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Profile updated on 13 September 2019

SUMMARY

SUMMARY

IDENTIFICATION

SCIENTIFIC NAME(s)

Micromesistius australis

SPECIES NAME(s)

Southern blue whiting, New Zealand southern blue whiting

Besides being found around the southern tip of South America, Southern blue whiting (Micromesistius australis) is found on the southern shelf of New Zealand  There is occasionally reference to two distinct subspecies – Micromesistius australis pallidus and Micromesistius australis australis.

Hanchet (1999) found significant differences in growth rates and morphometric characteristics among that groups 4 stocks; Auckland Islands (SBW 6A), Bounty Platform stock (SBW 6B), Campbell Island (SBW 6I) and Pukaki Rise (SBW 6R).  He further indicated that these distict groups, which are also separated by their use of distinct spawning grounds, should be treated as four biological stocks for assessment and management purposes (Fisheries New Zealand 2019).


ANALYSIS

Strengths
  • Biomass is well above reference points targets and limits.
  • Fishing morality is low
  • Mangers set precautionary quotas.
  • Reference points using a three-tiered method are in effect and are based around B0
  • Quotas are well adhered to by the industry.
  • Other measures such as sea lion excluding devices, and closed areas are also in effect.
  • Overall environmental rating is positive, there are indications of low bycatch, low endangered, threatened and protected (ETP) species interactions, and little habitat damage by this fishery.
  • Industry appears well engaged in sustainable management for this stock 
Weaknesses
  • Stock is highly recruitment driven with wide swings in population sizes as a result. This can make management challenging
  • A new method for classifying New Zealand's marine habitat is being undertaken, and meanwhile, there is uncertainty as to how this will affect the classification of habitats identified as "high risk" under the previously used classification scheme (BOMEC), and whether the current BPA network sufficiently protects such areas.

FISHSOURCE SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

≥ 8

Managers Compliance:

10

Fishers Compliance:

10

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

10

Future Health:

10


RECOMMENDATIONS

RETAILERS & SUPPLY CHAIN
  • Monitor the fishery and management system for any changes that could jeopardize MSC certification.

FIPS

No related FIPs

CERTIFICATIONS

  • New Zealand Deepwater Group hake, hoki, ling and southern blue whiting:

    MSC Certified

  • New Zealand EEZ southern blue whiting pelagic trawl fishery:

    MSC Certified

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

ASSESSMENT UNIT MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
Campbell Island NZ Campbell Island (SBW 6I) New Zealand Midwater trawls
Semipelagic trawls

Analysis

OVERVIEW

Last updated on 13 September 2019

Strengths
  • Biomass is well above reference points targets and limits.
  • Fishing morality is low
  • Mangers set precautionary quotas.
  • Reference points using a three-tiered method are in effect and are based around B0
  • Quotas are well adhered to by the industry.
  • Other measures such as sea lion excluding devices, and closed areas are also in effect.
  • Overall environmental rating is positive, there are indications of low bycatch, low endangered, threatened and protected (ETP) species interactions, and little habitat damage by this fishery.
  • Industry appears well engaged in sustainable management for this stock 
Weaknesses
  • Stock is highly recruitment driven with wide swings in population sizes as a result. This can make management challenging
  • A new method for classifying New Zealand's marine habitat is being undertaken, and meanwhile, there is uncertainty as to how this will affect the classification of habitats identified as "high risk" under the previously used classification scheme (BOMEC), and whether the current BPA network sufficiently protects such areas.
RECOMMENDATIONS

Last updated on 30 September 2019

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain
  • Monitor the fishery and management system for any changes that could jeopardize MSC certification.

1.STOCK STATUS

STOCK ASSESSMENT

Last updated on 13 September 2019

For the purposes of stock assessment it is assumed that there are four main spawning areas of southern blue whiting (SBW) assessed independently: the Bounty Platform stock, the Pukaki Rise stock, the Auckland Islands stock and the Campbell Island stock (Hanchet, 1999). The Campbell Island Rise stock comprises two spawning grounds, north and south, which are assessed jointly (MPI, 2013a).

