in the northern part of the San Jorge Gulf, with an area of approximately 132,124 ha. It includes a marine area and adjacent islands to the southern part (Leones and Arce) and the permanent closed area of Robredo. This Marine Park extends only one nautical mile from the coast and does not cover the fishing areas of northern San Jorge Gulf. The Park promotes sustainable activities compatible with conservation (National Law N° 26.446/09)

FishSource Scores

Last updated on 23 May 2018

SELECT SCORES

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

As calculated for 2015 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

There is not yet a specific management plan in place (although there is a working plan for elaborating one advanced by the CFP) or concerted management and assessments in provincial and federal waters. Federal managers make use of real-time monitoring of shrimp abundance, size and recruitment in offshore waters, on which they base fishery effort restrictions and spatial and/or temporal closures. Assessments in provincial waters are not formalized and real-time regulations are not employed, although permanent and seasonal closures are enforced.

As calculated for 2015 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

All the recommendations (opening and closure of areas based on abundance, recruitment, and size distribution) made by the scientific body, INIDEP, are directly followed by the federal management body, the CFP. In the area under the Chubut province jurisdiction, information from monitoring programs are not used for real-time management.

As calculated for 2015 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

The magnitude of illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing is unknown, but there are no reports or flags that IUU fishing is a problem for the stock. The mandatory use of the devices approved for reducing hake bycatch is not completely followed by the industrial fishing fleet.

STOCK HEALTH:

As calculated for 2015 data.

The score is ≥ 8.

Relative abundance indices from scientific surveys indicate that current status is above the historical average. INIDEP reports show signs that the stock is in good condition. The indicators of the fishery show positive trends.

As calculated for 2015 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

There are no fishing mortality reference points set for the stock. INIDEP estimated mortality rates from catch data (from onboard monitoring) of fishing vessels from 1992 to 2008, showing that estimations are within the range reported for other shrimp species (De la Garza and Fischbach, 2009). Fishing pressure is currently not considered high, moreover having decreased considerably since the late '90s. Nevertheless FMSY and/or Ftrp are unknown; therefore it is not known if this level would sustain long-term catch and assure long-term continued supply from the stock.

No data available for biomass
No data available for biomass
To see data for catch and tac, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for fishing mortality, please view this site on a desktop.
No data available for recruitment
No data available for recruitment
To see data for management quality, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for stock status, please view this site on a desktop.
DATA NOTES

1) No reference points are in use in the fishery for management or assessment purposes. All scores have been determined qualitatively (please mouse over for details).
2) The fishing mortality series graphed was estimated by De la Garza & Fischbach (2009) but is not regularly re-estimated or used in assessments.

Download Source Data

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Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

SELECT FIP

Access FIP Public Report

Progress Rating: A
Evaluation Start Date: 4 Apr 2016
Type: Comprehensive

Comments:

FIP rating remains at A. Last stage 4 achievement still within 12 months.

 

1.
FIP Development
Sep 16
2.
FIP Launch
Apr 16
Apr 16
3.
FIP Implementation
Feb 18
4.
Improvements in Fishing Practices and Fishery Management
Feb 18
5.
Improvements on the Water
Verifiable improvement on the water
6.
MSC certification (optional)
MSC certificate made public

Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

No related MSC certifications

Sources

Credits

The following authors developed the majority of the content of this profile:

Fernández, Cynthia (cynsf@yahoo.com): Facultade de Ciencias do Mar, Campus Lagoas-Marcosende, Universidad de Vigo, 36210 Vigo (Pontevedra), Spain.

Macho, Gonzalo (gmacho@uvigo.es): Facultade de Ciencias do Mar, Campus Lagoas-Marcosende, Universidad de Vigo, 36210 Vigo (Pontevedra), Spain.

under contract to Aquastar www.aquastar.com.

The authors are grateful to María Eva Góngora from Secretaría de Pesca de la Provincia de Chubut, Argentina, who provided a great deal of information.

