Last updated on 6 October 2016

SUMMARY

SUMMARY

IDENTIFICATION

SCIENTIFIC NAME(s)

Gadus chalcogrammus

SPECIES NAME(s)

Alaska pollock, Walleye pollock, pollock, Минтай.

Available information on the population dynamics and genetic structure of Pollock in Alaskan waters supports the separation into eastern Bering Sea and Gulf of Alaska stocks. However, even though the stock structure is still not fully understood, there is also evidence of genetically distinct populations inside the Gulf of Alaska. As a result, pollock in the Gulf of Alaska (GOA) is currently treated as two separate stock units for assessment and management purposes: a) “W/C/WYK Areas” central and western portions of the Gulf of Alaska (central/western/west Yakutat); and b) “Southeast Outside Area”, a much smaller stock which comprises the eastern portion of the Gulf of Alaska (southeast outside) (Dorn et al. 2015). Most information in this profile relates to the GOA pollock in the “W/C/WYK Areas”.


ANALYSIS

Strengths
  • The Gulf of Alaska pollock fishery is certified by the Marine Stewardship Council.
  • Harvest policy and assessment employ many precautionary practices.
  • TACs follow scientific advice and catch compliance is strong.
  • Area closures and gear regulations limit impacts on biodiversity.
  • Considerable progress has been made in evaluating and addressing the impact of the fishery on chinook salmon and Steller sea lion populations.
Weaknesses
  • In the past, this stock has fluctuated widely even in the absence of fishing, so periods of very low abundance may be unavoidable, significantly constraining this fishery.
  • Estimates of natural mortality and predation suggest that predation at times may exceed production in this stock.
  • There is contention over potential impacts of both pelagic and bottom trawling.
  • Biomass is dropping since 2013 and is currently estimated at 16% below the reference level of B40%.
Options

Support further harvest reductions if the stock fails to show positive signs of recovery during 2010. Advocate increased federal funding for fishery surveys and studies of environmental changes (e.g. ocean acidification, predator-prey relationships) that may affect the stock’s productivity.

FISHSOURCE SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

10

Managers Compliance:

10

Fishers Compliance:

10

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

7.3

Future Health:

8.4


RECOMMENDATIONS

RETAILERS & SUPPLY CHAIN
  • Monitor the performance of the fishery and its management to ensure the fishery continues to be eligible for condition-free MSC re-certification.

FIPS

No related FIPs

CERTIFICATIONS

  • Alaska Pollock - Gulf of Alaska:

    MSC Recertified

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

ASSESSMENT UNIT MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
Gulf of Alaska US Pacific Gulf of Alaska United States Midwater trawls

Analysis

OVERVIEW

Strengths
  • The Gulf of Alaska pollock fishery is certified by the Marine Stewardship Council.
  • Harvest policy and assessment employ many precautionary practices.
  • TACs follow scientific advice and catch compliance is strong.
  • Area closures and gear regulations limit impacts on biodiversity.
  • Considerable progress has been made in evaluating and addressing the impact of the fishery on chinook salmon and Steller sea lion populations.
Weaknesses
  • In the past, this stock has fluctuated widely even in the absence of fishing, so periods of very low abundance may be unavoidable, significantly constraining this fishery.
  • Estimates of natural mortality and predation suggest that predation at times may exceed production in this stock.
  • There is contention over potential impacts of both pelagic and bottom trawling.
  • Biomass is dropping since 2013 and is currently estimated at 16% below the reference level of B40%.
Options
US Pacific Gulf of Alaska
United States
Midwater trawls

Last updated on 8 August 2010

Support further harvest reductions if the stock fails to show positive signs of recovery during 2010. Advocate increased federal funding for fishery surveys and studies of environmental changes (e.g. ocean acidification, predator-prey relationships) that may affect the stock’s productivity.

RECOMMENDATIONS

Last updated on 30 October 2018

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain
  • Monitor the performance of the fishery and its management to ensure the fishery continues to be eligible for condition-free MSC re-certification.

1.STOCK STATUS

STOCK ASSESSMENT

The age-structured assessment model for Gulf of Alaska pollock is regularly reviewed by experts. Results and methods are publicly available. Regular surveys and extensive research increase the robustness of assessments. Data inputs include fishery catch at age and total catch, several federal surveys and a separate survey run by the Alaska Department of Fish and Game (ADF&G), and acoustic surveys. Only minor changes in the input data and assessment methodology in the most recent stock assessment (Dorn et al. 2015). 

