Last updated on 15 December 2016

SUMMARY

SUMMARY

IDENTIFICATION

SCIENTIFIC NAME(s)

Pollachius virens

SPECIES NAME(s)

Saithe

The stock structure is not totally clear, migrations are detected among the areas according to tagging experiments (Jakobsen and Olsen, 1987; Jákupsstovu, 1999 in ICES, 2014b). Magnitude of migrations seem to differ among the areas studied due to the topography or distance and further studies are recommended (Homrum et al., 2013). Four assessment units are considered within the NE Atlantic region for evaluation of the stock condition as well as for management purposes:
1 – Barents Sea (Subareas I and II, Northeast Arctic) 
2 – Icelandic (Division Va)
3 – North Sea, Skagerrak, west of Scotland and the Rockall (Divisions IIIa, IV and Subarea VI) 
4 – Faroe Islands (Division Vb).


ANALYSIS

Strengths

Although increasing in the last years the spawning stock is just below its MSY reference point but above biomass limit reference point. Fishing mortality is around target but decreasing since 2009. A precautionary management plan is in place and compliance is high. Due to stock condition and if new data is available a second advice could be released in November. ICES recommends a reduction in landings. About 90% of the total landings are from certified fisheries (Marine Stewardship Council). Almost all certified fisheries have been making good progresses in meeting the imposed conditions, namely, the environmental issues. The Integral Management Plan North Sea (IBN 2015) will identify protected areas as the management of human uses and impacts on the ecosystems, especially fisheries.

Although declining, the stock is just below its MSY reference point but well above biomass limit reference point. Fishing mortality is around target but decreasing since 2009. A precautionary management plan is in place and compliance is high. Conditions defined for MSC certification include quantifying, assessing and managing impacts of bycatch of blue skate, change in DFFU/Doggerbank fishing patterns has significantly reduced the likelihood of impact on common skate. Condition on developing a strategy to monitor and avoid sensitive habitats was met and closed by the 2nd annual surveillance audit.

Weaknesses

There is uncertainty in recruitment estimates due to surveys limited coverage. The management plan should be re-evaluated again in 4 years (2016) since the long-term performance of the Harvest Control Rule is not clear. Environmental impacts of the fishery are mostly related with protected species (e.g. common skate), retained and bycatch species (cod, whiting and ling) and fishing in sensitive habitats (e.g. corals).

There is uncertainty in recruitment estimates due to surveys limited coverage. The management plan should be re-evaluated again in 4 years (2016) since the long-term performance of the Harvest Control Rule is not clear.

FISHSOURCE SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

8.7

Managers Compliance:

10

Fishers Compliance:

10

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

7.8

Future Health:

8


FIPS

No related FIPs

CERTIFICATIONS

  • Scottish Fisheries Sustainable Accreditation Group (SFSAG) saithe:

    MSC Certified

  • SFSAG Northern Demersal Stocks:

    MSC Recertified

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

ASSESSMENT UNIT MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
North Sea, Skagerrak, west of Scotland and the Rockall North Sea, Skagerrak, west of Scotland and the Rockall Denmark Danish seines
Set gillnets (anchored)
Single boat bottom otter trawls
France Bottom trawls
Single boat bottom otter trawls
Germany Single boat bottom otter trawls
Norway Bottom trawls
Danish seines
Gillnets and entangling nets
Mechanized lines
Purse seines
United Kingdom Bottom pair trawls
Bottom trawls
Scottish seines
Set gillnets (anchored)
Single boat bottom otter trawls

Analysis

OVERVIEW

Strengths

Although increasing in the last years the spawning stock is just below its MSY reference point but above biomass limit reference point. Fishing mortality is around target but decreasing since 2009. A precautionary management plan is in place and compliance is high. Due to stock condition and if new data is available a second advice could be released in November. ICES recommends a reduction in landings. About 90% of the total landings are from certified fisheries (Marine Stewardship Council). Almost all certified fisheries have been making good progresses in meeting the imposed conditions, namely, the environmental issues. The Integral Management Plan North Sea (IBN 2015) will identify protected areas as the management of human uses and impacts on the ecosystems, especially fisheries.

