Last updated on 22 June 2016

SUMMARY

SUMMARY

IDENTIFICATION

SCIENTIFIC NAME(s)

Micromesistius poutassou

SPECIES NAME(s)

Blue whiting, Poutassou

COMMON NAMES

poutassou

ICES considers blue whiting in ICES Subareas I–IX, XII, and XIV as a single stock for assessment purposes (ICES 2012). However, there is scientific evidence to support the hypothesis of two components (Keating et al. 2014, Pointin and Payne 2014). The ICES Stock Identification Methods Working Group (SIMWG) reviewed this evidence in 2014 and recommended that blue whiting be considered as two stock units (ICES 2014). However, the edge/boundary between these two stocks is not yet clearly defined (ICES 2014). A recent report by ICES notes that there have been changes in the distribution of the species, likely linked to environmental conditions (specifically temperature), but that such changes did not affect proportions between TAC management areas (ICES 2017). Until a formal definition of the two distinct stocks, this profile refers to the NE Atlantic assessment unit.


ANALYSIS

Strengths
  • A new long-term and precautionary management plan has been agreed by all coastal states and is in force since October 2016.
  • The agreed global catch limit for 2018 was in line with ICES advice per the agreed long-term management strategy (and the MSY approach).
  • Stock biomass remains at healthy levels, well above the target reference point.
  • Impacts on protected species and on vulnerable benthic habitats are also deemed low in the directed blue whiting fisheries.
  • Bycatch and discards are low, but data on bycatch and on overall fishery impacts is limited.
Weaknesses
  • Fishing mortality has been decreasing, but remains above the target fishing mortality reference point.
  • The assessment reflects mainly the northern component of the stock; there is still lack of information on the southern component of the stock.
  • ICES estimated catches for 2016 were aligned with the TAC, but preliminary catches for 2017 are 16% above the total TAC for blue whiting.
  • Uncertainty in the terminal year estimates of spawning biomass, fishing mortality and recruitment is moderate to high.
  • Research on bycatch and on overall fishery impacts is limited.
  • The stock structure of the blue whiting is not fully understood, and more information regarding population structure is needed.

FISHSOURCE SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

9.4

Managers Compliance:

10

Fishers Compliance:

7.4

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

10

Future Health:

7


RECOMMENDATIONS

RETAILERS & SUPPLY CHAIN
  • Ensure that the total allowable catch (TAC) for the entire northeast Atlantic blue whiting stock is set in accordance with scientific advice and that fishing mortality is reduced to no more than the fishing mortality reference point.
  • Conduct research to fully define the stock structure and develop stock specific assessments, reference points and harvest strategies.  
  • Encourage the adoption of ecosystem-based fisheries management, namely consider the importance of blue whiting as forage species when setting reference points and catch limits.
  • Collect comprehensive information on bycatch (species, quantities, areas, seasonality).

FIPS

No related FIPs

CERTIFICATIONS

  • Faroese Pelagic Organisation North East Atlantic blue whiting:

    MSC Certified

  • Iceland North East Atlantic blue whiting:

    MSC Certified

  • Norway spring spawning herring:

    MSC Recertified

  • PFA, DPPO, KFO, SPSG & Compagnie des Pêches St Malo Northeast Atlantic blue whiting Pelagic Trawl:

    MSC Certified

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

ASSESSMENT UNIT MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
NE Atlantic EU/Faroe Islands/Iceland/Norway/NEAFC Denmark Midwater trawls
Faroe Islands Midwater trawls
France Midwater trawls
Iceland Bottom trawls
Midwater trawls
Ireland Midwater trawls
Netherlands Midwater trawls
Norway Bottom trawls
Midwater trawls
Russia Russian Federation Bottom trawls
Midwater trawls

