Last updated on 9 May 2018

SUMMARY

SUMMARY

IDENTIFICATION

SCIENTIFIC NAME(s)

Ammodytes spp.

SPECIES NAME(s)

Sandeels nei, Sandlances nei

COMMON NAMES

small sandeel, tobis (Norwegian), småsil (Norwegian), havsil (Norwegian)

The complete stock structure of North Sea sandeel is unclear, and although several reproductively isolated sub-populations have been identified, some exchange appears to take place between neighbouring populations in early life stages. From 2010 onwards ICES has presented advice for the North Sea sandeel for each of seven distinct assessment/management units, reflecting the best current evaluation of the stock structure and also considering fishing banks, based on the assumption that this will enable improved management avoiding local depletion (ICES, 2010a). This profile represents the Viking and Bergen Bank area – Sandeel Area 5r (known as Sandeel Area 5 prior to 2017 (ICES 2017).


ANALYSIS

Strengths
  • Scientific  advice is based on ICES' precautionary approach (ICES 2017).
  • Managers have followed scientific advice; set TACS for EU vessels in both EU and Norweigian waters remain at zero through 2017. 
  • Harvesters have complied with fishery limits and closures.
Weaknesses
  •  There is insufficient information to assess current stock status or trends (ICES 2017) .
  • Indices from acoustic surveys conducted in the Viking Bank during 2009-2016 indicate very low abundance (ICES 2016).

FISHSOURCE SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

< 6

Managers Compliance:

10

Fishers Compliance:

10

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

NOT YET SCORED

Future Health:

NOT YET SCORED


RECOMMENDATIONS

RETAILERS & SUPPLY CHAIN
  • Press regional advisory bodies, national fisheries administrations and the European Commission to develop a multi-species, ecosystem-based management plan for North Sea pelagic fisheries, including a harvest control rule(s).
  • Ensure these recommendations are represented to the EU Pelagic Advisory Council (https://www.pelagic-ac.org/) directly or through one of the General Assembly members. 
  • Engage as a stakeholder in all MSC certifications for this stock and support the MSC Client groups to ensure all conditions attached to the Certifications are fully addressed.

FIPS

No related FIPs

CERTIFICATIONS

No related MSC fisheries

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

ASSESSMENT UNIT MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
Viking and Bergen Banks Norway/EU North Sea SA 5r Norway Small mesh bottom trawls

Analysis

OVERVIEW

Last updated on 2 December 2017

Strengths
  • Scientific  advice is based on ICES' precautionary approach (ICES 2017).
  • Managers have followed scientific advice; set TACS for EU vessels in both EU and Norweigian waters remain at zero through 2017. 
  • Harvesters have complied with fishery limits and closures.
Weaknesses
  •  There is insufficient information to assess current stock status or trends (ICES 2017) .
  • Indices from acoustic surveys conducted in the Viking Bank during 2009-2016 indicate very low abundance (ICES 2016).
RECOMMENDATIONS

Last updated on 13 September 2018

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain
  • Press regional advisory bodies, national fisheries administrations and the European Commission to develop a multi-species, ecosystem-based management plan for North Sea pelagic fisheries, including a harvest control rule(s).
  • Ensure these recommendations are represented to the EU Pelagic Advisory Council (https://www.pelagic-ac.org/) directly or through one of the General Assembly members. 
  • Engage as a stakeholder in all MSC certifications for this stock and support the MSC Client groups to ensure all conditions attached to the Certifications are fully addressed.

1.STOCK STATUS

STOCK ASSESSMENT

Last updated on 2 December 2017

Information for stock assessment is  very limited.  Acoustic surveys have been conducted on the Viking Bank since 2005 ((ICES 2017), but the biological sampling is poor; and commercial catch data is not available as there have been no landings since 2004 (ICES 2016).  While the data is insufficient to reliably assess stock status or trends, the acoustic surveys indicate a small stock size and very low abundance.

