Last updated on 16 July 2017

SUMMARY

SUMMARY

IDENTIFICATION

SCIENTIFIC NAME(s)

Clupea harengus

SPECIES NAME(s)

Atlantic herring

Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) is widely distributed in the Northwest and Northeast Atlantic. Within the Northeast Atlantic, they are distributed from the northern Bay of Biscay to Greenland, and east into the Barents Sea.

Stock distribution is uncertain for Atlantic herring in this area.  Many local populations with differing growth rates share similar habitats and may mix during certain times of the year.   There is some evidence that western Baltic spring-spawning herring (Division 3a and subdivisions 22–24) and central Baltic herring ​(subdivisions 25–29 and 32, excluding Gulf of Riga herring) are mixing in subdivisions 24–26. Additionally it is known that Gulf of Riga Atlantic herring are caught in the Central Baltic Sea Area, and vice versa (ICES 2016). This profile covers the Central Baltic Sea herring stock.


ANALYSIS

Strengths
  • Fishing mortality is below F at MSY while B is well higher than target.
  • Discards are considered negligible.
  • Natural mortality in assessment accounts for changes in predator demand
  • Model tends to underestimate SSB and overestimate F relative to the terminal year, except the most recent update, and thus even more precautionary.
  • Pelagic gear similar to what is used in this fishery tends to have few benthic habitat impacts.
Weaknesses
  • Mixing and co-occurring of this stock with Gulf of Riga is an uncertainty in the assesment, but somewhat accounted for.
  • Mixing with western Baltic spring-spawning herring is known to occur but is not factored into the assessment.

FISHSOURCE SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

10

Managers Compliance:

9.6

Fishers Compliance:

10

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

10

Future Health:

8.4


FIPS

No related FIPs

CERTIFICATIONS

No related MSC fisheries

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

ASSESSMENT UNIT MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
Baltic Sea Central EU Estonia Midwater trawls
Latvia Midwater trawls
Lithuania Midwater trawls
Poland Midwater trawls
Sweden Midwater trawls
Russia - Industrial Russian Federation Midwater trawls

Analysis

OVERVIEW

Last updated on 3 July 2017

Strengths
EU

Last updated on 19 May 2017

  • Fishing mortality is below F at MSY while B is well higher than target.
  • Discards are considered negligible.
  • Natural mortality in assessment accounts for changes in predator demand
  • Model tends to underestimate SSB and overestimate F relative to the terminal year, except the most recent update, and thus even more precautionary.
  • Pelagic gear similar to what is used in this fishery tends to have few benthic habitat impacts.
Weaknesses
EU

Last updated on 19 May 2017

  • Mixing and co-occurring of this stock with Gulf of Riga is an uncertainty in the assesment, but somewhat accounted for.
  • Mixing with western Baltic spring-spawning herring is known to occur but is not factored into the assessment.

1.STOCK STATUS

STOCK ASSESSMENT
EU

Last updated on 12 June 2017

An XSA model is used in the assessment, with catch data and the results of two international acoustic surveys (ICES 2015) . Natural mortality is derived using a multi-species model which incorporates predation; particularly Cod (ICES 2015)

The current assessment method has historically resulted in an under estimation of SSB and an over-estimation of F in the most recent year.  This pattern however was not seen with the 2016  update (ICES 2016)(ICES 2017) .

SCIENTIFIC ADVICE
EU

Last updated on 3 July 2017

The most recent assessment and advice (ICES 2017) considers that the central Baltic herring are caught inside and outside the central Baltic Sea area. Quotas are advised for all herring caught in the central Baltic management area, which includes also a small amount of Gulf of Riga herring caught in the central Baltic Sea. As such the Herring  quota for 2017 in the central Baltic area is based on advice for both Central Baltic and Gulf of Riga stocks. From (ICES 2017)

The TAC value proposed for the central Baltic area is based on the advised catch for the central Baltic herring stock, plus the assumed catch of the Gulf of Riga herring taken in the central Baltic, minus the assumed catch of herring from the central Baltic stock taken in the Gulf of Riga. The values of the two latter are given by the average over the last five years.

