Last updated on 10 March 2016

SUMMARY

SUMMARY

IDENTIFICATION

SCIENTIFIC NAME(s)

Pandalus borealis

SPECIES NAME(s)

Northern prawn, northern shrimp

The Icelandic shrimp consists of three separated stocks: inshore, offshore and Dhorn bank/Denmark Strait populations which differ genetically (Jónsdóttir et al., 1998) and in size, maximum length and length at sexual maturity (Skúladóttir and Pétursson, 1999). Assessment and management are specific to each stock. The offshore fishery has been the largest in terms of catches since the 1980s. A part of the catch is of a related species, Pandalus montagui, but is not differentiated during reporting (IMFA, undated 1).


ANALYSIS

Strengths

The stock advice is currently based on annual survey indices and fishery trends. An annual Total Allowable Catch (TAC) has been set at the scientifically advised level. In 2015 the precautionary limit for biomass Blim proposed by NAFO for data-poor shrimp stocks was used allowing the determination of an indicative stock status. Sorting grids are mandatory to reduce bycatch which is not considered to be an issue.

Weaknesses

There is some uncertainty associated with analytical assessment models, and they are not used to evaluate this stock. Catch per unit effort (CPUE) index, total biomass index and recruitment are at low levels, below long-term averages. Discard estimates are unknown. Reference points are not defined and the suitability of the limit reference point used for NAFO data-poor shrimp stocks for this specific stock is not yet determined. A formal TAC was not set from 2010/2011 to 2013/2014 fishing years and catches frequently exceeded the recommended level.

FISHSOURCE SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

< 6

Managers Compliance:

10

Fishers Compliance:

10

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

≥ 6

Future Health:

NOT YET SCORED


RECOMMENDATIONS

CATCHERS & REGULATORS

1. Start a fishery improvement project to address sustainability issues in this fishery. For advice on starting a FIP, see SFP’s Seafood Industry Guide to FIPs at http://www.sustainablefish.org/publications/2014/04/30/the-seafood-industry-guide-to-fips.
2. Communicate to fishery managers that there are sustainability issues in this fishery that may be affecting the sale of products, and request that they comprehensively evaluate and address such issues.

RETAILERS & SUPPLY CHAIN

1. Encourage your supply chain to start a fishery improvement project. For advice on starting a FIP see SFP’s Seafood Industry Guide to FIPs at http://www.sustainablefish.org/publications/2014/04/30/the-seafood-industry-guide-to-fips.
2. Work with other suppliers and buyers on a pre-competitive basis to start a supplier roundtable to review improvement needs in this and other similar fisheries, catalyze fishery improvement projects, and monitor progress in improvement efforts.


FIPS

No related FIPs

CERTIFICATIONS

  • ISF Iceland northern shrimp - inshore and offshore:

    MSC Certified

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

ASSESSMENT UNIT MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
Icelandic offshore Icelandic offshore Iceland Single boat bottom otter trawls

Analysis

OVERVIEW

Last updated on 26 August 2015

Strengths

The stock advice is currently based on annual survey indices and fishery trends. An annual Total Allowable Catch (TAC) has been set at the scientifically advised level. In 2015 the precautionary limit for biomass Blim proposed by NAFO for data-poor shrimp stocks was used allowing the determination of an indicative stock status. Sorting grids are mandatory to reduce bycatch which is not considered to be an issue.

Weaknesses

There is some uncertainty associated with analytical assessment models, and they are not used to evaluate this stock. Catch per unit effort (CPUE) index, total biomass index and recruitment are at low levels, below long-term averages. Discard estimates are unknown. Reference points are not defined and the suitability of the limit reference point used for NAFO data-poor shrimp stocks for this specific stock is not yet determined. A formal TAC was not set from 2010/2011 to 2013/2014 fishing years and catches frequently exceeded the recommended level.

RECOMMENDATIONS

Last updated on 28 June 2016

Improvement Recommendations to Catchers & Regulators

1. Start a fishery improvement project to address sustainability issues in this fishery. For advice on starting a FIP, see SFP’s Seafood Industry Guide to FIPs at http://www.sustainablefish.org/publications/2014/04/30/the-seafood-industry-guide-to-fips.
2. Communicate to fishery managers that there are sustainability issues in this fishery that may be affecting the sale of products, and request that they comprehensively evaluate and address such issues.