North Sea, Skagerrak, west of Scotland and the Rockall
United Kingdom
Single boat bottom otter trawls

Although declining, the stock is just below its MSY reference point but well above biomass limit reference point. Fishing mortality is around target but decreasing since 2009. A precautionary management plan is in place and compliance is high. Conditions defined for MSC certification include quantifying, assessing and managing impacts of bycatch of blue skate, change in DFFU/Doggerbank fishing patterns has significantly reduced the likelihood of impact on common skate. Condition on developing a strategy to monitor and avoid sensitive habitats was met and closed by the 2nd annual surveillance audit.

Weaknesses

There is uncertainty in recruitment estimates due to surveys limited coverage. The management plan should be re-evaluated again in 4 years (2016) since the long-term performance of the Harvest Control Rule is not clear. Environmental impacts of the fishery are mostly related with protected species (e.g. common skate), retained and bycatch species (cod, whiting and ling) and fishing in sensitive habitats (e.g. corals).

North Sea, Skagerrak, west of Scotland and the Rockall
United Kingdom
Single boat bottom otter trawls

There is uncertainty in recruitment estimates due to surveys limited coverage. The management plan should be re-evaluated again in 4 years (2016) since the long-term performance of the Harvest Control Rule is not clear.

1.STOCK STATUS

STOCK ASSESSMENT

An age-based assessment model (XSA) is used, including two survey and three commercial indices. Discards are not included in the assessment but are considered for the advice. Estimates of recruitment are considered very uncertain. Surveys are not representative of all year classes; Catch per Unit Effort (CPUE) indices are used for tunning data but the potential bias is a concern; acoustic indices are showing opposite trends and evaluations are scheduled for 2015. Survey data should be improved and fishers’ knowledge included in the interpretation of the results (ICES, 2014a).

MSC Condition 1 regarding collection of relevant information to support the harvest strategy is now closed; two stock assessments were performed in 2011 with updated abundance indices such as commercial CPUE (Medley et al., 2012; FCI, 2013).

SCIENTIFIC ADVICE

The ICES advice applies to the combined areas IIIa (Skagerrak), IV (North Sea) and VI (West of Scotland and Rockall). The revision of the Harvest Control Rule (HCR) is recommended until 2016 on account of unclear long-term performance. Due to stock condition and if new data is available a second advice could be released in November 2014 (ICES, 2014a).

The MSY approach implies Fishing mortality (F) at 0.26 (below FMSY because SSB is below MSY Btrigger), resulting in catches <76,260 tons in 2015 and landings <69,364 tons (if discard rates are maintained at 2012-2013 average), expecting to lead to a Spawning Stock Biomass (SSB) of 182,015 tons in 2016 (ICES, 2014a).

According to the Precautionary Approach (PA) a reduction of 42% reduction in F is needed to maintain SSB at Bpa in 2016, corresponding to catches <54,457 tons and landings <49,533 tons in 2015 (if discard rates are maintained at 2012-2013 average) (ICES, 2014a).

Based on the EU-Norway management plan and taking into account that at the beginning of 2014 SSB < Bpa, the 3rd paragraph of the Harvest Control Rule (HCR) should be considered, what implies F at 0.28; catches <80,097 tons and, if discard rates are maintained at 2012-2013 average, landings <72,854 tons (66,006 tons for Subarea IV and Division IIIa + 6,848 for Subarea VI), expecting to attain SSB at 178,867 tons in 2016 (<Bpa).

In 2012, ICES offered mixed-fisheries advice for the first time (ICES, 2012c). In contrast to single-species advice there is no single recommendation for mixed fisheries but rather a range of plausible scenarios. The mixed fishery in North Sea includes cod, haddock, whiting, saithe, plaice, sole, and Nephrops fisheries. Cod and Nephrops are the limiting species for the North Sea demersal fisheries in 2015.

Reference Points

Reference points were updated in 2011. Blim = 106,000 tons and Bpa and MSY Btrigger = 200,000 tons. Fishing mortality reference points were defined as Flim = 0.6, Fpa = 0.4 and FMSY = 0.3. The target fishing mortality, Fmgt is 0.3, as defined by the EU-Norway management plan (ICES, 2014a).