  • Central Baltic herring assumed to be taken in the Gulf of Riga in 2018 (Subdivision 28.1) is 4340 t (average 2012–2016);
  • Gulf of Riga herring assumed to be taken in Subdivision 28.2 in 2018 is 260 t (average 2012–2016).

As an example, following the ICES MSY approach (here identical to the MAP FMSY), catches from the central Baltic herring stock in 2018 should be no more than 267 745 t. The corresponding TAC in the central Baltic management area for 2018 would be calculated as 267 745 t + 260 t – 4340 t = 263 665 t.

It should be noted that catch of Central Baltic herring in the Western Baltic area are not included in this assesment.

Reference Points

Last updated on 03 Jul 2017

ICES reviewed the harvest control rule and reference points for this stock in 2015 (ICES 2015). Currently F at FMSY is the management target. A target biomass reference point of MSY Btrigger= 600 kt is set while a Blim of 430 kt is also set (ICES 2016). The harvest control rule linearly reduces F from FMSY to zero as the stock moves from MSY Btrigger to Blim (ICES 2015).

CURRENT STATUS
EU

Last updated on 12 June 2017

According to the most recent ICES update assessment (ICES 2017) the stock’s SSB is currently at approximately 1.3  million tons and is well above Blim (430 kt) and MSY Btrigger (600 kt). Likewise current F at 0.195  is below FMSY (0.22). Recruitment in 2016 while lower than the record high 2015 recruitment event, is above average.

Trends

Last updated on 12 Jun 2017

According to the most recent ICES update assessment (ICES 2016) stock biomass has been increasing since 2001.  F declined from 2001 to 2006 then stayed stable until 2010, when it started to fall again.  Both F and catch have recently increased, with the increase in F somewhat above historical low levels in 2013. With the most recent update, F is now closer to FMSY then it has been over the last few years (ICES 2017)

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

MANAGEMENT
EU

Last updated on 3 July 2017

Overall a precautionary harvest control rule is in place that sets catch to zero should the stock fall below Blim, and reduces fishing mortality below MSY Btrigger.  Managers have generally complied with advised quotas, though the combined quota in 2017 was set 4,000 t higher than advised when Russian quota was included (ICES 2017).

Recovery Plans

Last updated on 03 Jul 2017

A formal recovery plan is not in effect as the stock is not below either Blim or MSY Btrigger. However should the stock fall below MSY Btrigger F is linearly reduced until it is equal to zero at Blim (ICES 2015)(ICES 2015)(ICES 2016)

COMPLIANCE
EU

Last updated on 1 July 2017

Harvesters have generally kept within quotas as of 2017.  Only minor overages have occurred since 2010 (ICES 2016) . Discarding is considered negligible in this fishery.

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

BYCATCH
ETP Species
EU

Last updated on 19 July 2017

The Baltic marine mammals are limited to grey (Halichoerus grypus), ringed (Phoca hispida) and harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) and harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) and although all are reported to have decreased in numbers since last century. Harbor porpoise trends are uncertain but the species is on the HELCOM list of endangered species (ICES, 2009d) and some smaller populations are of grave concern (HELCOM 2017). Overall Seal growth is below target, as measured by blubber density (HELCOM 2017). Fishing for herring could be impacting seal and porpoise nutrition, but the magnitude compared with other factors in unknown. 

Overall most mammal populations have been rebuilding on schedule. The one exception is ringed seal (HELCOM 2017), which does not occur in the area.

The Baltic is an important overwintering ground for seabirds and sea ducks and nine of nineteen species breeding in the area are decreasing in numbers, while the status of many of the rest is uncertain (HELCOM 2017). Ecosystem changes have impacted on the breeding success of the common guillemot whereas bycatch in fishing gear, particularly set nets, has impacted on the numbers of long-tailed ducks (Clangula hyemalis), velvet scoters (Melanitta fusca), black scoters (M. nigra) and eiders (Somateria mollissima) (ICES, 2008c). Discarding in Baltic fisheries also affects seabird populations, with up to 50% of discards consumed by seabirds (ICES, 2008c). Overall pelagic feeding birds  have been showing signs of recovery (HELCOM 2017)

Other Species
EU

Last updated on 19 July 2017

Bycatch in pelagic trawling gear is of little concern at this time.  Generally, this gear catches herring and occasionally sprat, all of which is counted against the quotas (HELCOM 2017)(ICES 2017)(Intertek Fisheries Certification (IFC) 2015). Other species or sometimes retained incidentally but are landed and monitored.