Analysis

OVERVIEW

Last updated on 27 April 2017

Strengths
  • A new long-term and precautionary management plan has been agreed by all coastal states and is in force since October 2016.
  • The agreed global catch limit for 2018 was in line with ICES advice per the agreed long-term management strategy (and the MSY approach).
  • Stock biomass remains at healthy levels, well above the target reference point.
  • Impacts on protected species and on vulnerable benthic habitats are also deemed low in the directed blue whiting fisheries.
  • Bycatch and discards are low, but data on bycatch and on overall fishery impacts is limited.
Weaknesses
  • Fishing mortality has been decreasing, but remains above the target fishing mortality reference point.
  • The assessment reflects mainly the northern component of the stock; there is still lack of information on the southern component of the stock.
  • ICES estimated catches for 2016 were aligned with the TAC, but preliminary catches for 2017 are 16% above the total TAC for blue whiting.
  • Uncertainty in the terminal year estimates of spawning biomass, fishing mortality and recruitment is moderate to high.
  • Research on bycatch and on overall fishery impacts is limited.
  • The stock structure of the blue whiting is not fully understood, and more information regarding population structure is needed.
RECOMMENDATIONS

Last updated on

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain
  • Ensure that the total allowable catch (TAC) for the entire northeast Atlantic blue whiting stock is set in accordance with scientific advice and that fishing mortality is reduced to no more than the fishing mortality reference point.
  • Conduct research to fully define the stock structure and develop stock specific assessments, reference points and harvest strategies.  
  • Encourage the adoption of ecosystem-based fisheries management, namely consider the importance of blue whiting as forage species when setting reference points and catch limits.
  • Collect comprehensive information on bycatch (species, quantities, areas, seasonality).
Denmark
Midwater trawls

Last updated on

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain
  • Monitor the progress in closing out conditions placed upon the certification of the fishery and if agreed timelines are met. Offer assistance in closing conditions where possible.
Faroe Islands
Midwater trawls

Last updated on

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain
  • Monitor the fishery and management system for any changes that could jeopardize MSC re-certification.
France
Midwater trawls

Last updated on

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain
  • Monitor the progress in closing out conditions placed upon the certification of the fishery and if agreed timelines are met. Offer assistance in closing conditions where possible.
Iceland
Danish seines

Last updated on

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain
  • Monitor the progress in closing out conditions placed upon the certification of the fishery and if agreed timelines are met. Offer assistance in closing conditions where possible.
Boat seines

Last updated on

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain
  • Monitor the progress in closing out conditions placed upon the certification of the fishery and if agreed timelines are met. Offer assistance in closing conditions where possible.
Bottom trawls

Last updated on

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain
  • Monitor the progress in closing out conditions placed upon the certification of the fishery and if agreed timelines are met. Offer assistance in closing conditions where possible.
Midwater trawls

Last updated on

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain
  • Monitor the progress in closing out conditions placed upon the certification of the fishery and if agreed timelines are met. Offer assistance in closing conditions where possible.
Ireland
Midwater trawls

Last updated on

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain
  • Monitor the progress in closing out conditions placed upon the certification of the fishery and if agreed timelines are met. Offer assistance in closing conditions where possible.
Netherlands
Midwater trawls

Last updated on

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain
  • Monitor the progress in closing out conditions placed upon the certification of the fishery and if agreed timelines are met. Offer assistance in closing conditions where possible.
Norway
Midwater trawls

Last updated on

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain
  • Monitor the progress in closing out conditions placed upon the certification of the fishery and if agreed timelines are met. Offer assistance in closing conditions where possible.
Purse seines

Last updated on

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain
  • Monitor the progress in closing out conditions placed upon the certification of the fishery and if agreed timelines are met. Offer assistance in closing conditions where possible.
Bottom trawls

Last updated on

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain
  • Monitor the progress in closing out conditions placed upon the certification of the fishery and if agreed timelines are met. Offer assistance in closing conditions where possible.
United Kingdom
Midwater trawls

Last updated on

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain
  • Monitor the progress in closing out conditions placed upon the certification of the fishery and if agreed timelines are met. Offer assistance in closing conditions where possible.

1.STOCK STATUS

STOCK ASSESSMENT

Last updated on 7 August 2017

In 2012, ICES implemented a new assessment model (Age-based analytical assessment, SAM), and a inter-benchmark protocol was conducted in the spring of 2016. The most recent assessment, which uses a new version of the SAM model (Berg and Nielsen 2016), is based on catch-at-age data from commercial catches and one international blue whiting spawning stock survey (IBWSS) 2004–2016 (excluding 2010) (ICES 2016)(ICES 2017). The IBWSS survey is the only survey that covers almost the entire distributional area of the spawning stock. The catch and survey data were considered of good quality regarding the northern component of the stock. There is lack of information on the southern component of the stock (ICES 2014). Discards are only included in the assessment since 2014, but are considered to be small in the blue whiting directed fishery (ICES 2016), and not permitted for these fisheries since 2015 under the new EU landing obligation (European Commission 2013).