SCIENTIFIC ADVICE

Last updated on 2 December 2017

The advice since 2011, based on data-limited analysis  and ICES' precautionary approach, has recommended zero catch (ICES 2017).

Reference Points

Last updated on 02 Dec 2017

No reference points are defined (ICES 2017) .

CURRENT STATUS

Last updated on 2 December 2017

No assessment of the stock status can be performed due to insufficient data (ICES 2017) . Low estimated sandeel abundance from acoustic surveys in 2007-2010 led Norway to close fisheries on Viking Bank (ICES, 2012). That survey still shows low biomass and the fishery is closed (ICES 2017).

Trends

Last updated on 02 Dec 2017

Landings were exceptionally  large in 1995, at 151,000 tonnes, but have generally been under 10,000 tonnes and, with the exception of 2007, no landings have been taken since 2004 (ICES, 2012). Landings in the Norwegian zone of the North Sea fell by 95% around 2005, with the collapse of the fishery (NMFCA, 2010).

Because of low stock size, the fishery has been closed since 2011 and catches have remained zero (ICES 2017).

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

MANAGEMENT

Last updated on 2 December 2017

Managers have followed scientific advice, and no directed fishery is allowed (ICES 2017). Separate EU quotas were defined for the first  time in 2011 for each of the seven North Sea sandeel management areas. The final 2011 through 2016 TACs for EU waters of the Viking and Bergen Bank area (SA 5) were set at zero (European Commission 2011; European Commission 2012; European Commission 2012; European Commission 2013; European Commission 2013; European Commission 2014; European Commission 2014; European Commission 2015; European Commission 2016; European Commission 2016). . Consistent with the scientific advice, the zero limit remains applicable through 2017, barring further regulatory ammendments (European Commission 2017; European Commission n.d.). Norway’s fishery on the Viking Bank has also been closed since 2009, due to low estimated abundance (ICES 2017); and correspondingly, TACs for EU vessels fishing in the Norweigian waters of ICES area IV have consistantly been set at zero. 

Recovery Plans

Last updated on 02 Dec 2017

No explicit recovery  plan is in place (ICES 2017).

COMPLIANCE

Last updated on 2 December 2017

Since 2010, ICES has provided advice for North Sea sandeel (Division 3.a and Subarea 4), for  7 individual areas (ICES 2010);  a separate quota (of 0 tonnes) for Sandeel Area 5 (now Sandeel Area 5R) was set for the first time in 2011 (ICES 2017). Compliance has been strong - no catches in Sandeel Area 5 / 5R since the individual quota. Prior to the individual quotas, between 2005 and 2010, catches of sandeel in the greater North Sea area exceeded the TAC twice, in 2007 and 2010, by 30% and 10% accordingly. However, in Sandeel Area 5, catches for all years during the same period were zero, except for in 2007 when landings were 4,240 tonnes (ICES 2016)

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

BYCATCH
ETP Species

Last updated on 2 December 2017

In the North Sea ecosystem, sandeel is an important prey species for a variety of  predators, including fish, marine mammals and seabirds. Fishing on sandeel has been found to affect some surface feeding bird species, especially kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla) (Birdlife International 2016): “Least Concern”) and sandwich tern (Sterna sandvicensis (Birdlife International 2016) : “Least Concern”) (ICES 2017). Fish and marine mammals’ populations are assumed to be less vulnerable to local sandeel depletion (ICES 2016). There is reportedly little bycatch of protected species. More detailed information on the fishery's species interactions and other ecosystem aspects can be found in ICES' 2017 Stock Annex for sandeel in area SA 5R (ICES 2016)   .