CURRENT STATUS

The spawning stock was at 188,837 tons in 2013 – above Blim but below Bpa and the long-term average, like has been for three years. F was at 0.301 in 2013; has been oscillating and is around Ftrp (=FMSY) since 1997 and above Fat low biomass like defined in the management plan when Bpa>SSB>Blim. Recruitment is below average since 2006. Landings were at 79,700 tons in 2013, well below long-term average (ICES, 2014a).

Trends

Historically, saithe total landings by all fishing countries increased to a peak in 1976 at 344,000 tons, after the highest estimated SSB level (555,000 tons in 1974) which was followed by a steep SSB decrease to 107,600 tons in 1990, around Blim and a corresponding trough in the landings trend. After 1991, SSB increased to above Bpa in 1999 and reached 320,700 tons in 2005, since when it has decreased again. The SSB estimate in 2012 is around 217,000 tons. A smaller peak in total landings in the mid-80s was followed by a stabilization in yields which remained until 2006 (ICES, 2014a).
F shows the same general trends as total landings in the period 1967-1985, whereas it has decreased nearly continuously from 1986 to the present, dropping below Flim in 1993 and below Fpa in 1997. Since 2010, F is around the management plan target rate (F=0.3) (ICES, 2014a).
Overall nominal fishing effort by EU vessels operating has been decreasing since the introduction of management plans (ICES, 2014a).

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

MANAGEMENT

Management decisions are implemented through total allowable landings (TALs) and technical measures. The 2008 management plan was designed to provide sustainable fisheries and high yields (ICES, 2011a); was reconsidered in 2014 but no amendments were performed and the last version is in place (ICES, 2014a).

Since 2006, the TAL has been set in line (or slightly below) with the scientific advice. The total TAL for 2014 is at 85,501 tons: in Sub-area IV and Division IIIa at 77,536 tons and 8,045 tons for Sub-area VI (ICES, 2014a).

Since 2002, the minimum mesh size for Norwegian vessels has been set to 120 mm, while 110 mm may still be used by EU-vessels in the EU waters (ICES, 2010a). A minimum landing size of 35 cm is in force and is common for all European waters, except in the Norwegian zone, where it is 40 cm. For the purse seine fishery inside the 4 nm limit coastal zone of Norway, the current minimum landing size is 32 cm (ICES, 2009b). The available kw-days at sea for community vessels is restricted via the cod management plan (Council regulation 1342/2008). Only some vessels were exempted from these effort restrictions in 2009 due to low bycatch (<1,5%) of cod. Discards are not allowed in the Norwegian zone (ICES, 2011b).

Recovery Plans

A joint EU–Norwegian management plan for North Sea saithe has been in place for the saithe stock in the Skagerrak, the North Sea and west of Scotland. The plan is expected to stabilize annual yields and SSB at current levels in the short term (less than 5 years) and the revised management plan focuses on keeping a minimum level of SSB greater than 106,000 tonnes (=Blim), as well as a TAC consistent with a F of no more than 0.3 by age groups (ICES, 2012 a,b). The EU–Norway management plan was reconsidered in February 2013, but no modification was implemented. It was previously evaluated by ICES (ICES, 2012) and considered to be consistent with the precautionary approach in the short term (< 4 years). However, the long-term performance of the HCRs is less clear, so ICES advises that the HCR selected for management should be re-evaluated within 4 years (i.e. no later than 2016) and revised if necessary (ICES, 2014a).

COMPLIANCE

In 2013 total landings were estimated to be around 71,600 tons in Subarea IV and Division IIIa and 8,470 tons in Subarea VI, both below correspondent TALs. Discarding was at 8,100 tons in 2013 for the EU fleet (ICES, 2014a).

According to fishers, very low prices for saithe and high fuel prices, are causing these reductions in targeted fisheries. Juvenile saithe are distributed inshore until they are about 3 years old, whereby discarding of young fish is assumed not to be a problem in this fishery. Bycatch of demersal fish species occurs, and are of special importance for the cod management plan (ICES, 2011b).
Since 2009 the EU fleets fishing for saithe have fallen under the effort regime of the EU cod management plan (1342/2008). This may have contributed to a southern shift in geographical distribution and thereby a change in fishing pattern for the German fleet (ICES, 2012a).

