Last updated on 22 February 2018

SUMMARY

SUMMARY

IDENTIFICATION

SCIENTIFIC NAME(s)

Dissostichus eleginoides

SPECIES NAME(s)

Patagonian toothfish

Patagonian toothfish Dissostichus eleginoides occurs in the Southern Ocean and on the South American Plateau. Several stock identification methods suggest the existence of at least four biological stock units within the wide Patagonian toothfish’s distribution (Appleyard et al., 2002; CCAMLR, 2004; Ashford et al., 2012): a South American stock; a South Georgia Islands stock, a Macquarie Islands stock, and a Southern Indian Ocean Islands stock.


ANALYSIS

Strengths
  • There are relatively few vessels operating in this fishery (6 longliners in 2012 season); hence, it shouldn’t be difficult to achieve the necessary improvement if they are interested in getting a better yield from the fishery in the future.
  • IUU catches are included in the analysis for stock assessments.
Weaknesses
  • The fishery is relatively well managed within South Georgia waters. Only suggestion would be to improve gear interactions with marine mammals to lower depredation rates and prevent interactions with non-target species and marine mammals.
Options
  • Future research should draw on information from the whole distribution of the Patagonian toothfish population. This is not an easy task due to the illegal, unreported and unregulated catch outside the EEZ and due to difficulties getting timely information from other jurisdictions.
  • The management of the northern area of the fishery should be improved in order to get the necessary data to improve future assessments.
  • The management process should follow the scientific advice.

FISHSOURCE SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

≥ 8

Managers Compliance:

10

Fishers Compliance:

10

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

8.9

Future Health:

≥ 6


RECOMMENDATIONS

CATCHERS & REGULATORS

1. Monitor fishery and management system for any changes that could jeopardize MSC re-certification.

RETAILERS & SUPPLY CHAIN

1. Support the sustainability achievements of this fishery by sourcing this product, and ensure that the producers are aware that sustainability certification played a role in your decision to source this product.


FIPS

No related FIPs

CERTIFICATIONS

No related MSC fisheries

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

ASSESSMENT UNIT MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
South Georgia CCAMLR 48.3 New Zealand Bottom-set longlines
South Georgia and The South Sandwich Islands Bottom-set longlines

Analysis

OVERVIEW

Strengths
  • There are relatively few vessels operating in this fishery (6 longliners in 2012 season); hence, it shouldn’t be difficult to achieve the necessary improvement if they are interested in getting a better yield from the fishery in the future.
  • IUU catches are included in the analysis for stock assessments.
Weaknesses
  • The fishery is relatively well managed within South Georgia waters. Only suggestion would be to improve gear interactions with marine mammals to lower depredation rates and prevent interactions with non-target species and marine mammals.
Options
  • Future research should draw on information from the whole distribution of the Patagonian toothfish population. This is not an easy task due to the illegal, unreported and unregulated catch outside the EEZ and due to difficulties getting timely information from other jurisdictions.
  • The management of the northern area of the fishery should be improved in order to get the necessary data to improve future assessments.
  • The management process should follow the scientific advice.
RECOMMENDATIONS

Last updated on 28 June 2016

Improvement Recommendations to Catchers & Regulators

1. Monitor fishery and management system for any changes that could jeopardize MSC re-certification.

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain

1. Support the sustainability achievements of this fishery by sourcing this product, and ensure that the producers are aware that sustainability certification played a role in your decision to source this product.

1.STOCK STATUS

STOCK ASSESSMENT

Stock assessments conducted in South Georgia waters include Bayesian age-structured integrated assessment model (Hillary et al., 2006; Hoshino et al., 2011). The last reported stock assessment was conducted in 2009 (See SC-CAMLR-XXVIII). CCAMLR performs CASAL based stock assessments for toothfish in AREA 48.3 within South Georgia waters. CCAMLR sets TACs/quotas for each subarea with GSGSSI allocating individual vessel quotas within the overall CCAMLR quota in South Georgia waters.

CURRENT STATUS

Patagonian toothfish stock in South Georgia waters appears to be healthy and overfishing is not occurring.