Other Species

Last updated on 2 December 2017

Sandeel catches include several Ammodytoidei species but consist largely of Ammodytes marinus. The levels of bycatch in the sandeel fishery are considered to be very low, including  those of species for which a TAC has been set (ICES 2016), and in the past have been estimated at between 1 and 3% in the Norwegian fishery (MFCA, 2010b). There is reportedly little bycatch of protected species (ICES 2016). As of January 2015 a landings and reporting obligation is in effect preventing the discarding of bycatch in this (and other) EU fisheries (EU, 2013).

HABITAT

Last updated on 21 November 2011

Sandeels are the principal species targeted by the small fish bottom trawl fishery in  which small meshed-gear is used (i.e. trawls with mesh sizes < 16 mm) (ICES, 2007b,c, 2008a). Bottom trawling can have significant impacts on benthic communities and habitats and this has been shown to have occurred effectively in several parts of the North Sea in the past (Hiddink et al., 2006; Callaway et al., 2007).

Several coastal areas and zones of known deep-water coral communities in the North Sea have been closed to fishing, in order to protect both benthic communities/habitats and juvenile demersal fish (OSPAR, 2009).

Marine Reserves

Last updated on 21 Nov 2011

Closures of depleted areas and for certain periods are used as a management measure on a local scale, and the entire Norwegian EEZ was closed in 2009 (ICES, 2011b). In addition, the Patch bank has been closed to fishing for sandeel and other fish since 2002 (ICES, 2011b).

In 2003, a joint ministerial meeting of the Helsinki and OSPAR commission (JMM), agreed to establish a Network of Marine Protected Areas (MPA) in the Northeast Atlantic (OSPAR Commission, 2011), two of which are within SA 5 (OSPAR, 2010).

FishSource Scores

Last updated on 2 December 2017

SELECT SCORES

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

As calculated for 2017 data.

The score is < 6.

There is inadequate information to evaluate stock status or trends with any certainty; and as such, there are no defined biological reference points or relevant management objectives for the stock. However, for fisheries in these circumstances, ICES bases catch advice on a precautionary approach. Given indications of low abundance, ICES has since 2005 advised zero catch or a closed fishery for the SA 5R stock unit.

As calculated for 2016 data.

The score is 10.0.

This measures the Set TAC as a percentage of the Advised TAC.

The Set TAC is 0.00 ('000 t). The Advised TAC is 0.00 ('000 t) .

The underlying Set TAC/Advised TAC for this index is .

As calculated for 2010 data.

The score is 10.0.

This measures the Catch as a percentage of the Set TAC.

The Catch is 0.00 ('000 t). The Set TAC is 0.377 ('000 t) .

The underlying Catch/Set TAC for this index is 0.00%.

STOCK HEALTH:

No data available for biomass
No data available for biomass
To see data for catch and tac, please view this site on a desktop.
No data available for fishing mortality
No data available for fishing mortality
No data available for recruitment
No data available for recruitment
To see data for management quality, please view this site on a desktop.
No data available for stock status
No data available for stock status
DATA NOTES
  1. TACs were previously set on a larger scale and were first set for this area as a separate management unit in 2011 (see "Manager's Decisions" portion under the Analysis summary below).
  2. Stock status is unknown, and no reference points have been defined; scores #4 and 5 therefore cannot be determined, and score #1 has been assigned a qualitative score.
  3. The fishery has been closed since 2006. Compliance with the closure was found to be strong.
  4. While catch and survey data are insufficient to assess the state of the stock, Norwegian acoustic surveys from 2007-2010 indicated a very low abundance of sandeel (ICES 2017).

