Last updated on 28 July 2016

SUMMARY

SUMMARY

IDENTIFICATION

SCIENTIFIC NAME(s)

Loligo chinensis

SPECIES NAME(s)

Mitre squid

No studies on the stock structure of Loligo chinensis (Uroteuthis/Photololigo chinensis) in Chinese waters could be located. China is considered as the management unit as no formal stock assessment is known to be conducted.


ANALYSIS

Strengths
  • Management measures are in place.
  • Seasonal closures are used as management measures.
  • MPAs are established to protect ETP species, some with fishing restrictions.
Weaknesses
  • Management measures are in place.
  • Seasonal closures are used as management measures.
  • MPAs are established to protect ETP species, some with fishing restrictions.

FISHSOURCE SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

< 6

Managers Compliance:

≥ 6

Fishers Compliance:

< 6

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

< 6

Future Health:

< 6


RECOMMENDATIONS

RETAILERS & SUPPLY CHAIN
  • Conduct scientific studies to define the stock structure over the full range of the species and to identify principle spawning areas.
  • Encourage managers to collect and publish detailed fishery data by fishing method (e.g. catch, effort and fleet size,) and biological data (length, sex, maturity, age) to support stock assessment development.
  • Work with managers to design and implement a fishery management plan including a harvest strategy and harvest control rule suitable for short-lived species; ensure the management plan considers impacts of this fishery on the overall ecosystem structure and function.
  • Estimate the scope of illegal fishing and under-reporting, and implement effective monitoring, control, and surveillance measures.
  • Join and support the current Fishery Improvement Project.

FIPS

  • Shantou-Taiwan Chinese common squid - jigging/light-lift net/single trawl:

    Stage 3, Progress Rating C

CERTIFICATIONS

No related MSC fisheries

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
China China Bottom trawls
Purse seines
Vertical Lines

Analysis

OVERVIEW

Strengths
  • Management measures are in place.
  • Seasonal closures are used as management measures.
  • MPAs are established to protect ETP species, some with fishing restrictions.
Weaknesses
  • Management measures are in place.
  • Seasonal closures are used as management measures.
  • MPAs are established to protect ETP species, some with fishing restrictions.
RECOMMENDATIONS

Last updated on 16 October 2018

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain
  • Conduct scientific studies to define the stock structure over the full range of the species and to identify principle spawning areas.
  • Encourage managers to collect and publish detailed fishery data by fishing method (e.g. catch, effort and fleet size,) and biological data (length, sex, maturity, age) to support stock assessment development.
  • Work with managers to design and implement a fishery management plan including a harvest strategy and harvest control rule suitable for short-lived species; ensure the management plan considers impacts of this fishery on the overall ecosystem structure and function.
  • Estimate the scope of illegal fishing and under-reporting, and implement effective monitoring, control, and surveillance measures.
  • Join and support the current Fishery Improvement Project.

1.STOCK STATUS

STOCK ASSESSMENT

No studies of population structure in Chinese waters could be located. Results of stock assessments for the South China Sea have been presented at regional workshops, with results from 2009 available (FAO, 2010) but it is unclear if they resulted from a yield per recruit model or expert judgment. A modified depletion model has been used to assess another species – neon flying squid – in the region (Chen et al., 2008), as has a dynamic factor analysis (Chen, 2010).

SCIENTIFIC ADVICE

No formal scientific advice is published but a Chinese Squid Jigging Technical Group has collected sampling and fishing data since 1995 (Chen et al., 2008). Studies have suggested a limitation on the number of vessels fishing during the winter season when juveniles are growing or a closure of part of the fishing grounds would assist in increasing the resource (Zhang et al., 2008; Song et al., 2008).

Reference Points

No assessment or management reference points are known to be in place.

CURRENT STATUS

Studies in several areas have shown a decrease in mean body size and size at sexual maturation in females (Li & Huang, 2011; Zhang et al., 2008; Huang, 2008). At a 2009 workshop, Chinese scientists classified the Mitre squid fishery in the Northern South China Sea as overexploited and the fleet as overcapacity. In addition, five-year trends in catch rates and a survey index were decreasing (FAO, 2010).

Trends

Catches of squid increased rapidly in the early 2000s but from 2005 have been on a stable or slightly decreasing trend. Increased cephalopod catches in the South China Sea in the past were attributed to changing fishing techniques and not to increased abundance (Guo & Chen, 2000).

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

MANAGEMENT

Last updated on 22 May 2013

Chinese fisheries are managed by the Bureau of Fisheries (Fisheries Management and Fishing Port Superintendence Bureau of the Popular Republic of China) under the Ministry of Agriculture, in coordination with the Bureau of Fishing Vessel Inspection, the National Fisheries Technical Extension Station and the China Academy of Fisheries Science; divisions at the province level are also responsible for the law enforcement (FAO, 2001).
In result of an overfishing situation, a system control on fishing licenses (general, special and temporary) was established in 1979. Fishing zone regulations control fishing gears restrictions in certain areas: prohibited fishing lines along the 50m depth contour for trawling, light purse seines and entangling nets. Fish bycatch limits are set (Kan, 2006; Yongtong et al, 2007); four summer fishing closureswith different time periods and gear bans were established since 1995 in the East China Sea (and the Yellow Sea) and in the South China Sea since 1999 (Cheng et al, 2007; Ou and Tseng, 2010). The “Double Control” system limits the number and power of boats (Watson et al, 2001).

Recovery Plans

None known to be in place.