In terms of uncertainty in the estimates, based on the confidence intervals from the assessment model SAM, there is moderate to high uncertainty around the fishing mortality (F) and spawning stock biomass (SSB) absolute estimates, and also the recruiting year classes. A retrospective analysis of the assessment results shows a consistent picture of SSB and F estimates for the assessments since 2016. The main sources of uncertainty remain age reading, stock identity and survey indices. In terms of stock identity, the population structure of blue whiting in the NE Atlantic appears to be more complex than the current single-stock structure used for management purposes (ICES 2017). There is scientific evidence to support the hypothesis of two components (Pointin and Payne 2014). ICES recommended additional research to clarify the blue whiting stock structure (ICES 2017).

SCIENTIFIC ADVICE

Last updated on 7 August 2017

Up to 2016, ICES advice for this stock was on the basis of the previously agreed management plan (in place between 2008 and 2015). In October 2016, a new long-term management strategy (LTMS) was formally adopted, and considered as precautionary by ICES.

The latest ICES advice (for 2018), based on this new strategy, is that 2018 catches of NE Atlantic blue whiting should not exceed 1,387,872 tonnes, a 11% decrease relative to the estimated catch in 2017 (1,559 thousand tonnes). If all the 2018 quota is used, Spawning Stock Biomass (SSB) is expected to continue decreasing in 2019, to 5.18 million tonnes; i.e., a 12% decrease in SSB under this scenario compared to 2018, but still well above the biomass target reference point (ICES 2017). In terms of recruitment, the low 2016-year class will likely to result in a decrease in stock size, and a consequent reduction in fishing opportunities in upcoming years, when the 2016-year class is fully selected (ICES 2017).

CURRENT STATUS

Last updated on 8 August 2017

The NE Atlantic blue whiting stock is considered to remain at full reproductive capacity. Spawning stock biomass (SSB) was estimated at 6.2 million tonnes in 2017. It is projected to slightly decrease in 2018, to 5.9 million tonnes, but still well above MSY Btrigger (=Bpa = 2.25 million tonnes). Fishing mortality (F) has been decreasing since 2015 but remains above the target F (FMSY=0.32); the latest F (2017) was estimated at F=0.40 (26% above FMSY). The 2017 recruitment (age 1) was estimated to be low compared to previous years, but with high uncertainty in the estimates (see stock assessment section for details). Catches have been increasing from an historical low in 2011 and are currently above the long term average (ICES 2017). 

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

MANAGEMENT

Last updated on 6 April 2017

A precautionary long-term management strategy (LTMS) is currently in place for this stock and the antecipated measures are being followed by managers. In light of the latest stock condition, the LMTS anticipated a TAC of 1,387,872 tonnes for 2018 (ICES 2017), which was formally adopted by all contracting parties (NEAFC 2018).

The harvest control rule (HCR) anticipated in the new management strategy (NEAFC 2016) includes a target F (= FMSY = 0.32) with 20% TAC change limits at biomass levels above management reference point (SSBMGT = MSY Btrigger = 2.25 million tonnes). At levels below the SSBMGT, the HCR anticipates a gradual drop from FMSY to F=0.05 with a TAC variation limit of 25% comparing to the TAC of the preceding year (NEAFC 2016).

In terms of other management measures, a EU landing obligation was put in place as part of the recent Common Fisheries Policy reform. The landing obligation applies to all fisheries (i.e., EU fleet or fisheries operating in EU waters) subject to catch limits or minimum landing sizes (in the case of the Mediterranean), and is to be implemented gradually on a fishery-by-fishery basis from 2015 to 2019. In the case of the small pelagic or fisheries for industrial purposes (e.g., fisheries for mackerel, herring, horse mackerel, blue whiting, boarfish, anchovy, sandeel, sardine and sprat), the landing obligation is effective since January 2015, across all EU waters (European Commission 2013)(European Commission 2015). There is no minimum landing size in place for blue whiting (ICES 2014).