References

Bertuche D. & C. Fischbach 1998. Respecto del manejo de la pesquería de langostino patagónico (Pleoticusmuelleri) en el área sur del Golfo San Jorge en 1997/1998. Informe Técnico INIDEP N° 72/98. 14 pp. http://www.inidep.edu.ar/wp-content/uploads/Langostino.pdf

Bertuche, D., C. Fischbach & J. De la Garza 2000. La fluctuación de la abundancia de langostino en el Golfo San Jorge. Un análisis preliminar de su relación con el manejo pesquero y los cambios del contexto climático global. Informe Técnico INIDEP Nº 45/00. 15 pp.
http://www.inidep.edu.ar/publicaciones/catalogo/informes-tecnicos-2000/

Boschi, E. E. 1997. Fisheries of marine decapod crustaceans in Argentina. Invest. Mar. Valparaíso, 25: 19-40, 1997. http://www.scielo.cl/pdf/imar/v25/art03.pdf

Boschi, E., M. Iorio & C. Fischbach 1981. Distribución y abundancia de los crustáceos decápodos capturados en las campañas de los B/I WaltherHerwig y Shinkai Maru en el Mar Argentino, 1978-1979.. INIDEP, Mar del Plata. Contribución 383: 233-253.
http://www.sidalc.net/cgi-bin/wxis.exe/?IsisScript=docau.xis&method=post&formato=2&cantidad=1&expresion=mfn=000398

Caille G., R. González, A. Gosztonyi & N. Ciocco 1997. Especies capturadas por las flotas de pesca costera en Patagonia. Programa de biólogos observadores a bordo 1993 – 1996. Informes Técnicos del Plan de Manejo Integrado de la Zona Costera Patagónica (Puerto Madryn, Argentina) Nº 27
www.patagonianatural.org/publicaciones/…/53_ec552a360ffbae62dc09f87c8dec6b80

Cedrola, P.V., A.M. González & A.D. Pettovello 2005. Bycatch of skates (Elasmobranchii: Arhynchobatidae, Rajidae) in the Patagonian red shrimp fishery. Fish. Res., 71: 141–150. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/238374225_Bycatch_of_skates_Elasmobranchii_Arhynchobatidae_Rajidae_in_the_Patagonian_red_shrimp_fishery

Cedrola PV, González AM, Chiaramonte GE, and Pettovello AD 2012. Bycatch of sharks (Elasmobranchii) in the Patagonian red shrimp Pleoticusmuelleri (Bate, 1888) fishery. RevistadelMuseoArgentino de CienciasNaturales, n. s. 14(2), 2012.
http://www.macn.secyt.gov.ar/investigacion/descargas/publicaciones/revista/14/rns_vol14-2_349-356.pdf

De Carli, P., Braccalenti, J.C., García-De-León, F.J, Acuña Gómez, E.P. 2012. La pesquería del langostino argentino Pleoticus muelleri (Crustacea: Penaeidae) en Patagonia, ¿un único stock?. Anales Instituto Patagonia (Chile), 40(2):103-112. http://www.scielo.cl/pdf/ainpat/v40n2/art09.pdf

De la Garza, 2006. Estimación de los parámetros de crecimiento del langostino patagónico utilizando frecuencia de tallas para las temporadas 2004 a 2006. Inf. Tec INIDEP N° 078/06. 12pp.
http://www.inidep.edu.ar/publicaciones/catalogo/informes-tecnicos-2006/

De la Garza, J. & C. Fischbach 2009. Obtención de índices de mortalidad y tasas de explotación del langostino (Pleoticusmuelleri) en las temporadas de pesca 1992-2008 a partir de datos de producción y desembarques INIDEP, Mar del Plata. Informe Técnico Interno 63. 16 pp.
http://www.inidep.edu.ar/publicaciones/catalogo/editar-esta-noticia-informes-tecnicos-2009/

De la Garza, J. and Fischbach, C. 2008. Información biologica del langostino patagonico obtenida a bordo de un barco comercial y resultados de las prospecciones realizadas en aguas nacionales, Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Desarrollo Pesquero, 13 p.http://www.revistapuerto.com.ar/PDFBiologia/79.pdf

Fernández, M., G. Macchi & J. De la Garza 2001. Estimación de fecundidad potencial y fecundidad relativa del langostino Pleoticusmuelleri del Golfo San Jorge. Período analizado: Diciembre de 2000 a marzo de 2001. Informe Técnico INIDEPN° 67/01. 21 pp.
http://www.inidep.edu.ar/publicaciones/catalogo/informes-tecnicos-2001/

Fernández, M., J. De la Garza & G. Macchi 2002. Estimación de fecundidad potencial y fecundidad relativa del langostino Pleoticusmuelleridel Golfo San Jorge y litoral de la Provincia de Chubut. Período analizado: Septiembre de 2001 a febrero de 2002. Informe Técnico INIDEP N° 36/02. 33 pp. http://www.inidep.edu.ar/publicaciones/catalogo/informes-tecnicos-2002/