The southern blue whiting stocks of New Zealand are noted for highly variable recruitment; which can result in infrequent very strong year classes, followed by long periods of average or below average recruitment (Ministry for Primary Industries 2017). The drivers of these dynamics are not well understood, and forecasts often have high uncertainty (Ministry for Primary Industries 2017). Available biomass can change abruptly and dramatically with the coming and going of a strong year class, making for challenging management that must be able to respond quickly in order to optimize harvest and sustain yields over periods of high and low abundance(Ministry for Primary Industries 2017).

Stock assessment is performed by the Ministry for Primary Industries’ (MPI’s) Fisheries Assessment Working Group (DWWG); but they do not make management decisions.

An updated assessment was performed for this stock in 2018 (Fisheries New Zealand 2019); it was not updated for 2019. This assessment used a wide-area acoustic survey as a fishery independent data set. Commercial catch and catch at age was used as fishery dependent data. The CASAL (C++ Algorithmic Stock Assessment Laboratory) model framework uses Bayesian statically derived methods and allows for likelihood or posterior profiles. It can also generate Bayesian posterior distributions using Monte Carlo Markov Chain (MCMC) methods and allows for projections with uncertainty. New in this most recent update was the extension of the assessment timeseries back to 1960 where it was only from 1979 forward in past assessments. Also new to this assessment was the use of an informative prior on the acoustic survey catchability. These two improvements resulted in only a slight change in B0 estimates of ~ 3,000 t (Fisheries New Zealand 2019).

SCIENTIFIC ADVICE

Last updated on 13 September 2019

To maintain sustainable yields of this stock, the latest advice is based on conservative abundance estimates. Advised total allowable catches (TACs) are assumed to equal the set TAC, as they are determined by the same entity: the total allowable commercial catch (TACC) was at 29,400 tonnes for the 2011-2012 through 2013-2014 fishing seasons, and since that time has been at 39,200 tonnes (Ministry for Primary Industries 2017).

For the 2018 fishing year, 39,200 mt was advised in the assessment report, but alternative runs and risk profiles were shown at the approximate current catch (23,000 t) and 40,000 t (Fisheries New Zealand 2018). As the assessment advice and management decisions are made by the same government agency, set quota also equals advised quota for this stock. This same advice was carried forward for the 2019 fishing year (Fisheries New Zealand 2019). Projections during the 2018 assessment indicated that at the then current catches for that year the stock would be above 40% of B0 for the next 5 years (Fisheries New Zealand 2019).

A biomass reference point of 40% of B0 (Equilibrium “virgin” biomass: the population that would occur in the absence of fishing) was adopted as the management target for the fishery. According to the latest estimates of B0 (345,000 tonnes), Blim = B20% is at 69,000 tonnes (20% o(Fisheries New Zealand 2019) B0) and Btrp (40% B0) at 138,000 tonnes (Fisheries New Zealand 2019). Management also defines a Hard limit  at 10% of B0, a “biomass level below which a stock is deemed to be “collapsed” where fishery closures should be considered in order to rebuild a stock at the fastest possible rate”, and an overfishing threshold at F40% of B0 (Ministry for Primary Industries 2017); (Ministry of Fisheries 2008) .

CURRENT STATUS

Last updated on 13 September 2019

Based on the most recent assessment (Fisheries New Zealand 2018)(Fisheries New Zealand 2019) biomass for this stock is approximately 70% of B0; well above the B40% target, B20% soft limit, and B10% hard limit. Biomass is >90% likely to be above the target and less that 1% likely to be below hard or soft biomass limits. The stock has been above Btrp since 1994 and has risen since a recent low near Btrp in 2009. A slight downward change in the most recent year is seen in the biomass time series.

Fishing mortality as exploitation (U) is less than 10% and below the target exploitation of 23%. There is a less than 10% chance that the stock is above the exploitation target (). Recruitment is also good, with strong year classes seen in 2007, 2009, and 2011. These represent the second, third and fourth highest year classes in the assessment (Fisheries New Zealand 2018)(Fisheries New Zealand 2019). Since then estimates of recruitment have been below average, but these are considered highly uncertain (Fisheries New Zealand 2018)(Fisheries New Zealand 2019).