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain

1. Encourage your supply chain to start a fishery improvement project. For advice on starting a FIP see SFP’s Seafood Industry Guide to FIPs at http://www.sustainablefish.org/publications/2014/04/30/the-seafood-industry-guide-to-fips.
2. Work with other suppliers and buyers on a pre-competitive basis to start a supplier roundtable to review improvement needs in this and other similar fisheries, catalyze fishery improvement projects, and monitor progress in improvement efforts.

1.STOCK STATUS

STOCK ASSESSMENT

Last updated on 26 August 2015

The first stock assessment was performed in 1987 when the fishery started. Currently it is conducted by the Icelandic Marine Research Institute (MRI; Hafro) and stock production models have been used based on both Catch Per Unit Effort (CPUE) and survey data and also on size distribution of catches, growth, recruitment and sex ratio size; abundance of cod juveniles are taken into consideration due to the high importance of prawn as a prey of cod (IMFA, undated 4). However, no analytical assessment is used for offshore shrimp at the moment since the model results are not consistent with the annual survey data (Sigurðsson and Jónsdóttir, 2015, pers. comm., 26 August). Offshore trawl surveys are conducted yearly (in July-August) since 1998 (Skúladόttir and Sigurjόnsson, 2004).

Cod abundance has been increasing such as the proportion of cod feeding on shrimp in the offshore area (Jónsdóttir, 2011). To consider cod predation the immature portion of the population is included in the statistical model since 1991 and the total cod stock index since 2000 in order to count on cod migration (Garcia, 2007).

Biotic and abiotic factors have been studied to understand the possibilities to such a weak condition of Northern prawn in offshore waters. Those combined with high fishing effort can lead to collapse of shrimp fisheries like happened in similar fisheries in NE Atlantic (Koeller, 2000).

SCIENTIFIC ADVICE

Last updated on 26 August 2015

Advice is issued by MRI, based on trends in the fishery (CPUE) and survey data, in the form of recommended Total Allowable Catches (TAC). Considering the status of the stock, the advised catch is of 4,000 tons for 2015/2016 (MRI, 2015) slightly below previous years.

Reference Points

Last updated on 26 Aug 2015

No reference points are thought to be used for providing advice or assisting management. In the 2015 advice the MRI mentions the Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Commission (NAFO) precautionary limit for “data-poor” shrimp stocks that are recommended at 15% of maximum level of the time-series. The maximum was attained in 1997 at 30,700 tons for this stock, resulting in Blim estimated at 4,600 tons (MRI, 2015). However the suitability of this reference point for the offshore Icelandic stock is not determined, as pointed out by MRI (MRI, 2015).

CURRENT STATUS

Last updated on 26 August 2015

The female fertility index (considered as a proxy of the spawning stock biomass index) has been decreasing and is estimated at 13,400 tons in 2014 but well above the NAFO Blim. Total biomass index is at ~24,000 tons, close to the historical minimum reached in 2004, and below the average as well as recruitment which is also at low levels since 2005 and below the long-term average. CPUE in 2014 was the lowest value in the time-series (MRI, 2015). Low levels of recruitment are mainly due to cod predation and summer sea surface temperature (Jónsdóttir et al., 2013).

Trends

Last updated on 26 Aug 2015

Catches were under 5,000 tons per year until 1982 but then increased sharply and peaked at 65,000 tons in 1996. They fell slightly in the following years and even more dramatically in 2000 to 20,700 tons. In 2006 catches fell further to 800 tons but are recovering since then, reaching 6,300 tons in 2009/2010and oscillating around these levels in the following years. Total biomass index has been varying greatly, attaining the historical maximum in 1996 at almost 90,000 tons but has been on a decreasing trend since then and below the long-term average since 2003, similarly to recruitment (MRI, 2015). The female fertility index has followed similar trends to the biomass index.

TAC increases during the late 1990s were related to strong recruitment and biomass indices and a decline of juvenile cod. The first TAC was defined in 1987 in the period when the fleet and CPUE increased greatly, and the first signs of overfishing were detected (Garcia, 2007).