Research priorities to improve the quality of the stock assessment include (Dorn et al. 2015): (1) reduce datasets by removing older and less reliable data in the time series; (2) improve the relative weightings given to different data sets; (3) consider alternative modeling platforms; (4) analyze different approaches to model fishery and survey selectivity; (5) explore the implications of non-constant natural mortality on pollock assessment/management.
 

SCIENTIFIC ADVICE

Scientists’ advised fishing mortality level for 2016 (FABC=0.23) remains below the level authorized by the harvest strategy (max FABC=0.25) at the current biomass level, an indication of precaution. The recommended FABC represents an Allowable Biological Catch (ABC) of 254,310 tonnes in 2016 (Dorn et al. 2015).

The harvest policy includes multiple measures to reduce potential for overfishing. A buffer between OFL and ABC is applied to take into account uncertainties in stock assessment (NPFMC 2015): the maximum permissible FABC harvest rate is 85.0% of the OFL harvest rate. The harvest strategy also requires a decrease in F when biomass declines below (B40%), and a complete ban to directed fishing if biomass is projected to fall below B20% in the coming year (Dorn et al. 2015; NPFMC 2015).

Reference Points

Reference points from latest assessment (SAFE) report are as follows:

2015 SAFE (Dorn et al. 2015)
B100%750,000 t
B35%262,000 t
B40%300,000 t
max FABC0.25
FABC0.23
FOFL0.29

Biomass target reference point (Btrp) = B40%, which was estimated at 300,000 t in 2015.

Proxy for Blim =  B20%. According to the current harvest control rule, if biomass drops below this level, the harvest policy bans directed fishing (F=0) on Pollock (Dorn et al. 2015; NPFMC 2015).

Ftrp = max FABC: For the Gulf of Alaska pollock stocks, the max FABC corresponds to 85% of FOFL (Dorn et al. 2015). 

Recommended FABC in 2015: 0.20. This reflects the assessment authors’ further adjustment to FOFL.

CURRENT STATUS

The stock remains below target levels, but is not overfished and overfishing is not occurring. Spawning biomass has been dropping since a peak in 2013, and was estimated at 251,000 t in 2015, i.e., 16% below the target reference point (B40%). Fishing mortality has been increasing since 2009, and is at a historical high, but remains below the fishing mortality reference points - (FOFL) and the maximum permissible FABC (Dorn et al. 2015).

Trends

Following a historical peak in 1984, spawning stock biomass (SSB) remained at relatively high levels till 1994 (the second highest value of the time series). In the following decade, the stock biomass showed a decreasing trend, dropping to below (B40%) in 1998 and reaching a minimum in 2003, at 21% of unfished stock size and just above the limit reference point (Blim). From 2003 to 2013, the stock started rebuilding and SSB was estimated at above B40% in 2012 and 2013 (the highest value since the mid-90s). The latest model estimates indicate SSB has been dropping since and is now below the target reference point (B40%); the stock size is projected to start increasing again in the upcoming years as the strong 2012 year-class starts maturing (Dorn et al. 2015). 

Fishing mortality has been increasing since 2009 but remains below the fishing mortality reference points - (FOFL) and the maximum permissible FABC (Dorn et al., 2014). In terms of catch, the fishery started as a foreign fishery in the early 1970s, and developed rapidly in the late 70s and early 80s, with a peak in catches in 1984. After 1985, catches dropped considerably and have been fluctuating between 50 and 140 thousand tonnes since 1986 (Dorn et al. 2015). 

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

MANAGEMENT

The Council consistently sets catch limits within the bounds advised by scientists. For 2015, the North Pacific Fishery management Council set a TAC for Gulf of Alaska pollock at 191,309 t, which includes the pollock Guideline Harvest Level (GHL) for Prince William Sound (Dorn et al. 2015). 

The current harvest strategy includes multiple precautionary measures, including a linear reduction of fishing mortality rate is reduced when biomass drops below B40% and a ban to directed fishing (F=0) on Pollock, if biomass drops below B20%. Spatial and temporal TAC apportionments are also in place to reduce potential impacts on Stellar sea lions and other important pollock predators (Dorn et al. 2015; NPFMC 2015).

Recovery Plans

Not applicable. The biomass is well above critical levels and the current TAC is estimated to yield a “negligible” chance of pushing stock below the lower limit of B20% in the next years (Dorn et al. 2015).
 