Landings have been below quota levels and have fluctuated between 19 and 31,000 t since 2010. 2018 landings were approximately 39% of the quota (Fisheries New Zealand 2019).

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

MANAGEMENT

Last updated on 13 September 2019

Management is conducted by the MPI and the Deepwater Group Limited (DWG Ltd), a non-profit company established to represent quota owners' interests in fisheries science and management (Akroyd et al. 2012).

The New Zealand’s Ministry of Fisheries (NZMF) has managed the fishery under a Quota Management System (QMS) since 1999 in order to maintain stock biomass levels that support a Maximum Constant Yield (MCY) (MPI, 2013a,b).

Managers define three biomass targets or limits used to promote sustainability of this stock a target biomass (Btrp) which is equal to 40% of B0 (B40%), a “soft” limit of 20% B0 (B20%) and a “hard” limit equal to 10% of B0 (B10%). At B20% managers are to set quotas in line with rebuilding the biomass back to Btrp, though a timeframe for this is not specified. Should the stock fall below B10%, a “biomass level below which a stock is deemed to be “collapsed” where fishery closures should be considered in order to rebuild a stock at the fastest possible rate” (Ministry of Fisheries 2008).

Other management measures include a minimum mesh size in trawls at 60 mm, bottom trawl closures to protect sensitive seabed areas, and a ban on use of cables for net sounders (which can entangle some seabirds). The industry also agreed to use sea lion excluder devices (SLEDs) (MPI, 2014c).

COMPLIANCE

Last updated on 13 September 2019

Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated (IUU) fishing is considered to be low. The 29,400 tonnes TACC was slightly overpassed in the 2011-2012 season. Official catches since have been well below the 39,200 tonnes TACC (Fisheries New Zealand 2019).  An estimated 40-310,000 tonnes  were illegally discarded in 2004 (Ministry for Primary Industries 2017). Anderson (2009) estimated only 0.23% of the catch to be discarded from 2002-2007; a finding has since been re-affirmed during MSC certification (O’Boyle, R et al. 2018).  The low level attributed to the fact that the fishery primarily targets spawning aggregations (Ministry for Primary Industries 2017). 

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

BYCATCH
ETP Species

Last updated on 13 September 2019

Data on interactions with ETP species was last updated in 2018 (Fisheries New Zealand 2019).There are few interactions with ETP species in this fishery. Some interactions have occurred with New Zealand sea lions, New Zealand fur seals, and birds. Data collection and enforcement is high, with near 100% observer coverage and VMS (Vessel Monitoring System) use by all participants.

Observed captures of sea lions in the fishery prompted National Deepwater Plan which includes Operational Objective 2.2: Ensure that incidental New Zealand sea lion mortalities (Fisheries New Zealand 2019). The government instituted a number of requirements including 100% observer coverage and the use of sea lion exclusion devices (SLEDs) on all tows. Since institution in 2014 catches of sea lions have dropped from 21 in 2012-2013 to zero in 2016-2017 (Fisheries New Zealand 2019).

Fur seals, which are considered “Not Threatened” and increasing in abundance (Fisheries New Zealand 2019), have also seen a decline in captures. Total captures and capture rates have declined from 95 captures and a rate of 0.118 per tow in 2013-2014 to 11 and a rate of 0.002 per tow in 2016-2017 (Fisheries New Zealand 2019). This is likely the result of the strategy and mitigation measures implemented for sea lions.

Seabird interactions are another potential area of concern. Salvin's albatross, Grey petrel, and Campbell black-browed albatross are the species most encountered. Of these only Salvin's albatross is listed as threatened by New Zealand (O’Boyle, R et al. 2018). Overall captures have been in decline recently. Captures in 2012-2013 were estimated 19 (0.024 per haul) but declined to 6 (0.011) in 2016-2017 (Fisheries New Zealand 2019). This is in part due to the mandatory use of streamers and other mitigation measures imposed by the national strategy. Overall this fishery has low interactions with sea birds. The fishery accounts for less than 2% of the Salvin's albatross mortality, the highest risk species (O’Boyle, R et al. 2018).