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

MANAGEMENT

Last updated on 26 August 2015

Marine resources are managed under the Fisheries Management Act (August 2006) of the Icelandic Ministry of Fisheries and Agriculture (IMFA). A TAC is set based upon advice from MRI. Advised TACs were exactly implemented as effective TAC by management each year from the 1998/1999 to 2009/2010 quota years but were generally set above advised levels in the preceding years. The TAC was reduced ten-fold from 75,000 t in 1998 to 7,000 t in 2006 on MRI’s advice (MRI, 2015). From 2010/2011 to 2013/2014 fishing years, a TAC was not defined due to the low catches observed in some years. However, the Ministry implemented regulations (e.g. closure of the fishery) when the advised TAC was caught (Regulation 587/2014).

Sorting grids are mandatory to minimize by-catch of juvenile fish such as redfish and Green halibut (IMFA, undated 5; Valdemarsen, undated; Yanez, 2000). The minimum mesh size is set at 45mm. Logbooks are also mandatory onboard and the fishery is under a licensing system; individual transferable quotas (ITQ) are in place since 1990. Abundance of undersized organisms cannot represent >30% of landings (Garcia, 2007). Areas permanaently closed to trawling as well as temporary closures are established according to proportions of juvenile shrimp in the catch (Skúladόttir and Sigurjόnsson, 2004; IMFA, 2005). Discarding is not allowed in Icelandic waters and bird reduction devices (BRD) are mandatory (Varkey and Pitcher, 2006).

A multistock model of cod, capelin and shrimp has been used to determine harvest strategy (Skúladόttir and Sigurjόnsson, 2004).

Recovery Plans

Last updated on 26 Aug 2015

No recovery plans appear to be in place.

COMPLIANCE

Last updated on 26 August 2015

The Department of Fisheries (DoF), under the Minister of Fisheries, is in charge of administration, enforcement and compliance with the Fisheries Act and other measures established. The Icelandic Coast Guard is also responsible for surveillance and inspection of fishing activities (IMFA, undated).

Catches have historically been very close to the designated TAC and only exceeded in 1993, 1994, 1996 and 2000 (MRI, 2011a,b); since 2005 catches have fallen well below the TAC as the state of the stock has deteriorated, in spite of successive TAC reductions (MRI, 2009). Discard estimates are unknown.

In 2011/2012 and 2012/2013, when no TAC was defined, catches were above the recommended level.

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

BYCATCH
ETP Species

Last updated on 26 August 2015

Twelve cetacean species are regularly observed around Iceland (IMFA, undated 2) but population sizes are not accurately known for most medium-sized and small cetaceans (ICES, 2008a). Two species of seals breed off the Icelandic coast and observed decreases in the population sizes of both are generally attributed to overexploitation through hunting (ICES, 2008a). None of them seems to be directly impacted by this fishery and there are no evidences of bycatch of sea turtles (IMFA, undated 2).

Other Species

Last updated on 26 August 2015

Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), Greenland halibut (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides), haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) and redfish (Sebastes spp.) are the main bycatch species identified during 1983-2005 records from the offshore shrimp fishery in North, West and East Iceland. Various experiments have been carried out to improve trawl efficiency (e.g. in mesh-size, cod-end). Bycatch of adult fish decreased with the mandatory use of sorting grids in trawls (Garcia, 2007) and bycatch, in general, is not considered an issue in this fishery (MRI, 2015).

HABITAT

Last updated on 26 August 2015

The effects of otter trawling are relatively minor for most small sized organisms on soft sediment seabed. Effects on large structural biota such as corals and sponges are thought to be more severe and to have fragmented their distribution. Otter trawl effort around Iceland has already been accurately mapped and only a few species are affected (MRI, undated); the mapping of sensitive benthic assemblages and habitats is underway with coral mapping initiated in 2004 (ICES, 2008a).

Northern prawn is an important prey to different trophic levels, such as fishes, seabirds and marine mammals. Juvenile cod is identified as the main predator in Icelandic waters and Jónsdóttir et al. (2012) found a clear asynchrony of cod and shrimp abundances. This relationship has been studied in the region (Garcia, 2007) and identified on other fisheries e.g. Northeast Newfoundland and in West Greenland waters. Guðlaugsdóttir (2014) found that predation and fishing effort may have been influencing Northern prawn abundance and/or distribution on offshore waters but that mean sea surface temperature is the main negative influencing factor of biomass index.