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

BYCATCH
ETP Species

Incidental bycatch of marine mammals, which are protected under Council Directive 92/43/EEC, is particularly an issue for pelagic trawls (Maguire et al., 2006; Morizur et al., 1999), but rare in the saithe fishery. Enforcing this policy, acoustic deterrent device (pinger) use was made mandatory on bottom-set gillnets and entangling nets deployed from vessels larger than 12 m in the North Sea and Skagerrak and Kattegat and the monitoring of incidental cetacean bycatch required, under Council Regulation (EC) 812/2004. Saithe has been recorded in the diet of species of cetaceans (Reid et al., 2003), indicating they are at risk of bycatch in this fishery.

The several units of certification of the North Sea Saithe fishery have been showing good progresses in meeting the requirements of the conditions regarding Protected, Endangered and Protected (PET) species (see specific profiles for details).

North Sea, Skagerrak, west of Scotland and the Rockall
United Kingdom
Single boat bottom otter trawls

Saithe has been recorded in the diet of species of cetaceans (Reid et al., 2003), indicating they are at risk of bycatch in this fishery.

Other Species

According to ICES, the fisheries targeting saithe exist along the shelf edge and thus have a low impact on other demersal groundfish. Bycatch of other demersal fish species occurs in some trawl fisheries for saithe. Saithe is also taken as unintentional bycatch in other fisheries, and discards may occur, but is at present estimated to be below 5 % of the landings (ICES, 2012 a,b).

Discarding of juveniles is not thought to be a significant problem due to their geographical separation from adults’ fishing grounds. Adult saithe prey on Norway pout and herring, important commercial stocks, but the impact is unknown (ICES, 2011b).

The MSC certified fisheries of saithe fishery in the North Sea presents good progresses in meeting the requirements of the conditions regarding by-catch, retained species and discards issues (see specific profiles for details).

HABITAT

Saithe in the North Sea are mainly taken in a directed trawl fishery in deep water along the Northern Shelf edge and the Norwegian Trench. Analyses show a substantial shift in the Norwegian and German trawlers’ fishing pattern after 2008, both in time and spatial distribution. The importance of the fisheries on the spawning aggregations in the first quarter of the year has declined (ICES, 2012a).

The main fishing gear targeting saithe in the North Sea is otter-trawl (CEFAS, 2006), by primarily Norwegian, French and German ships. Adult saithe travel in dense shoals at variable depths in the water column (FRS, 2004), displaying large diel vertical migrations (ICES, 2006b). The geographical distributions of juvenile (< age 3) and adult saithe differ. Typical for all saithe stocks are the inshore nursery grounds. Juvenile saithe in the North Sea are therefore mainly distributed along the west and south coast of Norway, the coast of Shetland and the coast of Scotland. At around age 3 the individuals gradually migrate from the coastal areas to the northern part of the North Sea (57°N – 62°N) (ICES, 2011b).

Hiddink et al. (2006) estimates that in areas of bottom trawl activity in the North Sea, benthic biomass and production is reduced by 56% and 21%, respectively, compared with an unfished situation. Several studies concluded that the impact of trawling in the North Sea seabed is low (Pilling et al., 2008). North Sea saithe fisheries are known to have less impact on the seafloor than most other bottom trawl fisheries (ICES, 2013a).

Marine Reserves

Sensitive habitats are protected under the Natura 2000 network. By 2010 the OSPAR Network of Marine Protected Areas aims to be established and both ecologically coherent and well-managed (OSPAR, 2007). At the latest reporting (2006), 38 selected sites had been proposed in the North Sea, although most in near-shore zones and none in areas beyond national jurisdiction, not yet representing an ecologically coherent network (OSPAR, 2007). The Integral Management Plan North Sea (IBN 2015) will identify protected areas as the management of human uses and impacts on the ecosystems, especially fisheries (Ecomare, undated).

North Sea, Skagerrak, west of Scotland and the Rockall
United Kingdom
Single boat bottom otter trawls

By the second surveillance audit, this certification unit met and closed the condition that included the developing of a partial strategy to monitor habitats in their fishing area and avoid fishing in sensitive areas (Gascoigne and Sieben, 2013).