HABITAT
EU

Last updated on 19 July 2017

Herring and sprat are the major prey for cod (ICES, 2008a) and the trophic interactions between cod, herring and sprat can periodically have a strong impact on the state of the fish stocks in the Baltic (ICES, 2008c). The potential increase in cod and changes in sprat stocks should be taken into account in herring management: a cod increase will also increase predation, and a simultaneous sprat decrease will worsen the scenario for herring (ICES, 2011b). In the most recent assessment (ICES 2017) predatory changes by cod and other stocks were taken into account.

Generally, this gear type has little impact on the bottom as its target is in the near surface waters (HELCOM 2017)

Marine Reserves

Last updated on 19 Jul 2017

Twenty-eight Baltic Sea Protected Areas have been declared within the Central Baltic herring’s distribution area, including harbour porpoise habitats (waters of Nadmorski Landscape Park, Poland), grey seal distribution areas (Vilsandi Nature Reserve, Estonia), fish spawning areas (Lahemaa National Park, Estonia) and important biotopes (Redlowo Reserve, Poland; Curonian Spit, Lithuania) with varying conservation statuses, ranging from UNESCO Biosphere Reserve status, as Estonia’s Kopu Peninsula on Hiiumaa holds, due to the Grey and Ringed seal populations, to no legal protection, such as Signilskär/Märket in the Åland area (Finland) (HELCOM 2017) (HELCOM, 2009b).

FishSource Scores

Last updated on 11 June 2017

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

As calculated for 2016 data.

The score is 10.0.

This measures the F at low biomass as a percentage of the F management target.

The F at low biomass is 0.00 (from management plan). The F management target is 0.220 .

The underlying F at low biomass/F management target for this index is 0.00%.

As calculated for 2017 data.

The score is 9.6.

This measures the Set TAC as a percentage of the Advised TAC.

The Set TAC is 221 ('000 t). The Advised TAC is 216 ('000 t) .

The underlying Set TAC/Advised TAC for this index is 102%.

As calculated for 2016 data.

The score is 10.0.

This measures the Catch as a percentage of the Set TAC.

The Catch is 192 ('000 t). The Set TAC is 207 ('000 t) .

The underlying Catch/Set TAC for this index is 92.9%.

STOCK HEALTH:

As calculated for 2016 data.

The score is 10.0.

This measures the SSB as a percentage of the MSY Btrigger.

The SSB is 1040 ('000 t). The MSY Btrigger is 600 ('000 t) .

The underlying SSB/MSY Btrigger for this index is 173%.

As calculated for 2016 data.

The score is 8.4.

This measures the F as a percentage of the F management target.

The F is 0.200 . The F management target is 0.220 .

The underlying F/F management target for this index is 90.9%.

To see data for biomass, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for catch and tac, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for fishing mortality, please view this site on a desktop.
No data available for recruitment
No data available for recruitment
To see data for management quality, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for stock status, please view this site on a desktop.
DATA NOTES
EU

Last updated on 17 May 2017

  1. Until 2004, TACs were set for Subdivisions 22-29S and 32, but since 2005 they have applied  to subdivisions 25–29 and 32 (excluding Gulf of Riga herring).
  2. Catches are for subdivisions 25–29 and 32 (excluding Gulf of Riga herring). 

See Table 8.3.14.7 (ICES 2016) for details

Download Source Data

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Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

No related FIPs

Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

No related MSC certifications

Sources

Credits
  1. EC 1256/2011, Council Regulation (EU) No 1256/2011 of 30 November 2011 fixing for 2012 the fishing opportunities for certain fish stocks and groups of fish stocks applicable in the Baltic Sea and amending Regulation (EU) No 1124/2010http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2011:320:0003:0011:EN:PDF

  2. EC, 2008. Council Regulation (EC) No 1322/2008 of 28 November 2008, fixing the fishing opportunities and associated conditions for certain fish stocks and groups of fish stocks applicable in the Baltic Sea for 2009.http://eur-lex.europa.eu/Notice.do?mode=dbl&lang=en&ihmlang=en&lng1=en,ro&lng2=bg,cs,da,de,el,en,es,et,fi,fr,hu,it,lt,lv,mt,nl,pl,pt,ro,sk,sl,sv,&val=485668:cs&page=