Marine Reserves

Last updated on 26 Aug 2015

Closed areas are an important management measure in Icelandic fisheries; boxes may be closed to different fisheries or gear types for varying durations (ICES, 2008b) and immediate closures can be implemented when deemed necessary (IMFA, 2005). Shrimp fisheries may be affected by closed areas and areas closed to bottom trawl gear in general. Known coral distribution and other vulnerable areas are closed to bottom trawling (IMFA, undated 3).

Several Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) are designated in coastal Iceland and islands (IMFA, 2005; Wood, 2007), but mostly inshore waters thus not coincident with fishing operations for this stock.

FishSource Scores

SELECT SCORES

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

As calculated for 2013 data.

The score is < 6.

No reference points are officially published for the fishery. In 2015 the precautionary limit for biomass established by NAFO for data-poor shrimp stocks (at 15% of the maximum female fertility index attained in 1997) was used allowing the determination of an indicative stock status. But the suitability of this reference point is not determined for this specific stock, as pointed out by the Icelandic Marine Research Institute (MRI, 2015). No recovery or management plans appear to be in place.

As calculated for 2015 data.

The score is 10.0.

This measures the Set TAC as a percentage of the Advised TAC.

The Set TAC is 5.00 ('000 t). The Advised TAC is 5.00 ('000 t) .

The underlying Set TAC/Advised TAC for this index is 100%.

As calculated for 2010 data.

The score is 10.0.

This measures the Catch as a percentage of the Set TAC.

The Catch is 6.30 ('000 t). The Set TAC is 7.00 ('000 t) .

The underlying Catch/Set TAC for this index is 90.0%.

STOCK HEALTH:

As calculated for 2014 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

Both female fertility index (FFI; considered as the spawning stock biomass) and total biomass index are close to the historical minimum and below average as well as recruitment which is also below the long-term average. The catch per unit effort (CPUE) index also reached the historical minimum in 2014. However FFI has always been above the limit reference point (determined for NAFO data-poor shrimp stocks). Apart sea surface temperature, cod predation is still happening and is other of the factors contributing to the shrimp decrease especially on recruits entering in the fishery (MRI, 2015).

To see data for biomass, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for catch and tac, please view this site on a desktop.
No data available for fishing mortality
No data available for fishing mortality
No data available for recruitment
No data available for recruitment
To see data for management quality, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for stock status, please view this site on a desktop.
DATA NOTES

Notes:
1) From 1987 to 1991 data are relative to the calendar year and since then to the quota year, thus, for example, 2012 refers to the 2011/2012 fishing year, from September 2011 to 31 August 2012.
2) The advised TAC excludes the Dohrn Bank area (IMFA, undated).
3) Formal TACs were not set between 2010/2011 and 2013/2014 but were again defined for the 2014/2015 fishing year.
4) Female fertility index is presented here as a proxy for spawning stock biomass and is available from 1988-2014 (MRI, 2015).
5) In 2015 the precautionary limit for biomass Blim advised by NAFO for data-poor shrimp stocks (at 15% of the maximum female fertility index; attained in 1997 and calculated at 4,600 tons) was used allowing the determination of an indicative stock status. But the suitability of this reference point is not determined for this specific stock, as pointed out by the Icelandic Marine Research Institute (MRI, 2015). Thus Blim was not included in the datasheet to compute score #4 which was instead determined qualitatively.
6) In the absence of reference points the precaution of the management strategy (score #1) has also been scored qualitatively.
7) The future health of the stock (score #5) could not be determined from available information.

Download Source Data

Registered users can download the original data file for calculating the scores after logging in. If you wish, you can Register now.

Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

No related FIPs

Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

SELECT MSC

NAME

ISF Iceland northern shrimp - inshore and offshore

STATUS

MSC Certified on 30 October 2018

SCORES

Principle Level Scores:

Units of certification

Principle 1

Target species

Principle 2

Ecosystem

Principle 3

Management

Offshore UoC1: Offshore (north of Iceland, within ICES area Va2) 81.7 88.0 94.4
Inshore Eldey 80.0 91.3
Snæfellsnes 83.3
Arnarfjörður 80.0
Ísafjarðardjúp 81.7
Skjálfandi < 60
Húnaflói, Öxarfjörður and Skagafjörður < 60

Certification Type: Silver

Sources

Credits
  1. Clucas I, 1997. A study of the options for utilization of bycatch and discards from marine capture fisheries. FAO Fisheries Circular No. 928 FIIU/C928.http://www.fao.org/docrep/W6602E/w6602E00.htm
  2. Fiskistofa, 2009. Icelandic Directorate of Fisheries. Quota status (total) within Icelandic EEZ.http://en.fiskistofa.is/heildastodur.php
  3. Garcia, E. G. 2007. The Northern Shrimp (Pandalus borealis) offshore fishery in the Northeast Atlantic, Marine Research Institute, 120pp.http://www.hafro.is/Bokasafn/Greinar/adv_mar_biol_52-147.pdf
  4. Guðlaugsdóttir, A. K. 2014, Long-term changes in the distribution of northern shrimp (Pandalus borealis) in Icelandic waters, Master’s thesis, Faculty of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Iceland, 50 pp.http://skemman.is/stream/get/1946/18730/44701/1/masters_ritgerd.pdf
  5. Iceland Ministry of Fisheries and Agriculture(IMFA), undated 1. Northern Shrimp. Icelandic Fisheries - Information Centre of the Icelandic Ministry of Fisheries and Agriculture. [Assessed on 02 March 2012].http://www.fisheries.is/main-species/invertebrates/northern-shrimp/
  6. Iceland Ministry of Fisheries and Agriculture (IMFA), undated 2. Icelandic Fisheries, Main species, Marine Mammals. [Assessed on 02 March 2012].http://www.fisheries.is/main-species/marine-mammals/
  7. Iceland Ministry of Fisheries and Agriculture (IMFA), undated 3. Icelandic Fisheries, Management, Government policy, Responsible fisheries. [Assessed on 02 March 2012].http://www.fisheries.is/management/government-policy/responsible-fisheries/
  8. Iceland Ministry of Fisheries and Agriculture (IMFA), undated 4. Management, Research, Stock Assessment. [Assessed on 02 March 2012].http://www.fisheries.is/management/research/stock-assessment/
  9. Iceland Ministry of Fisheries and Agriculture (IMFA), undated 5. Fisheries management, Area closures. [Assessed on 02 March 2012].http://www.fisheries.is/management/fisheries-management/area-closures/
  10. ICES, 2008a. Report of the Working Group for Regional Ecosystem Description (WGRED), 25-29 February 2008, ICES, Copenhagen, Denmark (ICES CM 2008/ACOM:47).http://www.ices.dk/reports/ACOM/2008/WGRED/wgred_2008.pdf
  11. ICES, 2008b. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee. Book 2: Iceland and East Greenland. http://www.ices.dk/products/icesadvice/2008/ICES%20ADVICE%202008%20Book%202.pdf
  12. IMFA, 2005. Friðun viðkvæmra hafsvæða við Ísland [in Icelandic].http://www.sjavarutvegsraduneyti.is/media/Skyrslur/fridunskyrsla_2005.pdf
  13. Jónsdóttir, I. G. 2011. The interaction between northern shrimp (Pandalus borealis) and cod (Gadus morhua) in inshore and offshore areas off Iceland, Marine Research Institute, Iceland. Power point presentation.http://www.pices.int/publications/presentations/2011-ESASS/S8/1535-Jonsdottir-S8.pdf
  14. Jónsdóttir, I. G., Björnsson, H., Skúladóttir, U. 2012. Predation by Atlantic cod Gadus morhua on northern shrimp Pandalus borealis in inshore and offshore areas of Iceland, Mar Ecol Prog Ser 469: 223–232 http://www.int-res.com/articles/theme/m469p223.pdf
  15. Jónsdóttir, I. G., Magnússon, Á., and Skúladóttir, U. 2013. Influence of increased cod abundance and temperature on recruitment of northern shrimp (Pandalus borealis). Marine Biology, 160: 1203–1211.http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00227-013-2172-1