Fernández, M. & G. Macchi 2004. Análisis reproductivo de las concentraciones de langostino localizadas en el relevamiento llevado a cabo con el BP Arbumasa XIX en el mes de febrero de 2004. Inf. Tec. Int. INIDEP N°66/04. 15pp. http://www.inidep.edu.ar/publicaciones/catalogo/informes-tecnicos-2004/

Fernández, M. 2005. Localización de las concentraciones reproductivas del langostino del litoral patagónico. Período analizado: diciembre de 2000 a enero de 2005. Informe Técnico INIDEP N° 77/05. 13 pp. http://www.inidep.edu.ar/publicaciones/catalogo/informes-tecnicos-2005/

Fernández, M. & G. Macchi 2006. Estimación de la fecundidad potencial y relativa del langostino del Golfo San Jorge. Resultados de la campaña de investigación OB-01/06 (Febrero 2006). . Inf. Tec. Int. INIDEP N°58/06. 10pp. http://www.inidep.edu.ar/publicaciones/catalogo/informes-tecnicos-2006/

Fernández, M. & G. Macchi 2007. Dinámica del proceso reproductivo del langostino del litoral patagónico. Resultados de la campaña de investigación OB-06/06 (noviembre de 2006). Informe Técnico INIDEP. 11 pp.
http://www.inidep.edu.ar/publicaciones/catalogo/informes-tecnicos-2007/

Fernández, M. & G. Macchi 2009. Dinámica del proceso reproductivo del langostino del litoral patagónico. Resultados de la campaña de investigación OB-03/08 (noviembre-diciembre de 2008). Inf. Inv. INIDEP N° 94/09 16pp. http://www.inidep.edu.ar/publicaciones/catalogo/informes-de-investigacion-2009/

Fernández, M. & G. Macchi 2010. Dinámica del proceso reproductivo del langostino del litoral patagónico. Resultados de la campaña de investigación OB-01/09 (Enero-febrero 2009) OB-01/10 (Enero-febrero 2010). Inf. Inv. INIDEP N° 95/10 34pp. http://www.inidep.edu.ar/publicaciones/catalogo/informes-de-investigacion-2010/

Fernández, M. & G. Macchi 2012. Análisis de la actividad reproductiva del langostino Pleotiucsmuelleri (Spence Bate, 1888) del litoral patagónico. Resultados de las campañas de investigación AEI 01/11(Febrero 2011) y OB 07/11(Junio/ Julio 2011) Inf. Inv. INIDEP 2012. 15pp. http://www.inidep.edu.ar/publicaciones/catalogo/informes-de-campana-2012-2/

Fernández, M. & G. Macchi 2014. Análisis de la actividad reproductiva del langostino (Pleoticusmuelleri) del litoral patagónico. Resultados de las campañas de investigación EH 01/12 (Enero 2012) y EH 05/12 (Agosto 2012) Inf. Inv. N° 76/14 INIDEP 25pp. http://www.inidep.edu.ar/publicaciones/catalogo/informes-de-investigacion-2014/

Fernández, M. & G. Macchi 2015. Análisis de la actividad reproductiva del langostino (Pleoticus muelleri) del sector patagónico. Resultados de las campañas de investigación OB 01/13 (Febrero 2013) y EH 04/13 (Octubre 2013) Inf. Inv. N° 032 INIDEP 21pp. http://www.inidep.edu.ar/publicaciones/catalogo/informes-de-investigacion-2015/

Fischbach, C. & D. Bertuche 1999. Un análisis de la dinámica de la cosecha de langostino patagónico en la temporada de 1998. Informe Técnico INIDEP N° 38/99. 15 pp.