FishSource Scores

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

As calculated for 2014 data.

The score is 8.7.

This measures the F at low biomass as a percentage of the F management target.

The F at low biomass is 0.100 (from management plan). The F management target is 0.300 .

The underlying F at low biomass/F management target for this index is 33.3%.

As calculated for 2014 data.

The score is 10.0.

This measures the Set TAC as a percentage of the Advised TAC.

The Set TAC is 85.6 ('000 t). The Advised TAC is 85.6 ('000 t) .

The underlying Set TAC/Advised TAC for this index is 100%.

As calculated for 2013 data.

The score is 10.0.

This measures the Landings as a percentage of the Set TAC.

The Landings is 79.7 ('000 t). The Set TAC is 101 ('000 t) .

The underlying Landings/Set TAC for this index is 79.2%.

STOCK HEALTH:

As calculated for 2014 data.

The score is 7.8.

This measures the SSB as a percentage of the MSY Btrigger.

The SSB is 189 ('000 t). The MSY Btrigger is 200 ('000 t) .

The underlying SSB/MSY Btrigger for this index is 94.4%.

As calculated for 2013 data.

The score is 8.0.

This measures the F as a percentage of the F management target.

The F is 0.301 . The F management target is 0.300 .

The underlying F/F management target for this index is 100%.

To see data for biomass, please view this site on a desktop.
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To see data for fishing mortality, please view this site on a desktop.
No data available for recruitment
No data available for recruitment
To see data for management quality, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for stock status, please view this site on a desktop.
DATA NOTES

1)* Total Allowable Landings (TAL) for 2015 (if discard rates are maintained at 2012-2013 average) are advised at 72,854 tons, and based on predicted landings according to the EU-Norway management plan.  Division IIIa and Subareas IV and VI are included (ICES, 2014a). 
*2)* The agreed TAL for 2014 sums Division IIIa and Subarea IV and Subarea VI (ICES, 2014a). 
*3)* F[~target~] and F[~at low biomass~] are defined in the EU-Norway management plan (ICES, 2014a).

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Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

No related FIPs

Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

SELECT MSC

NAME

Scottish Fisheries Sustainable Accreditation Group (SFSAG) saithe

STATUS

MSC Certified on 3 October 2013

SCORES

Principle Level Scores:

Principle Score
Principle 1 – Target Species 84.3
Principle 2 - Ecosystem Subarea IV 80.7
Principle 2 - Ecosystem SUbarea VI 80.0
Principle 3 – Management System 93.5

Certification Type: Silver

Sources

Credits

Andrews, J., Pawson, M., 2014. Surveillance Report German North Sea Saithe Trawl Fishery. Intertek Moody Marine Ltd. November 2014, 19pp http://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/fisheries-in-the-program/certified/north-east-atlantic/Germany-North-Sea-saithe-trawl/re-assessment-downloads-1/20141111_SR_SAI048.pdf

Andrews, J., Pawson, M., Thomas, R. 2012.Surveillance Report German North Sea Saithe Trawl Fishery. Intertek Moody Marine, November 2012. 40pp. http://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/fisheries-in-the-program/certified/north-east-atlantic/Germany-North-Sea-saithe-trawl/assessment-downloads-1/20121120_SR_SAI48.pdf

Andrews, J., Thomas, R. 2011. Surveillance Report 3: German North Sea Saithe Trawl Fishery, Certificate No.: MML-F-031, Intertek Moody Marine Ltd., Marine Stewardship Council, 23 p. http://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/certified/north-east-atlantic/Germany-North-Sea-saithe-trawl/assessment-downloads-1/20111213_SR.pdf

Andrews,J.W., Pawson, M.G., Thomas, R., 2013. German North Sea Saithe Trawl Fishery - Public Certification Report. Intertek Moody Marine Ltd, September 2013. 179pp http://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/fisheries-in-the-program/certified/north-east-atlantic/Germany-North-Sea-saithe-trawl/re-assessment-downloads-1/20131007_PCR_SAI48.pdf

CEFAS, 2006. SAITHE in the North Sea, Skagerrak, West of Scotland and Rockall (ICES Sub-area IV and VI and Division IIIa) – 2006.http://www.cefas.co.uk/media/31675/saithnorthsea.pdf