Other Species

Last updated on 13 September 2019

Bycatch data for this fishery was last updated in 2018 (Fisheries New Zealand 2019). Bycatch and retention of other fish species is minimal in this fishery (Fisheries New Zealand 2019)(O’Boyle, R et al. 2018). Less than 1% of the catch is composed on fish species other than blue whiting. These include ling, hake, and hoki, with smaller amounts of porbeagle shark, jack mackerels, rattails, Ray’s bream, and silverside.  Of these only porbeagle sharks is the highest at 0.04% of the catch (O’Boyle, R et al. 2018), and this is a quota monitored stock which is within biologically acceptible levels of removal (Fisheries New Zealand 2019).

Overall a strategy to minimize bycatch is in place (O’Boyle, R et al. 2018) and there is a high degree of observer coverage (near 100%) on fishing trips (O’Boyle, R et al. 2018). Additionally, a Vessel Monitoring System (VMS) is used to track the vessels for enforcement.

HABITAT

Last updated on 13 September 2019

Benthic habitat interactions are low for the pelagic or semi pelagic gear used in this fishery. However 55% of tows are at or near the bottom (within 5 m) so some interactions are possible. This fishery accounts for 1% of the tows close to the bottom (Fisheries New Zealand 2019)(O’Boyle, R et al. 2018). Information and enforcement are high, with 100% observer coverage and the use of VMS. Additionally, protected areas and habitat classification are also in place (Fisheries New Zealand 2019)(O’Boyle, R et al. 2018). However direct impacts of the gear on the physical environment have not been undertaken on the fishing grounds. Detailed high quality habitat maps of the area are not available (O’Boyle, R et al. 2018). This is unsurprising as this fishery operates in the deep water (300-600 m). While overall fishery impact is likely low, more research is needed (O’Boyle, R et al. 2018).

Overall a habitat strategy is in place which attempts to monitor and classify the fisheries impact (O’Boyle, R et al. 2018). This includes both monitoring, increased habitat mapping, work on physical impacts, and a network of Marine Protected Areas. Some of this work is still ongoing, however.

ECOSYSTEM

Last updated on 13 September 2019

Blue whiting are considered mid-trophic level fish, eating mostly small fish and invertebrates while being prey to larger fish, sharks and marine mammals (Fisheries New Zealand 2018)(Fisheries New Zealand 2019). Some juveniles are prone to bird predation. While some trophic and ecosystem modeling has been undertaken, results are now rather dated (O’Boyle, R et al. 2018). Some work indicates that increases in less resilient species have occurred (Fisheries New Zealand 2018)(Fisheries New Zealand 2019), though it is not clear if this is the result of the 2000-2009 decline in blue whiting abundance. It should be noted that this particular ecosystem has many trophic interactions and is quite complex, suggesting that removal of any particular species might not upset the overall complexity of the system (O’Boyle, R et al. 2018). Overall it could be concluded that while data and analysis are limited, the multiple trophic pathway of this ecosystem make major harvest impacts unlikely.

However, there is also limited comprehensive management engagement on this subject. Ecosystem management of potential impacts is based around a well-structured, legislative, policy and operational framework (O’Boyle, R et al. 2018). But only a partial strategy is implemented through a patchwork of regulations, voluntary agreements, and other measures (O’Boyle, R et al. 2018).

FishSource Scores

Last updated on 20 June 2019

SELECT SCORES

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

As calculated for 2019 data.

The score is ≥ 8.

An F at low biomass is not set, but the plan calls for a rebuilding plan when biomass falls below B20%. Additionally, below the “Hard” limit of B10% fishery closer is considered.

As calculated for 2019 data.

The score is 10.0.

This measures the Set TACC as a percentage of the Advised TACC.

The Set TACC is 39.2 ('000 t). The Advised TACC is 39.2 ('000 t) .

The underlying Set TACC/Advised TACC for this index is 100%.

As calculated for 2019 data.

The score is 10.0.

This measures the Catch as a percentage of the Set TACC.