Current fishing levels are likely to lead towards Bmsy. CCAMLR intends to maintain SSB above 50% of unfished levels (probability 0.5) to ensure probability of SSB being below 20% of unfished levels (with probability not greater than 0.1).

Trends

Shust and Kozlov (2006) study has highlighted changes in size composition of the catches of toothfish Dissostichus eleginoides off South Georgia due to longterm long-line fishing in the region resulting in decrease in average size of toothfish over the years, with long-line catches in division 48.3 (South Georgia and Shag Rocks) increasingly dominated by a high percentage of immature fish alluding to decrease in abundance of large sized toothfish in South Georgia waters.

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

MANAGEMENT
Recovery Plans

The Toothfish stock in South Georgia waters is healthy and current fishing levels do not pose a threat to the stock and hence no recovery plans are envisaged under the current management plan.

CCAMLR 48.3

All fishing vessels operating in CCAMLR Area 48.3 need to be licensed and vessel movements are also traceable with “Each Flag State is required to notify CCAMLR of the movements into, out of and between subareas and divisions of the Convention Area for its flag vessels within 24 hours of each activity” ; All contracting parties are also required to notify CCAMLR atleast 72 hours before any intended transshipment (CCAMLR Measure 10-09) takes place by their vessels within the convention area, with details required including vessel details, proposed time and position, and products to be transshipped within the convention area (CCAMLR 2012).

Summary of important steps to ensure compliance with CCAMLR regulations in this fishery include:
1. Vessels need to be licensed
2. Vessel movements monitored through VMS and inspections through boarding and inspections at sea.
3. Pre-notification required prior to transshipments.
4. Catch Documentation Scheme (CDS).
5. Vessel movements tracking within the CCAMLR area.
6. Annual catch limits (TAC) for toothfish in CCAMLR sub-area 48.3.
7. Submission of daily logsheets.

COMPLIANCE
CCAMLR 48.3

Compliance is relatively good in this fishery with vessel movements monitored through Vessel monitoring system, 100% observer coverage and more importantly Catch Documentation Scheme to improve traceability of toothfish through the supply chain.

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

FishSource Scores

Last updated on 22 February 2018

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

As calculated for 2010 data.

The score is ≥ 8.

Management in place to set quota to zero by Area in the event the stock falls below biomass limit reference point (Medley et al., 2009)

As calculated for 2010 data.

The score is 10.0.

This measures the Set TAC as a percentage of the Advised TAC.

The Set TAC is 3.00 ('000 t). The Advised TAC is 3.00 ('000 t) .

The underlying Set TAC/Advised TAC for this index is 100%.

As calculated for 2010 data.

The score is 10.0.

This measures the Estimated catch as a percentage of the Set TAC.

The Estimated catch is 2.52 ('000 t). The Set TAC is 3.00 ('000 t) .

The underlying Estimated catch/Set TAC for this index is 84.1%.

STOCK HEALTH:

As calculated for 2010 data.

The score is 8.9.

This measures the SSB as a percentage of the 50%B0.

The SSB is 60.2 ('000 t). The 50%B0 is 49.3 ('000 t) .

The underlying SSB/50%B0 for this index is 122%.

As calculated for 2010 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

The harvest levels are recognizably NOT unsustainable but fishing pressure is regarded as still high.

To see data for biomass, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for catch and tac, please view this site on a desktop.
No data available for fishing mortality
No data available for fishing mortality
No data available for recruitment
No data available for recruitment
To see data for management quality, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for stock status, please view this site on a desktop.
DATA NOTES
  1. Catches data includes estimated IUU catch.
  2. Target (B50%) and limit (B20%) Biomass reference points are estimated as 50% and 20% of the latest estimate of the pre-exploitation median spawning biomass (B0), respectively; reference points are extended back over the entire time series for comparative purposes (CCAMLR, 2009).
  3. As the Commission on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR) is responsible for both scientific advice and management of the stock, we are assuming that Advised TAC = set TAC (CCAMLR, 2010).