Council Regulation (EC) No. 1342/2008 establishing a long-term plan for cod stocks and the fisheries exploiting those stocks and repealing Regulation (EC) No. 423/2004 http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:32008R1342&from=EN

Council Regulation (EU) No 44/2012 of 17 January 2012 fixing for 2012 the fishing opportunities available in EU waters and, to EU vessels, in certain non- EU waters for certain fish stocks and groups of fish stocks which are subject to international negotiations or agreements. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2012:025:0055:0147:EN:PDF

Council Regulation (EU) No 40/2013 of 21 January: 2013 fixing for 2013 the fishing opportunities available in EU waters and, to EU vessels, in certain non- EU waters for certain fish stocks and groups of fish stocks which are subject to international negotiations or agreements. Official Journal of the European Union 25.1.2013 http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2013:023:0054:0153:EN:PDF

des Clers, S., Sieben, C. 2013.Surveillance Visit Report for EURONOR Saithe Fishery (Pollachius viridens) - Surveillance Year 3. MacAlister Elliott and Partners Ltd, March 2013. 12pp http://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/fisheries-in-the-program/certified/north-east-atlantic/euronor-saithe/assessment-downloads-1/20130409_SR_SAI143.pdf

Det Norske Veritas AS (DNV), 2010. MSC Fishery Surveillance Report. Surveillance Report for Norwegian North East Arctic and North Sea Saithe Fisheries. Report No. 002- 2- 2010. http://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/certified/north-east-atlantic/norway-north-sea-saithe/assessment-downloads-1/23.09.2010-ns-saithe-report-surv2.pdf

Dulvy, N.K., Notobartolo di Sciara, G., Serena, F., Tinti, F. & Ungaro, N., Mancusi, C. & Ellis, J. 2006. Dipturus batis. In: IUCN 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.4. [Downloaded on 15 December 2010]. http://www.iucnredlist.org

EC 40/2013. Council Regulation (EU) No 40/2013 of 21 January: 2013 fixing for 2013 the fishing opportunities available in EU waters and, to EU vessels, in certain non- EU waters for certain fish stocks and groups of fish stocks which are subject to international negotiations or agreements. Official Journal of the European Union 25.1.2013 http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2013:023:0054:0153:EN:PDF

Ecomare, undated. Man and the environment, Rules, North Sea policy (Dutch), Management Plan 2015, Integral Management Plan North Sea. [Assessed on 15th March 2012] http://www.ecomare.nl/en/ecomare-encyclopedie/rules/dutch-north-sea-policy/imp-north-sea-2015/

fisheries.no, 2008. Marine stocks: North Sea saithe. http://www.fisheries.no/marine_stocks/fish_stocks/saithe/marine_stocks_saithe.htm

Food Certification International (FCI), 2013. On Site Surveillance Visit - Report for DFPO Denmark North Sea and Skagerrak Saithe Fishery. 2nd Annual Surveillance, November 2013. 28pp http://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/fisheries-in-the-program/certified/north-east-atlantic/dfpo-denmark-saithe/assessment-downloads-1/20131105_SR_V4_SAI142.pdf

Food Certification International (FCI), 2014. On-Site Surveillance Visit - Report for DFPO Denmark North Sea and Skagerrak Saithe Fishery. 3rd Annual Surveillance, July 2014. 52pp http://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/fisheries-in-the-program/certified/north-east-atlantic/dfpo-denmark-saithe/assessment-downloads-1/20140918_SR_SAI142.pdf

Fordham, S., Fowler, S.L., Coelho, R., Goldman, K.J. & Francis, M. 2006. Squalus acanthias. In: IUCN 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.4. [Downloaded on 15 December 2010]. http://www.iucnredlist.org

Freyhof, J. and Kottelat, M. 2008. Alosa fallax. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2 [Accessed 07 August 2014]http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/904/0

FRS, 2004. Saithe stocks. Fisheries Research Services. http://www.frs-scotland.gov.uk/default.aspx