Fischbach, C. & D. Bertuche 2006. La pesquería del langostino patagónico Pleoticusmuelleri, 1991-2014. El aumento sostenido del desembarco total anual declarado a partir de 2006. Inf. Tec. 014 INIDEP. 19pp. http://www.inidep.edu.ar/publicaciones/catalogo/informes-tecnicos-2006/

Fischbach, C., D. Bertuche & J. de la Garza. 2009. Identificación pragmática de períodos críticos en la abundancia de langostino patagónico, 1992-2008 INIDEP, Mar del Plata. Informe Técnico Interno 19: 15 pp. http://www.inidep.edu.ar/publicaciones/catalogo/editar-esta-noticia-informes-tecnicos-2009/

Fischbach, C, & J. de la Garza. 2015. La pesquería del langostino en 2015. Actividad de la flota tangonera en jurisdicción nacional. (Actas CFP 22,23 y 29/15) Información reportada. Inf. Tec. 019 INIDEP. 13pp. http://www.inidep.edu.ar/publicaciones/catalogo/informes-tecnicos-2015/

Góngora, M.E., N.D. Bovcon& P.D. Cochia 2009. Ictiofauna capturada incidentalmente en la pesquería de langostino patagónico Pleoticusmuelleri, Bate 1888. Revista de Biología marina y oceanografía, 44 (3): 583-593. http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-19572009000300006&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en

Góngora, M.E. 2010. Dinámica y manejo de la captura incidental en la pesquería del langostino patagónico (Pleoticusmuelleri). Tesis de doctorado. Universidad Nacional del Comahue. Centro Regional Universitario Bariloche. 208 pp. http://www.oceandocs.org/bitstream/handle/1834/4190/Gongora_2010.pdf?sequence=1

Góngora, M.E., D. González-Zevallos, A. Pettovello& L. Mendía 2012. Caracterización de las principales pesquerías del golfo San Jorge Patagonia, Argentina. Latin American Journal of Aquaticresearch, 40 (1): 1-11. http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-560X2012000100001

Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Desarrollo Pesquero (INIDEP), 2014. Distribución espacial de la biomasa y proceso de reclutamiento del langostino (Pleoticus muelleri) en su área de distribución patagónica. Resultados de la Campaña OB-01-2014. Informe Tecnico Oficial Nº 07. 15 pp.http://www.inidep.edu.ar/publicaciones/catalogo/informes-tecnicos-2014/

Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Desarrollo Pesquero (INIDEP), 2012. Principales pesquerías, Nombre científico, común y biología de especies de interés pesquero del Mar Argentino, Langostino (Pleoticus muelleri). [Accessed on 26th October 2012] http://www.inidep.gob.ar/ayuda/langostino-pleoticus-muelleri/

Iorio MI, GJ Macchi & D Hernández. 2000. Estimación de la talla de primera madurez y fecundidad del langostino patagónico. Caracterización del desarrollo del ovario y el estadio de impregnación. Informe Técnico Interno INIDEP 61: 1-14. http://www.inidep.edu.ar/publicaciones/catalogo/informes-tecnicos-2000/

Ministerio de Agroindustria. Presidencia de la Nación. Pesca marítima/ Desembarques. http://www.agroindustria.gob.ar/site/pesca/pesca_maritima/02-desembarques/index.php

Moriondo Danovaro, PI. 2015. Distribución y densidad de huevos y larvas de langostino patagónico (Pleoticusmuelleri). Resultados de las campañas estivales OB 0/13 y OB 01/14. Inf. Inv. N°40 INIDEP 2015. http://www.inidep.edu.ar/publicaciones/catalogo/informes-de-investigacion-2015/

Roux AM, Bremec CS, Fernández M. 1995.Estudio preliminar de las comunidades bentónicas de los fondos de pesca de langostino patagónico del Golfo San Jorge (Argentina) Ciencias Marinas, vol. 21, núm. 3, 1995, pp. 295-310. Universidad Autónoma de Baja California. Ensenada, México. http://www.redalyc.org/pdf/480/48021304.pdf

Roux AM 2000. Evaluación del impacto pesquero a través del análisis de la fauna bentónica acompañante en la pesquería de langostino Pleoticusmuelleri, del Golfo San Jorge y litoral de Chubut, Argentina. Frente marítimo 18. Sec:A. 143-149.

Roux, AM. 2009. Invertebrados bentónicos acompañantes de la captura de langostino patagónico Pleoticusmuelleri. Resultados de la campaña de investigación OB 01/09. (Enero-febrero 2009). Inf. Inv. 047 INIDEP 13pp. http://www.inidep.edu.ar/publicaciones/catalogo/informes-de-investigacion-2009/

Villarino MF &Simonazzi M. 2015. Estimación del bycatch de merluza en la pesquería del langostino patagónico (Pleoticusmuelleri) para 2013. Inf. Inv. 045 INIDEP. 2015. http://www.inidep.edu.ar/publicaciones/catalogo/informes-de-investigacion-2015/

References

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    Argentine red shrimp - Patagonian

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