The Catch is 15.1 ('000 t). The Set TACC is 39.2 ('000 t) .

The underlying Catch/Set TACC for this index is 38.6%.

STOCK HEALTH:

As calculated for 2016 data.

The score is 10.0.

This measures the TB as a percentage of the 40%B0.

The TB is 241 ('000 t). The 40%B0 is 138 ('000 t) .

The underlying TB/40%B0 for this index is 174%.

As calculated for 2016 data.

The score is 10.0.

This measures the Harvest rate U as a percentage of the Target harvest rate U.

The Harvest rate U is 0.0778 . The Target harvest rate U is 0.230 .

The underlying Harvest rate U/Target harvest rate U for this index is 33.8%.

ECOSYSTEM IMPACTS

Click on the score to see subscore

Click on the score to see subscore

Click on the score to see subscore

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Bycatch Subscores

Observer coverage is near 100% and bycatch reporting is mandatory (O’Boyle et al. 2018).

Interactions with ETP species are unlikely to prevent rebuilding given the low and declining level of interactions and the small footprint of the fishery (O’Boyle et al. 2018).

Fishery has little bycatch of other fish species. What few there are (like porbeagle) are under quota management with mandatory reporting and observer coverage (O’Boyle et al. 2018).

Bycatch limits are in place for porbeagle sharks, and there are multiple mitigation measures in place for ETP and other bycatch species. But removals for birds are not set, though documentation of occurrences is good (O’Boyle et al. 2018).

×

Habitat Subscores

Little is known about the direct bottom impacts of this gear on the physical habitat in this area, though research is ongoing on this topic (O’Boyle et al. 2018).

Some mapping is available, but often it is older, and is not as fine scale as needed for proper management (O’Boyle et al. 2018). Broad scale protection areas and habitat classification are also in place (Ministry of Fisheries 2011)(O’Boyle et al. 2018).

Given the foot print of the fishery and the use of semi pelagic gear, there is a low probability that the fishery will reduce structure and function of habitat in the region (MSC)(O’Boyle et al. 2018).

Overall a habitat strategy is in place which attempts to monitor and classify fishery impacts going forward (O’Boyle et al. 2018). This includes both monitoring, increased habitat mapping, work on physical impacts, and a network of Marine Protected Areas. Some of this work is still ongoing, however. Enforcement is good given 100% observer coverage and VMS (O’Boyle et al. 2018).

×

Ecosystem Subscores

Dated but still useful information is available on ecosystem structure and function as well as a measure of fishery impacts (O’Boyle et al. 2018). Results however are mostly qualitative.

While some trophic and ecosystem modeling has been undertaken, results are now rather dated (O’Boyle et al. 2018). Ability to define a reference state is not apparent.

Given the complexity of the ecosystem in this region, the multiple pathways for trophic flow, and the footprint of the fishery, it is unlikely that this fishery will have a direct impact on the ecosystem structure or function (O’Boyle et al. 2018).

There is also limited comprehensive management engagement on this subject. Ecosystem management of potential impacts is based around a well-structured, legislative, policy and operational framework (O’Boyle et al. 2018). But only a partial strategy is implemented through a patchwork of regulations, voluntary agreements, and other measures (O’Boyle et al. 2018). Enforcement is good given 100% observer coverage and VMS (O’Boyle et al. 2018).