China
Bottom trawls

In order to control fishing intensity and protect juveniles, since 2004, a minimum mesh size of the bottom trawl codend was set at 39mm for both South China Sea and the Eastern Guangdong-Taiwan Bank and at 54mm for the East China Sea (MofA, 2007).

COMPLIANCE

Last updated on 11 April 2013

Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated (IUU) fishing is known to occur but no official data is available for the fishery. Guifang (2005) refers the important role of national and regional Chinese regulations and institutions to improve control and compliance. Zhangyuanyuan (undated) considers the “Double Control” system as an invalid management measure.

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

BYCATCH
ETP Species

Species identified as endangered, threatened or protected (ETP) in the region include Indo-Pacific hump-backed dolphin Sousa chinensis, classified on the IUCN Red List as Near threatened and decreasing (Reeves et al., 2008), finless porpoise Neophocaena phocaenoides, classified as Vulnerable and also decreasing in trend, and for which bycatch in trawl and seines is in general reported as being intense (Wang & Reeves, 2012). False killer whale Pseudorca crassidens is reported as bycatch in Chinese coastal fisheries but its status on the IUCN Red List is Data Deficient (Taylor et al., 2008); the western subpopulation of Gray whale Eschrichtius robustus is classified as Critically Endangered but is reportedly increasing in size (Reilly et al., 2000); Hawksbill Eretmochelys imbricate (Mortimer & Donnelly, 2008) and Leatherback turtles Dermochelys coriacea are both Critically endangered and decreasing, and green turtle Chelonia mydas is classified as Endangered and also globally decreasing (Seminoff, 2004). A Red List of endangered Chinese species is published and the horseshoe crab Tachypleus tridentatus and Chinese spiny lobster Panulirus stimpsoni are considered to be endangered due to overexploiation (Liu, 2013). No data on either direct or indirect impacts on ETP species due to the fishery could be located.

Other Species

Last updated on 23 May 2013

No data on bycatch composition or rates could be located but the jigging fishery for a similar species is reported to have no bycatch (Chen et al., 2008) and jigging in general to have not produce “unwanted” bycatch (Rathjen, 1991). Non-target species need to be unconditionally released (MofA, 1993).

HABITAT

Last updated on 16 April 2013

Neither purse seine nor jigging interact with benthic habitats so direct effects can be considered to be negligible (Rathjen, 1991).

Ecosystem modeling has been conducted and concluded that overfishing has led to significant shifts in the East China Sea ecosystem (Cheng et al., 2009; Li et al., 2009; Li & Zhang, 2011).

Marine Reserves

Artificial reef installation has been a management strategy employed for several decades in Chinese coastal areas.

Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) are established both at national and regional level, with 15 of the former and 26 of the latter currently in place. In many cases, MPAs are constituted of different zones, with fishing outlawed in the “core” zone. One of the intended purposes is to protect vulnerable species’ habitats. Fishery protected areas have been established in the East China Sea to protect important commercial species’ habitats and additionally, trawl, light purse seine and entangling net fisheries are not permitted at depths shallower than 50 m (Cheng et al., 2007). Closed seasons are defined by gear type in both the South and East China Seas (Cheng et al., 2007; Guo et al., 2008).

FishSource Scores

SELECT SCORES

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

Different components of this unascertained score differently at the fishery level. Please look at the individual fisheries using the selection drop down above.

Different components of this unascertained score differently at the fishery level. Please look at the individual fisheries using the selection drop down above.

Different components of this unascertained score differently at the fishery level. Please look at the individual fisheries using the selection drop down above.

STOCK HEALTH:

Different components of this unascertained score differently at the fishery level. Please look at the individual fisheries using the selection drop down above.

Different components of this unascertained score differently at the fishery level. Please look at the individual fisheries using the selection drop down above.

No data available
No data available
No data available
No data available
No data available
No data available
No data available
No data available
No data available
No data available
No data available
No data available
DATA NOTES

Last updated on 13 May 2016

1) No data apart from catch data is available. Scores 1, 2 and 3 were determined qualitatively according to the available information.
2) Catches are for mitre squid and swordtip squid that are caught together in China (Chen et al., 2013).
3) Scores 4 and 5 have been determined qualitatively based on available information, in the lack of numerical data of abundance and fishing mortality and correspondent reference points.

Download Source Data

Registered users can download the original data file for calculating the scores after logging in. If you wish, you can Register now.

Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

SELECT FIP

Access FIP Public Report

Progress Rating: C
Evaluation Start Date: 18 Aug 2017
Type: Basic

Comments:

FIP rating remains C with stage 3 activities underway.

1.
FIP Development
Dec 17
2.
FIP Launch
Jan 18
Aug 17
3.
FIP Implementation
Jul 18
4.
Improvements in Fishing Practices and Fishery Management
Verifiable improvement in policy/management and fishing practices
5.
Improvements on the Water
Verifiable improvement on the water
6.
MSC certification (optional)
MSC certificate made public

Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

No related MSC certifications

Sources

Credits
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  3. Cheng, H.-Q., Jiang, H., Xu, H., Wu, J., Ding, H., Le Quesne, W L., Arreguín-Sánchez, F. Spatial resources and fishery management framework in the East China Sea. In Le Quesne W.J.F., Arreguín-Sánchez, F., Heymans, S.J.J. INCOFISH Ecosystem Models: Transiting from Ecopath to Ecospace, Fisheries Centre Research Reports, Volume 15 Number 6, University of British Columbiaftp://ftp.fisheries.ubc.ca/FCRR%2015(6)/FCRR%2015(6)%20PDF%20final%201.pdf
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References

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    Mitre squid - China

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