Recovery Plans

Last updated on 06 Apr 2017

Not applicable.

COMPLIANCE

Last updated on 8 August 2017

TACs for blue whiting were only set between 1994-1996 and since 2006 onwards. In 2010, landings (539,500 tonnes) were below the agreed TAC (548,000 tonnes). However, in 2011 the agreed TAC was very small (only 40,000 tonnes) and the total catch (103,600 tonnes) was more than twice as high due to quota transfers from 2010; also due to an unilateral quota of 45,000 tonnes set by Russia. In recent years catches have been slightly above the set TACs. In 2015, and after a period of high compliance with set quotas, no agreement was reached in the catch shares in 2015 [the parties have set unilateral quotas (ICES 2015)], and the total catch of blue whiting exceeded the combined unilateral quotas of 1,260 thousand tonnes by 10%. Catches for 2016 (1,181 thousand tonnes) were just slightly above the combined TAC of 1,147 thousand tonnes. For 2017, there are still not final catch estimates, but the preliminary catch value (of 1,559 thousand tonnes) is 16% above the agreed TAC (ICES 2017).


In terms of catch composition, in recent years the main directed fisheries for blue whiting were targeting spawning and post-spawning fish. In 2016, most of the catches (90%) were taken in the first two quarters of the year and the bulk of the catch is caught with large pelagic trawlers west of the British Isles and south and east of the Faroes. Fourteen countries reported blue whiting landings in 2016. Discards of blue whiting are thought to be small (0.4% of total catch in both 2015 and 2016), as most blue whiting is captured in the directed fisheries for fishmeal and fish oil. Most of the discards are from blue whiting captured as by-catch in fisheries targeting other species (ICES 2017). The recently implemented EU landing obligation is in place for blue whiting fisheries since 2015 (European Commission 2013).

A number of fisheries that target NE Atlantic blue whiting are already certified by the Marine Stewardship Council (MSC). Please consult the "Certifications" section below to learn more about these particular fisheries.

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

BYCATCH
ETP Species

Last updated on 7 August 2017

The broadness of blue whiting’s distribution implies a habitat overlap with many species of Northeast (NE) Atlantic seabirds and marine mammals. Several studies have reported the interaction of dolphins with midwater/pelagic trawl fisheries in the NE Atlantic, particularly the Atlantic White-sided Dolphin (Lagenorhynchus acutus, IUCN: “Least Concern”) and common dolphin (Delphinus delphis, IUCN: “Least Concern”) (Couperus 1997, ICES 2010, Morizur et al. 1999).

Data on effects of this particular fishery on PET species is sparse, but no critically endangered species appear to be significantly impacted (des Clers et al. 2016). An European Commission study group (SGFEN 2002) considered blue whiting pelagic trawling a fishery where monitoring for cetacean bycatch is a priority. In 2009, an ICES working group Working Group on Bycatch of Protected Species was formed, aiming at collating, storing and summarizing data provided by EU states on bycatch of protected species. The annual reports provide some information on the bycatch of protected species per métier. Of the available information, Fernandez-Contreras et al. (2010) reported bycatch of common dolphin in NW Spain pair trawler pelagic fishery. The same authors estimated a total of 394 (95% CI 230–632) bycaught individuals between 2001 and 2002 in this fishery; three main factors were identified as influential in the dolphin bycatch: depth, season and time of the day (ICES 2016). For other regions and blue whiting fisheries, the available data is still very limited however, and does not allow accurate estimates on the true magnitude of cetacean bycatch (ICES 2015).

Marine mammals and seabirds in EU waters are currently protected by a set of directives, conventions (e.g. Bern Convention and the Habitats Directive) and multilateral agreements between countries (ICES 2010).

Other Species

Last updated on 8 August 2017

Overall, most of the blue whiting is caught in directed fisheries for reduction purposes, and both bycatch and discards are thought to be small; discards were estimated to constitute only 0.4% of the total catch in 2015 (ICES 2016). With the EU landing obligation, in force since 2015 for fisheries for industrial purposes, bycatch and discards are expected to remain at low levels. Discarding is also prohibited in the NEAFC Convention Area, and in Norwegian and Faroese waters. Several bycatch mitigation measures such as the use of sorting grids and real time closures in areas with high abundance of juveniles are in place in some countries to minimize non-target catches (Anna Kiseleva et al. 2016, IFFO 2016).