Download Source Data

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Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

No related FIPs

Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

No related MSC certifications

Sources

Credits
  1. Callaway, R., Engelhard, G.H., Dann, J., Cotter, J. and Rumohr, H., 2007. A century of North Sea epibenthos and trawling: comparison between 1902-1912, 1982-1985 and 2000. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 346: 27-43.http://www.int-res.com/articles/meps_oa/m346p027.pdf
  2. Council Regulation (EU) No 297/2013 of 27 March 2013 amending Regulations (EU) No 44/2012, (EU) No 39/2013 and (EU) No 40/2013 as regards certain fishing opportunities. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2013:090:0010:0047:EN:PDF
  3. EC, 2011a. Council Regulation (EC) No 57/2011 of 18 January 2011, fixing for 2011 the fishing opportunities for certain fish stocks and groups of fish stocks, applicable in EU waters and, for EU vessels, in certain non-EU waters. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2011:024:0001:0125:EN:PDF
  4. EC, 2011b. Council Regulation (EC) No 476/2011 of 17 May 2011, amending Council Regulation (EU) No 57/2011 as regards catch limits for the fisheries on sandeel in EU waters of ICES zones IIa, IIIa and IV. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2011:131:0012:0013:EN:PDF
  5. EU, 2013. COUNCIL REGULATION (EU) 2015/104 on the Common Fisheries Policy, amending Council Regulations (EC) No 1954/2003 and (EC) No 1224/2009 and repealing Council Regulations (EC) No 2371/2002 and (EC) No 639/2004 and Council Decision 2004/585/EChttp://faolex.fao.org/docs/pdf/eur130290.pdf
  6. European Commission (EC), 2012. Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) No 368/2012 of 27 April 2012 amending Council Regulation (EU) No 44/2012 fixing for 2012 the fishing opportunities available in EU waters and, to EU vessels, in certain non-EU waters for certain fish stocks and groups of fish stocks which are subject to international negotiations or agreement.http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2012:116:0017:0018:EN:PDF
  7. Froese, R. and D. Pauly (Eds.), 2011. FishBase. World Wide Web electronic publication version (10/2011) [Accessed on 16 November 2011].http://www.fishbase.org
  8. Hiddink J.G, Kennings S., and Kaiser, M.J., 2006. Indicators of the ecological impact of bottom-trawl disturbance on seabed communities. Ecosystems, 9: 1190-1199.Hiddink_et_al._Ecosystems.pdf
  9. ICES. 2008a. Report of the Working Group on the Assessment of Demersal Stocks in the North Sea and Skagerrak – Combined Spring and Autumn (WGNSSK), 7–13 May 2008 (ICES CM 008/ACOM:09). http://www.ices.dk/products/icesadvice/2008/ICES%20ADVICE%202008%20Book%206.pdf
  10. ICES, 2008b. Report of the Ad Hoc Group on Sandeel (AGSAN), 25 ‐ 30 August 2008, ICES Headquarters, Copenhagen. http://www.ices.dk/reports/ACOM/2008/AGSAN/AGSAN08.pdf
  11. ICES, 2009a. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee. Book 6: North Sea. 6.4.22 Sandeel in Subarea IV excluding the Shetland area.http://www.ices.dk/committe/acom/comwork/report/2009/2009/san-nsea.pdf
  12. ICES, 2009b. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee. Book 6: North Sea. 6.4.23 Sandeel in Division IVa North of 59ºN and West of 0ºE (Shetland area).http://www.ices.dk/committe/acom/comwork/report/2009/2009/san-shet.pdf
  13. ICES, 2009c. Report of the Ad hoc group on Sandeel – II, 19-21 October 2009, Copenhagen, Denmark. ICES Advisory Committee (ICES CM 2009\ACOM:51). http://www.ices.dk/reports/ACOM/2009/AGSAN/AGSAN-2%20report%202009.pdf