  3. HELCOM, 2009a. Biodiversity in the Baltic Sea: an integrated thematic assessment on biodiversity and nature conservation in the Baltic Sea. Baltic Sea Environment Proceedings No. 116B.http://www.helcom.fi/stc/files/Publications/Proceedings/bsep116B.pdf

  4. HELCOM, 2009b. HELCOM Atlas. Helsinki Commission – Baltic Marine Environment Protection Commission.http://www.helcom.fi/GIS/helcom_atlas/en_GB/atlas/

  5. ICES, 2008a. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee on Fishery Management, Advisory Committee on the Marine Environment and Advisory Committee on Ecosystems, Book 8: The Baltic Sea. 8.4.4 Herring in Subdivisions 25-29 and 32 (excluding Gulf of Riga herring). http://www.ices.dk/committe/acom/comwork/report/2008/2008/Her-2532-Ex-Go.pdf

  6. ICES, 2008b. Report of the Baltic Fisheries Assessment Working Group (WGBFAS), 8 - 17 April 2008, ICES Headquarters, Copenhagen (ICES CM 2008\ACOM:06).http://www.ices.dk/reports/ACOM/2008/WGBFAS/WGBFAS08.pdf

  7. ICES, 2008c. Report of the Working Group for Regional Ecosystem Description (WGRED), 25-29 February 2008, ICES, Copenhagen, Denmark (ICES CM 2008/ACOM:47).http://www.ices.dk/reports/ACOM/2008/WGRED/wgred_2008.pdf

  8. ICES, 2009a. Report of the Baltic Fisheries Assessment Working Group (WGBFAS), 22 - 28 April 2009, ICES Headquarters, Copenhagen (ICES CM 2009\ACOM:07).http://www.ices.dk/reports/ACOM/2009/WGBFAS/WGBFAS09.pdf

  9. ICES, 2009b. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee, Book 8: The Baltic Sea. 8.4.4 Herring in Subdivisions 25-29 and 32 (excluding Gulf of Riga herring).http://www.ices.dk/committe/acom/comwork/report/2009/2009/Her-2532-Ex-Go.pdf

  10. ICES, 2009c. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee on Fishery Management, Advisory Committee on the Marine Environment and Advisory Committee on Ecosystems, Book 8: The Baltic Sea. 8.3.3.1 Multi-annual management of pelagic fish stocks in the Baltic.http://www.ices.dk/committe/acom/comwork/report/2009/Special%20Requests/EC%20Multiannual%20management%20pelagic%20stocks%20Baltic.pdf

  11. ICES, 2009d. Report of the Working Group on the Ecosystem Effects of Fishing Activities (WGECO), 15-21 April 2009, Copenhagen, Denmark (ICES CM 2009/ACOM:20).http://www.ices.dk/reports/ACOM/2009/WGECO/wgeco_final_2009.pdf

  12. ICES, 2011a. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee on Fishery Management, Advisory Committee on the Marine Environment and Advisory Committee on Ecosystems, Book 8: The Baltic Sea. 8.4.4 Herring in Subdivisions 25-29 and 32 (excluding Gulf of Riga herring), 8 pp.http://www.ices.dk/committe/acom/comwork/report/2011/2011/Her-2532-Ex-Go.pdf

  13. ICES, 2011b. Report of the Baltic Fisheries Assessment Working Group (WGBFAS), 12-19 April 2011, ICES Headquarters, Copenhagen. 790 pp. http://www.ices.dk/reports/ACOM/2011/WGBFAS/WGBFAS%20Report%202011.pdf

  14. SFGEN, 2002. Report of the second meeting of the Subgroup on Fishery and Environment (SFGEN) of the Scientific, Technical and Economic Committee for Fisheries (STECF), Commission of the European Communities: Incidental catches of small cetaceans, Brussels, 11-14 June 2002.http://ec.europa.eu/fisheries/publications/factsheets/legal_texts/sec_2002_1134_en.pdf

References

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