In terms of available information for specific fleets, the Norwegian fishery reports little bycatch during the spawning season, although catches of juveniles, as well as saithe and redfish, increase when this fishery has continued later in the season (NMTIF 2010). Bycatch of saithe, silver smelt and cod has been reported at below 1% in the Icelandic blue whiting fishery in 2004 (ICES 2005, Pálsson 2005). An average saithe bycatch rate of 3.5% was reported by Faroese monitoring of the blue whiting fleet (ICES 2005). Dutch fleets also report almost no bycatch of other species (ICES 2008).

Blue whiting is also taken as bycatch in the non-directed fisheries. Mixed industrial fisheries taking blue whiting may also target Norway pout (ICES 2005). Spanish and Portuguese bottom trawling catch blue whiting among a number of other pelagic species (e.g., horse mackerel, mackerel, hake, anglerfish, megrims and Nephrops) in a mixed fishery. Other fleets, such as in the Netherlands, catch blue whiting in pelagic fisheries also targeting herring, mackerel, horse mackerel and argentines (ICES 2016). Data on bycatch and discards is however incomplete for the overall fishery, due to limited observer coverage (des Clers et al. 2016, ICES 2005).

HABITAT

Last updated on 8 August 2017

Blue whiting is mainly caught in a directed fishery by pelagic (midwater) trawl. Direct effects on habitat and seafloor are typically minimal for pelagic gears (ICES 2006), although occasional contact is known to occur and, in these cases, can cause damage to fragile ecosystems (e.g., corals), particularly when targeting bentho-pelagic schooling species (Donaldson et al. 2006). For this particular fishery, however, available evidence suggests impacts on the bottom habitats are likely very low (des Clers et al. 2016, Kiseleva, John Nichols et al. 2016). Several areas NE Atlantic waters where the fishery takes place are closed to trawling in order to protect vulnerable marine environments such as coldwater corals and sponges (ICES 2016, Kiseleva, John Nichols et al. 2016).

Blue whiting is widely distributed in the North East Atlantic, with a large migratory capacity. Its wide distribution and position in the food chain means it plays an important role in the pelagic ecosystems (ICES 2009, NMTIF 2010) and changes in its abundance will therefore have wide-ranging effects, both up and down the food chain of the marine ecosystem (ICES 2008). Studies undertaken in the Barents Sea indicate that the importance of blue whiting as prey for predatory fish was highest in the areas of greatest abundance, but overall, blue whiting were seemingly unimportant as prey of piscivorous (Dolgov et al. 2010). The trophic role of blue whiting is poorly defined. However, mackerel, herring and blue whiting might be strong competitors in certain areas (Trenkel et al. 2014).

A trend towards decreasing weight-at-age has been observed since the early 1990s, with ecosystem effects suspected to be playing a role, through density dependent competition or lower plankton availability, or other factors such as temperature and salinity alterations (ICES 2009). The North Atlantic subpolar gyre (SPG) may influence recruitment success through food availability and/or predation levels, however, these mechanisms are not yet fully understood (Payne et al. 2012). According to Trenkel et al. (2014), mackerel and blue whiting in the NE Atlantic might use broadly the same area for spawning, though at different times of the year.

Marine Reserves

Last updated on 08 Aug 2017

Iceland enforces a temporary area closure if 30% or more of blue whiting are smaller than 25 cm (ICES 2008). The Faroe Islands enforce a total fishing ban on the Faroe bank during the spawning of cod (i Jakupsstovu et al. 2007) and the fishery may also be subject to other closed areas or boxes which exist to protect juveniles (Kelleher 2005).

A 2003 agreement between OSPAR, the EU and HELCOM, the commission responsible for the protection of the Baltic Sea, aimed to establish a network of Marine Protected Areas in the NE Atlantic (OSPAR 2003). Although the selection of 106 potential MPAs has been reported by the contracting countries so far, OSPAR noted that a substantial progress is still needed in order to meet the target of a well managed and ecologically coherent network of MPAs by 2010 (OSPAR 2011).

The extension of the Natura 2000 network established under the Birds Directive 79/409/EEC and the Habitats Directive 92/43/EEC to marine areas is also underway and the regulation of certain fishing activities may be enforced, with areas evaluated on an individual basis (Anon 2007).