  14. ICES, 2009d. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee. Book 6: North Sea. 6.3.3.1 EC and Norway request on in-year management advice for sandeel in the North Sea. http://www.ices.dk/committe/acom/comwork/report/2009/Special%20Requests/EC%20Norway%20in-year%20management%20advice%20for%20Sandeels-2009.pdf
  15. ICES, 2010a. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee. Book 6: North Sea. 6.4.21 Sandeel in Division IIIa and Subarea IV. http://www.ices.dk/committe/acom/comwork/report/2010/2010/san-34.pdf
  16. ICES, 2010b. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee. Book 6: North Sea. 6.3.3.1 EC request on in-year management advice for sandeel in the North Sea.http://www.ices.dk/committe/acom/comwork/report/2010/Special%20Requests/EC%20in-year%20management%20advice%20for%20sandeel.pdf
  17. ICES, 2010c. Report of the Working Group on the Assessment of Demersal Stocks in the North Sea and Skagerrak (WGNSSK), 5 -11 May 2010, ICES Headquarters, Copenhagen (ICES CM 2010/ACOM:13). http://www.ices.dk/reports/ACOM/2010/WGNSSK/WGNSSK%202010.pdf
  18. ICES, 2010d. Report of the Benchmark Workshop on Sandeel (WKSAN), 6–10 September 2010, Copenhagen, Denmark (ICES CM 2010/ACOM:57).http://www.ices.dk/reports/ACOM/2010/WKSAN/wksan_2010.pdf
  19. ICES, 2011a. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee. Book 6: North Sea. 6.4.21 Sandeel in Division IIIa and Subarea IV. http://www.ices.dk/committe/acom/comwork/report/2011/2011/san-34.pdf
  20. ICES, 2011b. Report of the Working Group on the Assessment of Demersal Stocks in the North Sea and Skagerrak (WGNSSK), 4-10 May 2011 (ICES CM 2011/ACOM: 13); 4 – Sandeel in IV. http://www.ices.dk/reports/ACOM/2011/WGNSSK/Sec%2004%20Sandeel.pdf
  21. ICES, 2012. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee, 2012. Book 6: The North Sea. 6.4.21: Sandeel in Division IIIa and Subarea IV.http://www.ices.dk/committe/acom/comwork/report/2012/2012/san-34.pdf
  22. ICES, 2013. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee. Book 6: North Sea. 6.4.21: Sandeel in Division IIIa and Subarea IV.http://ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2013/2013/san-34.pdf
  23. ICES, 2015. Sandeel (Ammodytes spp.) in Division IVa, SA 5 (Northern North Sea, Viking and Bergen banks). ICES Advice 2015, Book 6.http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2015/2015/san-ns5.pdf
  24. MFCA, 2010a. Agreed Record of Fisheries Consultations between Norway and the European Union for 2011, Bergen, 4 December 2010. Ministry of Fisheries and Coastal Affairs. http://www.regjeringen.no/upload/FKD/Vedlegg/Kvoteavtaler/2011/EU/Final-Agreed_record-North_Sea-2011.pdf
  25. MFCA, 2010b. Marine stocks: Sandeel. Ministry of Fisheries and Coastal Affairs.http://www.fisheries.no/ecosystems-and-stocks/marine_stocks/fish_stocks/sandeel/
  26. OSPAR, 2009. OSPAR assessment of the environmental impact of fishing. Publ. no. 465/2009. OSPAR Commission. 89 pp.http://qsr2010.ospar.org/media/assessments/p00465_JAMP_QSR_fisheries_assessment.pdf
  27. OSPAR, 2010. 2009/10 Status Report on the OSPAR Network of Marine Protected Areas. Publ. no. 493/2010. OSPAR Commission: Biodiversity Series. 61 pp.http://www.ospar.org/documents/dbase/publications/p00493_Status%20report%20MPAs.pdf
  28. OSPAR Commission, 2011. OSPAR Network of Marine Protected Areas. [Assessed on 09 June 2011]. http://www.ospar.org/
  29. Regjeringen, 2010. Agreed Record of Conclusions of Fisheries Consultations between the European Union and Norway for 2010, Brussels, 26 January 2010.http://www.regjeringen.no/upload/FKD/Vedlegg/Kvoteavtaler/2010/EU/fiskeriavtale%20Norge%20EU.pdf
References

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    Sandeels nei - Viking and Bergen Banks

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