  16. Jónsdóttir, Ó. D., Imsland, A. K., and Nævdal, G. 1998. Population genetic studies of northern shrimp, Pandalus borealis, in Icelandic waters and the Denmark Strait. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 55: 770–780 http://www.nrcresearchpress.com/doi/abs/10.1139/f97-271?journalCode=cjfas#.VdNszvlViko
  17. Koeller, P. 2000. Relative importance of abiotic and biotic factors to the management of the northern shrimp (Pandalus borealis) fishery on the Scotian shelf. Journal of Northwest Atlantic Fishery Science, 27: 21–33 http://journal.nafo.int/dnn/Portals/0/2000-2/koeller1.pdf
  18. Mamie, J. C. J. 2008. Stock assessment of shrimp Pandalus borealis (Krøyer 1838) in Skjálfandi Bay Northern Iceland, Ministry of Fisheries and Marine Resources, The United Nations University – Fisheries Training Programme, Iceland, 43 p.http://www.unuftp.is/static/fellows/document/josephus08prf.pdf
  19. Marine Research Institute (MRI), 2011a. State of the Marine Stocks in Icelandic Waters 2010/2011 – Prospects for the Quota Year 2011/2012, 185 p.http://www.hafro.is/Astand/2011/ASTANDSSKYRSLA_HAFRANNSOKNASTOFNUNARINNAR_2011.pdf
  20. Marine Research Institute (MRI), 2011b. English summary of the State of the Marine Stocks in Icelandic Waters 2010/2011 – Prospects for the Quota Year 2011/2012, 6 p.http://www.hafro.is/Astand/2011/35-engl-sum.PDF
  21. Marine Research Institute (MRI), 2014. State of stocks 2013/2014 - Prospects 2014/2015 - 2.30 Pandalus borealis, 5pp. http://www.hafro.is/Astand/2014/english/30-northernprawn-14.pdf
  22. Marine Research Institute (MRI), 2015. State of stocks 2014/2015 - Prospects 2015/2016 - 2.30 Pandalus borealis, 5pp. http://www.hafro.is/Astand/2015/raekja_2015.pdf
  23. Marine Research Institute (MRI), 2015. State of stocks 2014/2015 - Prospects 2015/2016 - 2.30 Pandalus borealis, 5pp. http://www.hafro.is/Astand/2015/raekja_2015.pdf
  24. Marine Research Institute (MRI), undated. Effects of Fishing Activities on Benthic Ecosystems. Marine Research Institute, Iceland. [Assessed on 02 March 2012].http://www.hafro.is/undir_eng.php?ID=16&REF=2
  25. MRI, 2009. State of Marine Stocks in Icelandic Waters 2008/2009 - Prospects for the Quota Year 2009/2010. Marine Research Institute Iceland. http://www.hafro.is/Astand/2009/Astandsskyrsla_2009.pdf
  26. Skúladóttir, U., and Pétursson, G. 1999. Defining populations of northern shrimp, Pandalus borealis (Krøyer1938), in Icelandic waters using the maximum length and maturity ogive of females. Rit Fiskideildar, 16: 247–262http://www.hafro.is/Bokasafn/Greinar/Rit-fisk/rit_fisk_16-247.pdf
  27. Skúladόttir, U. and Sigurjόnsson, J. 2004. Pandalus stocks in Icelandic waters: biology, exploitation and management, Marine Research Institute 104-116pp. ttp://www.hafro.is/Bokasafn/Greinar/Imr_Pinro_10-104.pdf
  28. Varkey, D. and Pitcher, T. J. 2006. An Estimation of Compliance of the Fisheries of Iceland with Article 7 (Fisheries Management) of the UN Code of Conduct for Responsible Fishing, 26pp. In Pitcher, T.J., Kalikoski, D. and Pramod, G. (eds) Evaluations of Compliance with the FAO (UN) Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries. Fisheries Centre Research Reports 14(2): 1192pp http://www.fisheries.ubc.ca/webfm_send/283
  29. Wood LJ, 2007. MPA Global: A database of the world’s marine protected areas. Sea Around Us Project, UNEP-WCMC & WWF.http://www.mpaglobal.org
  30. Yanez, A. A. G. 2000. A comparison of different assessment models for northern shrimp, Pandalus borealis, in Icelandic waters, The United Nations University – Fisheries Training Programme, Iceland, 39 p.http://www.unuftp.is/static/fellows/document/abel3.pdf
References

    Comments

    This tab will disappear in 5 seconds.

    Comments on:

    Northern prawn - Icelandic offshore

    comments powered by Disqus