FishSource Scores

Last updated on 18 July 2018

SELECT SCORES

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

As calculated for 2018 data.

The score is 9.4.

This measures the F at low biomass as a percentage of the F management target.

The F at low biomass is 0.0500 (from management plan). The F management target is 0.320 .

The underlying F at low biomass/F management target for this index is 15.6%.

As calculated for 2018 data.

The score is 10.0.

This measures the Set TAC as a percentage of the Advised TAC.

The Set TAC is 1390 ('000 t). The Advised TAC is 1390 ('000 t) .

The underlying Set TAC/Advised TAC for this index is 100%.

As calculated for 2017 data.

The score is 7.4.

This measures the Catch as a percentage of the Set TAC.

The Catch is 1560 ('000 t). The Set TAC is 1340 ('000 t) .

The underlying Catch/Set TAC for this index is 116%.

STOCK HEALTH:

As calculated for 2018 data.

The score is 10.0.

This measures the SSB as a percentage of the SSBmsy.

The SSB is 5910 ('000 t). The SSBmsy is 2250 ('000 t) .

The underlying SSB/SSBmsy for this index is 263%.

As calculated for 2017 data.

The score is 7.0.

This measures the F as a percentage of the F management target.

The F is 0.402 (age-averaged). The F management target is 0.320 .

The underlying F/F management target for this index is 126%.

HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSE RISK

High Medium Low

This indicates the potential risk of human rights abuses for all fisheries operating within this stock or assessment unit. If there are more than on risk level noted, individual fisheries have different levels. Click on the "Select Scores" drop-down list for your fisheries of interest.

To see data for biomass, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for catch and tac, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for fishing mortality, please view this site on a desktop.
No data available for recruitment
No data available for recruitment
To see data for management quality, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for stock status, please view this site on a desktop.
DATA NOTES

1) A new long-term management strategy has been agreed and is in place since October 2016. Advised catches for 2018 (1,387,872 tonnes) are thus based on the agreed management strategy (ICES 2017).

2) ICES estimated catches for 2017 (1,559 thousand tonnes) are still preliminary (ICES 2017), and may be revised in the next assessment based on new information and estimates.

3) Discards are included in catch estimates since 2014 (ICES 2016)(ICES 2017).

Download Source Data

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Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

No related FIPs

Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

SELECT MSC

NAME

Faroese Pelagic Organisation North East Atlantic blue whiting

STATUS

MSC Certified on 15 June 2016

SCORES

Principle Level Scores:

Principle Score
Principle 1 – Target Species 93.8
Principle 2 – Ecosystem 90.0
Principle 3 – Management System 91.1

Certification Type: Platinum

Sources

Credits
  1. Council Regulation (EU) No 1380/2013 of the European Parliament and the Council of 11 December 2013 on the Common Fisheries Policy, amending Council Regulations (EC) No 1954/2003 and (EC) No 1224/2009 and repealing Council Regulations (EC) No 2371/2002 and (EC) No 639/2004 and Council Decision 2004/585/EC. Official Journal of the European Union 28.12.2013.http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:32013R1380&from=EN
  2. Council Regulation (EU) No 2015/104 of 19 January 2015 fixing for 2015 the fishing opportunities for certain fish stocks and groups of fish stocks, applicable in Union waters and, for Union vessels, in certain non-Union waters, amending Regulation (EU) No 43/2014 and repealing Regulation (EU) No 779/2014.http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:32015R0104&from=EN
  3. Council Regulation (EU) No 43/2014 of 20 January 2014 fixing for 2014 the fishing opportunities for certain fish stocks and groups of fish stocks, applicable in Union waters and, to Union vessels, in certain non-Union waters . Official Journal of the European Union.http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2014:024:0001:0145:EN:PDF
  4. Council Regulation (EU) No 432/2014 of 22 April 2014 amending Regulation (EU) No 43/2014 as regards certain fishing opportunities.http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:32014R0432&from=EN
  5. Council Regulation (EU) 2017/127 of 20 January 2017 fixing for 2017 the fishing opportunities for certain fish stocks and groups of fish stocks, applicable in Union waters and, for Union fishing vessels, in certain non-Union waters. 172 pp. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:32017R0127&from=EN
References

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