COMPLIANCE

Pollock catches in the Gulf of Alaska in general have been well controlled. In the last decade (with the exception of 2003 and 2009), catches were always below the set TAC (Dorn et al. 2015). 
 

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

BYCATCH
ETP Species

The primary protected species of concern in the Gulf of Alaska (GOA) pollock fishery is Alaska’s western population of Steller sea lion (SSL), which is listed as Endangered. Between 2002 and 2006 lethal takes of SSL averaged 4/year (Rice et al. 2010). There has been increased research on the potential role of the pollock fishery on the dynamics of western stock of SSL. In light of no scientific evidence of negative effects of the pollock fishery on the dynamics of SSL, it has been concluded in the latest MSC assessment report that the fishery is “unlikely to create unacceptable impacts” on this species (Rice et al. 2012). 

To protect prey supplies for the endangered western stock of Steller sea lions, the harvest policy bans directed pollock fishing if biomass drops below 20% of its estimated unfished level. Since 1992, spatial and temporal TAC apportionments are also in place to reduce potential impacts on Steller sea lions and other important predators of Alaska pollock (Dorn et al. 2015; NPFMC 2015). A number of other management actions such as no-entry zones and closed trawling areas around rookeries, and spatial and temporal allocation of GOA pollock, are also used to minimize impacts on protected species (Dorn et al. 2015; NMFS 2015).

In terms of other groups such as seabirds, the trawl fisheries for pollock (and other species) account only for a small fraction of the total seabird bycatch in the Alaska region. The most affected seabirds by the pelagic trawl fisheries are Northern fulmars Fulmarus glacialis (IUCN red list: "Least Concern"; BirdLife International 2015), but bycatch rates are considered very low; around 120 seabirds, all Northern fulmars, were estimated (based on observer reports) to be captured as bycatch on the pelagic and demersal groundfish trawls in the GOA during 2010 – an estimated 0.3% mortality due to this fishery component (AFSC 2011; Bowen et al. 2016). 

Other Species

Bycatch in the Gulf of Alaska (GOA) directed pollock fishery is considered to be low. According to the latest stock assessment, “on average about 95% of the catch by weight of FMP species consisted of Pollock” (Dorn et al. 2015). Retained bycatch is relatively similar to the observed in previous years, with main retained bycatch species being: arrowtooth flounder, Pacific cod, Pacific ocean perch, flathead sole, shallow-water flatfish, and squid. The most common non-target species are still Eulachon, other osmerids, miscellaneous fish, and jellyfish (Dorn et al. 2015). 

Among the prohibited species, Chinook salmon is the most incidentally caught in the GOA pollock fishery. An increase in Chinook salmon bycatch in 2010 led managers to adopt several measures to reduce salmon bycatch, including a bycatch limit of 25,000 salmon in the directed pollock fishery (NOAA 2012b; Dorn et al. 2015). Concerns over the impact of the pollock fishery on the Chinook salmon stocks have also led to the creation of three conditions during the previous first MSC re-assessment (Rice et al. 2010). These conditions were then closed, as enough information was considered to exist to evaluate that both direct and indirect impacts of the fishery and impacts were considered to be within acceptable limits (Rice et al. 2013). Chinook salmon bycatch has since been well below the peak observed in 2010, at about less than half the observed that year (Dorn et al. 2015). The fishery was just re-certified (second MSC re-assessment) and the MSC Public Certification Report noted that Chinook salmon bycatch estimates have been well below the management cap of 25,000 fish, and that "there is also no evidence to indicate that the groundfish fisheries’ take of Chinook salmon is causing escapement failures in Alaska rivers" (Bowen et al. 2016). 

Halibut bycatch has been also of concern for other groundfish fisheries, but in the specific pollock directed fishery the halibut bycatch levels are relatively small compared to other groundfish fisheries. Besides the specific bycatch limits, a number of additional measure such as closed areas and seasons and specific incentives are in place to minimize bycatch of prohibited species in the GOA groundfish fisheries (NPFMC 2012, 2015; NPFMC undated).