Download Source Data

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Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

No related FIPs

Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

No related MSC certifications

Sources

Credits
  1. Appleyard, S.A.; Ward, R.D.; Williams, R. 2002. Population structure of the Patagonian toothfish around Heard, McDonald and Macquarie Islands. Antarctic Science 14 (4). 10 pp. http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayFulltext?type=1&fid=139800&jid=ANS&volumeId=14&issueId=04&aid=139799
  2. Ashford, J.R., Fach, B.A., Arkhipkin, A.I., Jones, C.M. 2012. Testing early life connectivity supplying a marine fishery around the Falkland Islands. Fisheries Research 121-122, 144-152. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0165783612000549
  3. CCAMLR, 2004. Population Genetic Structure of Patagonian toothfish in the West Indian Ocean Sector of the Southern Ocean. CCAMLR Science, Vol. 11. 12 pp. https://www.ccamlr.org/en/system/files/science_journal_papers/02appleyard-etal.pdf
  4. CCAMLR, 2007. FISHERY REPORT: DISSOSTICHUS ELEGINOIDES SOUTH GEORGIA (SUBAREA 48.3) Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources. Appendix J.http://www.ccamlr.org/pu/E/e_pubs/fr/07/appJ.pdf
  5. CCAMLR, 2009. Appendix L: Fishery Report: Fishery Report: Dissostichus eleginoides South Georgia (Subarea 48.3). Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR). 23 pp.http://www.ccamlr.org/pu/e/e_pubs/fr/09/appL.pdf
  6. CCAMLR, 2010. Appendix M: Fishery Report: Fishery Report: Dissostichus eleginoides South Georgia (Subarea 48.3). Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR). 11 pp.http://www.ccamlr.org/pu/e/e_pubs/fr/10/appM.pdf
  7. CCAMLR. 2012a. Vessel Movements, Commission for Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources. Accessed on November 25, 2012.http://www.ccamlr.org/en/compliance/vessel-movements
  8. CCAMLR. 2012b. Fishery Report: Dissostichus eleginoides South Georgia (Subarea 48.3), Appendix M, Commission for Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources, 11 pages.http://www.ccamlr.org/en/document/publications/fishery-report-dissostichus-eleginoides-south-georgia-subarea-48-3-0
  9. Clark, J.M., Agnew, D.J. 2010. Estimating the impact of depredation by killer whales and sperm whales on longline fishing for toothfish (Dissostichus eleginoides) around South Georgia, CCAMLR Science, Volume 17 (2010):163-178.http://www.ccamlr.org/en/publications/science_journal/ccamlr-science-volume-17/ccamlr-science-volume-17163-178.
  10. Medley, P.; Andrews, J., 2014. South Georgia Patagonian Toothfish Longline Fishery. Public Certification Report. Intertek Fisheries Certification, September 2014. 182pphttp://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/fisheries-in-the-program/certified/south-atlantic-indian-ocean/south-georgia-patagonian-toothfish-longline/2ndreassessment-documentation/20140915_PCR_TOO111.pdf
  11. Medley, P., Andrews, J. Surveillance Report 4 - 2013 South Georgia Patagonian Toothfish Longline fishery. Intertek Moody Marine Ltd., October 2013. 15pphttp://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/fisheries-in-the-program/certified/south-atlantic-indian-ocean/south-georgia-patagonian-toothfish-longline/reassessment-documentation/20131014_SR_TOO111.pdf
  12. Medley, P. Pilling, G. Rice, J. Combes, J. Hough, A. 2009. Re-Certification Public Certification Report for South Georgian Patagonian Toothfish Longline Fishery. Moody Marine Ltd.http://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/certified/south-atlantic-indian-ocean/south-georgia-patagonian-toothfish-longline/reassessment-documentation/17.09.2009-south-georgia-toothfish-pcr.pdf
  13. MSC. 2007. Surveillance Report South Georgia Patagonian Toothfish Longline Fishery, Marine Stewardship Council, 24 pages.http://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/fisheries-in-the-program/certified/south-atlantic-indian-ocean/south-georgia-patagonian-toothfish-longline/assessment-documents/document-upload/Survelliance_Audit3_May2007.pdf
References

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