To see data for biomass, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for catch and tac, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for fishing mortality, please view this site on a desktop.
No data available for recruitment
No data available for recruitment
To see data for management quality, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for stock status, please view this site on a desktop.
DATA NOTES
  • Annual fishing intensity (U), an exploitation rate, is used as a fishing mortality (F) proxy.
  • As a single government agency, Ministry for Primary Industries, is responsible for both scientific advice and management of the stock, we are assuming that set TACC = advised TACC.
  • The harvest strategy standard for New Zealand fisheries defines management responses for the following reference points: 1) Management target of 40% B0 (Equilibrium “virgin” biomass: theoretical population size in the absence of fishing); 2) “soft limit” of 20% B0; 3) “hard limit” of 10% B0; and 4) a harvest control rule (HCR) guided by biological reference points, and determined based on forward projections under a range of catch projections (Fisheries New Zealand 2019).
  • The most recent update of the assessment occurred in 2018 and included the wide-area acoustic surveys from 1993 to 2016. The assessment was not re-ran for 2019.
  • Quotas for 2019-2020 were advised and set at last year’s value.
  • Ecosystem impact scores were not updated in 2019. Please check narrative sections for updated information.
  • Reference points presented here are from the most recent stock assessment (2018) base-case model and are based on calculation from B0 (Fisheries New Zealand 2019). Note the value of F at 40% B is not given so the previous value of 02.3 was used for F target.
  • The season 1998-2000 lasted 18 months, from October 1998 to March 2000, thus advised TAC, set TAC and catches were included only in the 1998-1999 fishing season (being the 1999-2000 season empty). Beginning in 2001, each fishing year starts in April and ends in March of the following year; accordingly, 2017 values correspond to the April 2016-March 2017 fishing year (Fisheries New Zealand 2019).

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Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

No related FIPs

Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

SELECT MSC

NAME

New Zealand Deepwater Group hake, hoki, ling and southern blue whiting

STATUS

MSC Certified on 12 September 2018

SCORES

Principle Level Scores:

PrincipleUoC 1 UoC1  UoC2 UoC3 UoC4 UoC5 UoC6 UoC7 UoC8 UoC9 UoC10
Principle 1 - Target Species 95.0 95.0 90.6 90.6 85.0 90.6 90.6 90.6 90.6 90.6
Principle 2 - Ecosystem 85.3 85.3 86.3 86.3 86.3 86.3 86.3 86.3 86.3 86.3
Principle 3 - Management System 97.3

UoC 1 = Hoki (HOK 1 East) UoC 2 = Hoki (HOK 1 West) UoC 3 = Hake (HAK 1 Sub-Antarctic) UoC 4 = Hake (HAK 4 Chatham Rise) UoC 5 = Hake (HAK 7 West Coast South Island) UoC 6 = Ling (LIN 3 Chatham Rise) UoC 7 = Ling (LIN 4 Chatham Rise) UoC 8 = Ling (LIN 5 Sub-Antarctic) UoC 9 = Ling (LIN 6 Sub-Antarctic) UoC 10 = Ling (Lin 7 West Coast South Island)

This new assessment combines several MSC certified fisheries:

New Zealand hoki

New Zealand hake trawl

New Zealand EEZ ling trawl and longline

New Zealand southern blue whiting trawl

Certification Type: Gold

Sources

Credits

Abraham E. R. and Thompson F. N., 2012. Captures of birds in trawl fisheries, in the New Zealand Exclusive Economic Zone, during the 2010–11 fishing-year. [Accessed 14 August 2013]. http://data.dragonfly.co.nz/psc/v20121101/explore/

Abraham, E. R., Thompson, F. N. 2011. Summary of the capture of seabirds, marine mammals, and turtles in New Zealand commercial fisheries, 1998–99 to 2008–09, New Zealand Aquatic Environment and Biodiversity Report No. 80, Ministry of Fisheries, 172 p.http://fs.fish.govt.nz/Doc/22898/AEBR_80.pdf.ashx

Akroyd, J, Dunn, M., Pilling, G., 2016. On-Site 3rd Surveillance Visit - Report for New Zealand Southern Blue Whiting Trawl Fishery. Acoura, January 2016. 21pphttps://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/fisheries-in-the-program/certified/pacific/new_zealand_southern_blue_whiting_fishery/assessment-downloads-1/20160121_SR_WHI177.pdf

Akroyd, J.M and Pierre, J.P. 2013. Surveillance Report New Zealand Southern Blue Whiting Trawl Fisheries Certificate No.: MML-F-121, Intertek Moody Marine, 16 pp.http://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/fisheries-in-the-program/certified/pacific/new_zealand_eez_southern_blue_whiting_pelagic_trawl_fishery%20/assessment-downloads-1/82089_SBW_Surveillance_Report_110213.pdf