Gascoigne, J. and J.-C. Brêthes, 2011. Fisheries Annual Surveillance Report for the EURONOR Saithe Fishery (Pollachius Virens) Certificate No.: Mep-F-001. Surveillance Year 1. MacAlister Elliott and Partners Ltd. http://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/certified/north-east-atlantic/euronor-saithe/assessment-downloads-1/08.02.2011_euronor_1st_Annual_Surveillance_Report.pdf

Gascoigne, J., des Clers, S. 2012. Surveillance visit report for the Saithe Fishery (Pollachius viridens) by Scapêche and Cie des Peches St. Malo. 19-20 January 2012. 24pp. http://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/certified/north-east-atlantic/Scapeche-and-CoPSM-saithe/assessment-downloads-1/20120308_SR.pdf

Gascoigne, J., Sieben, C. 2013. Surveillance Visit Report for the Saithe fishery (Pollachius virens) by Scapeche and Compagnie des Peches St. Malo - Surveillance Year 2. MacAlister Elliott and Partners Ltd, January 2013. 21pp http://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/fisheries-in-the-program/certified/north-east-atlantic/Scapeche-and-CoPSM-saithe/assessment-downloads-1/20130226_SR_SAI145.pdf

Gascoigne, J., Sieben, C., 2014. Surveillance Visit Report for the Saithe Fishery (Pollachius virens) by the Scapeche and Compagnie des Peches St. Malo. Surveillance Year 3. MacAlister Elliott and Partners Ltd, January 2014. 14pp http://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/fisheries-in-the-program/certified/north-east-atlantic/Scapeche-and-CoPSM-saithe/assessment-downloads-1/20140313_SR_SAI145.pdf

Gascoigne, J., Cardinale, M., Löwenberg, U., Collinson, K., 2015. Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) Fourth Annual Surveillance Audit UK Fisheries Ltd, DFFU, Doggerbank saithe (Pollachius virens) Fishery. ME Certification Ltd, July 2015. 58pp https://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/fisheries-in-the-program/certified/north-east-atlantic/UK-saithe/assessment-downloads-1/20150716_SR_SAI143.pdf

Gascoigne, J., Sieben, C. 2012. Surveillance Visit Report for UK Fisheries LTD. / DFFU / DOGGERBANK Saithe (Pollachius viridens) Fishery, January 2012, 29pp. http://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/certified/north-east-atlantic/UK-saithe/assessment-downloads-1/20120320_SR.pdf

Gascoigne, J., Sieben, C. 2013. Surveillance Visit Report for UK Fisheris LTD. / DFFU / Doggerbank Saithe (Pollachius viridens). Surveillance Year 2. MacAlister Elliott and Partners Ltd, February 2013. 25pp http://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/fisheries-in-the-program/certified/north-east-atlantic/UK-saithe/assessment-downloads-1/20130321_SR_SAI143.pdf

Gascoigne, J., des Clers, S., 2014. Surveillance Visit Report for the SFSAG Saithe Fishery. Surveillance Year 1. MacAlister Elliott and Partners Ltd, October 2014. 27pp http://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/fisheries-in-the-program/certified/north-east-atlantic/sfsag-saithe-certified-fishery/assessment-downloads-1/2432R07A_-_Year_1_surveillance_report_SFSAG_saithe.pdf

Gascoigne, J., Fox, C., des Clers, S., 2013. MSC Public Certification Report for the North Sea saithe fishery. MacAlister Elliott and Partners Ltd, october 2013. 178pp. http://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/fisheries-in-the-program/certified/north-east-atlantic/sfsag-saithe-certified-fishery/assessment-downloads-1/20131002_PCR_SAI298.pdf

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ICES, 2010. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee, 2010. Book 3: the Barents Sea and the Norwegian Sea. 3.4.4 Saithe in Subarea IV (North Sea), Division IIIa (Skagerrak), and Subarea VI (West of Scotland and Rockall) http://www.ices.dk/committe/acom/comwork/report/2010/2010/sai-3a46.pdf

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ICES, 2013. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee, 2013. Book 6: The North Sea. 6.4.21: Saithe in Subarea IV (North Sea), Division IIIa (Skagerrak), and Subarea VI (West of Scotland and Rockall). 12pp http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2013/2013/sai-3a46.pdf

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References

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