HABITAT

Bottom trawling is known to cause severe disturbance to substrate and associated biota (e.g. corals, sea sponges and other epibenthic organisms). However, most of the fishery is conducted by midwater trawls, which contribute to about 90% of total pollock catch in the Gulf of Alaska (Dorn et al. 2015). There are also a number of Habitat Areas of Particular Concern (HAPC), which are closed to bottom trawling year-round and designated specifically to protect vulnerable benthic habitats (NPFMC 2015; Zador 2015). Impacts on the seabed are thus considered to be mitigated (Rice et al. 2010; Bowen et al. 2016). Research to identify and designate additional HAPCs in the Gulf of Alaska (GOA) region is an ongoing management objective (NPFMC 2015).
 

Marine Reserves

Bottom trawling is prohibited year-round in large areas of the Gulf of Alaska and Southeast Alaska. Fishing effort may be restricted, both spatially and temporarily, around areas important to marine mammals, and other protected and prohibited species. Additional closures restrict scallop dredging and other fishing gears in parts of this region. A number of coral Habitat Areas of Particular Concern (HAPC) has been established, and the designation of other habitats of special importance, such as known areas of skate-egg concentrations, is under consideration (NPFMC/NMFS 2012; NPFMC 2015). A map of current marine protected areas in the US North Pacific by species may be found online here.

FishSource Scores

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

As calculated for 2015 data.

The score is 10.0.

This measures the F at low biomass as a percentage of the F=F management target.

The F at low biomass is 0.00 (from management plan). The F=F management target is 0.850 .

The underlying F at low biomass/F=F management target for this index is 0.00%.

As calculated for 2015 data.

The score is 10.0.

This measures the Set TAC as a percentage of the ABC.

The Set TAC is 191 ('000 t). The ABC is 191 ('000 t) .

The underlying Set TAC/ABC for this index is 100%.

As calculated for 2014 data.

The score is 10.0.

This measures the Catch as a percentage of the Set TAC.

The Catch is 143 ('000 t). The Set TAC is 168 ('000 t) .

The underlying Catch/Set TAC for this index is 85.1%.

STOCK HEALTH:

As calculated for 2015 data.

The score is 7.3.

This measures the SSB as a percentage of the SSB40%.

The SSB is 251 ('000 t). The SSB40% is 300 ('000 t) .

The underlying SSB/SSB40% for this index is 83.7%.

As calculated for 2015 data.

The score is 8.4.

This measures the Ratio F/Fmsy as a percentage of the F=F management target.

The Ratio F/Fmsy is 0.760 . The F=F management target is 0.850 .

The underlying Ratio F/Fmsy/F=F management target for this index is 89.4%.

To see data for biomass, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for catch and tac, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for fishing mortality, please view this site on a desktop.
No data available for recruitment
No data available for recruitment
To see data for management quality, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for stock status, please view this site on a desktop.
DATA NOTES
  1. Biomass and fishing mortality reference points are extended back over the entire time series for comparative purposes. 
  2. Fishing mortality values in the scores data sheet are presented as relative to FMSY, and used only for scores calculation purposes, as the F time series is only made available by authors in this form (Dorn et al. 2015).
  3.  Recommended Allowable Biological Catch (ABC, used as a proxy for advised TAC) and set TACs are for the area west of 140 of 140º W longitude (Western, Central and West Yakutat management areas. Set TACs include the allocation to the state-managed fishery in Prince William Sound  (Dorn et al. 2015).
     

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Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

No related FIPs

Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

SELECT MSC

NAME

Alaska Pollock - Gulf of Alaska

STATUS

MSC Recertified on 27 April 2005

SCORES

Principle Level Scores:

Principle Score
Principle 1 – Target Species  95.0
Principle 2 - Ecosystem  89.7
Principle 3 – Management System 96.5