Akroyd, J., Medley, P., Pilling, G., Hough, A., Davies, S. 2012. MSC Assessment Report for New Zealand Southern Blue Whiting Trawl Fisheries, Client: Deepwater Group Ltd, Version 5: Public Certification Report, Ref: 82089, 192 p.http://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/fisheries-in-the-program/certified/pacific/new_zealand_eez_southern_blue_whiting_pelagic_trawl_fishery%20/assessment-downloads-1/20120501_PCR.pdf

Akroyd, J.M., Pierre, J.P., 2014. Surveillance Report New Zealand Southern Blue Whiting Trawl Fisheries. Intertek Fisheries Certification Ltd, April 2014. 18pphttp://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/fisheries-in-the-program/certified/pacific/new_zealand_eez_southern_blue_whiting_pelagic_trawl_fishery/assessment-downloads-1/20140417_SR_WHI77.pdf

Akroyd, J., Pilling, G., 2013. Surveillance Report Southern Blue Whiting Fishery. Intertek Moody Marine, September/October 2013. 14 pp.http://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/fisheries-in-the-program/certified/pacific/new_zealand_eez_southern_blue_whiting_pelagic_trawl_fishery%20/assessment-downloads-1/20131009_Expedit_Audit_WHI77.pdf

Anderson, O.F. 2014. Fish and invertebrate bycatch in New Zealand deepwater fisheries from 1990–91 until 2011–12, Ministry for Primary Industries, 64pp.Anderson_2014_Deepwater-bycatch-to-2011-12.pdf

Baird, S.J., Tracey, D., Mormede, S., Clark, M. 2013. The distribution of protected corals in New Zealand waters, National Institute of Water & Atmospheric Research Ltd, 96pp.http://www.doc.govt.nz/Documents/conservation/marine-and-coastal/marine-conservation-services/pop-2011-06-coral-distribution.pdf

BirdLife International (BI), 2012a. Thalassarche salvini. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3 [Accessed 07 January 2015]http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/22698388/0

BirdLife International (BI), 2012b. Thalassarche eremita. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3 [Accessed 07 January 2015]http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/22698393/0

BirdLife International (BI), 2012c. Diomedea antipodensis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3 [Accessed 07 January 2015]http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/22728318/0

BirdLife International (BI), 2012d. Daption capense. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3 [Accessed 07 January 2015]http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/22697879/0

BirdLife International (BI), 2012e. Diomedea epomophora. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3 [Accessed 07 January 2015]http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/22698314/0

BirdLife International (BI), 2012f. Macronectes halli. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3 [Accessed 07 January 2015]http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/22697859/0

BirdLife International (BI), 2012g. Procellaria cinerea. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3 [Accessed 07 January 2015]http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/22698159/0

BirdLife International (BI), 2013a. Thalassarche steadi. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3 [Accessed 07 January 2015]http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/22729609/0

BirdLife International (BI), 2013b. Diomedea sanfordi. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3 [Accessed 07 January 2015]http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/22728323/0

Department of Conservation (DoC), 2013. Media release: Exclusion devices required after sea lion deaths. 05 September 2013. Joint release from the Minister for Primary Industries and the Minister of Conservation.http://www.doc.govt.nz/about-doc/news/media-releases/exclusion-devices-required-after-sea-lion-deaths/

DOC, 2011. New Zealand Department of Conservation Website. [accessed on February, 2011].http://www.doc.govt.nz

Dunn, A., and Hanchet, S.M., 2015. Southern blue whiting (Micromesistius australis) stock assessment for the Campbell Island Rise for 2013 with revised target strength acoustic biomass estimates. New Zealand Fisheries Assessment Report 2015/80. 23 p. https://www.mpi.govt.nz/document-vault/10754

Fisheries, Ministry of, 2011a. Initial Position Paper: Southern Blue Whiting 6I (SBW 6I). 11 pp.http://www.fish.govt.nz/NR/rdonlyres/16ADE9AA-26CF-448C-8C9D-B924AA61022B/0/SBW6I_IPP_2011.pdf

Gales, N. (IUCN SSC Pinniped Specialist Group) 2008. Phocarctos hookeri. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3 [Accessed 07 January 2015]http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/17026/0

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References

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