Certification Type: Gold

Sources

Credits
  1. AFSC. 2011. Preliminary Seabird bycatch Estimates for Alaskan Groundfish Fisheries, 2007-2010. Alaska Fisheries Science Center (AFSC). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Seattle, Washington.http://www.afsc.noaa.gov/refm/reem/Seabirds/Seabird%20bycatch%202007%20to%202010_Alaskan%20Gndfish_PrelimReport.pdf
  2. AFSC (Alaska Fisheries Science Center). 2008a. NPFMC (North Pacific Fishery Management Council) Gulf of Alaska SAFE. Appendix B. Stock Assessment and Fishery Evaluation Report For The Groundfish Resources of the Gulf of Alaska. Compiled by The Plan Team for the Groundfish Fisheries of the Gulf of Alaska. December 2008.http://www.afsc.noaa.gov/REFM/docs/2008/GOAintro.pdf
  3. AFSC (Alaska Fisheries Science Center). 2008b. NPFMC (North Pacific Fishery Management Council) Gulf of Alaska SAFE. Appendix C. Ecosystem Consideration for 2009. December 2008.http://www.afsc.noaa.gov/REFM/docs/2008/ecosystem.pdf
  4. AFSC (Alaska Fisheries Science Center), 2009. NPFMC (North Pacific Fishery Management Council). Appendix B. Stock Assessment and Fishery Evaluation (SAFE) Report for the Groundfish Resources of the Gulf of Alaska. Compiled by The Plan Team for the Groundfish Fisheries of the Gulf of Alaska. December 2009.http://www.afsc.noaa.gov/refm/stocks/assessments.htm
  5. Bowen, D., J. Rice, and R. J. Trumble. 2016. MSC Public Certification Report for Alaska Pollock Fishery – Gulf of Alaska. January 2016. MRAG Americas, Inc. 173 pp.https://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/fisheries-in-the-program/certified/pacific/gulf-of-alaska-pollock/second-reassessment-downloads-folder/20160114_PCR_POL051.pdf
  6. Bowen, D., J. Rice, and R. J. Trumble. 2016. MSC Public Certification Report for Alaska Pollock Fishery – Gulf of Alaska. January 2016. MRAG Americas, Inc. 173 pp.https://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/fisheries-in-the-program/certified/pacific/gulf-of-alaska-pollock/second-reassessment-downloads-folder/20160114_PCR_POL051.pdf
  7. Dorn, Martin, Aydin, Kerim, Darin, Jones, Palsson, Wayne,, and Spalinger, Kally 2013 Assessment of the Walleye Pollock Stock in the Gulf of Alaska.In: North Pacific Fishery Management Council (ed.) STOCK ASSESSMENT AND FISHERY EVALUATION REPORT FOR THE GROUNDFISH RESOURCES OF THE GULF OF ALASKA. Anchorage. p. 53-158http://www.afsc.noaa.gov/REFM/Docs/2013/GOApollock.pdf
  8. Dorn, M., Aydin, K., Barbeaux, S., Darin, J., and Palsson, W., 2012. Assessment of the Walleye Pollock Stock in the Gulf of Alaska. In: North Pacific Fishery Management Council (ed.) STOCK ASSESSMENT AND FISHERY EVALUATION REPORT FOR THE GROUNDFISH RESOURCES OF THE GULF OF ALASKA. Anchorage. p. 53-182.http://www.afsc.noaa.gov/REFM/Docs/2012/GOApollock.pdf
  9. Dorn, M., Aydin, K., Barbeaux, S., Guttormsen, M., Spalinger, K. and Palsson, W., 2011. Assessment of the Walleye Pollock Stock in the Gulf of Alaska. In: North Pacific Fishery Management Council (ed.) Stock assessment and fishery evaluation report for the groundfish resources of the Gulf of Alaska. Anchorage. p. 51-160.http://www.afsc.noaa.gov/REFM/docs/2011/GOApollock.pdf
  10. Dorn, M., Aydin, K., Barbeaux, S., Guttormsen, M., Spalinger, K. and Wilkins, M., 2010. Assessment of the Walleye Pollock Stock in the Gulf of Alaska. In: North Pacific Fishery Management Council (ed.) STOCK ASSESSMENT AND FISHERY EVALUATION REPORT FOR THE GROUNDFISH RESOURCES OF THE GULF OF ALASKA. Anchorage. p. 53-156.http://www.afsc.noaa.gov/REFM/docs/2010/GOApollock.pdf
  11. Dorn, M., Aydin, K., Jones, D., Palsson, W. and Spalinger, K., 2014. Assessment of the Walleye Pollock Stock in the Gulf of Alaska. Chapter 1. In: North Pacific Fishery Management Council (ed.) STOCK ASSESSMENT AND FISHERY EVALUATION REPORT FOR THE GROUNDFISH RESOURCES OF THE GULF OF ALASKA. Anchorage. p. 53-170.http://www.afsc.noaa.gov/REFM/Docs/2014/GOApollock.pdf
  12. Dorn, M., K. Aydin, D. Jones, A. McCarthy, W. Palsson, and K. Spalinger. 2015. Chapter 1: Assessment of the Walleye Pollock Stock in the Gulf of Alaska. Pages 49–172 in North Pacific Fishery Management Council, editor. Stock assessment and fishery evaluation report for the groundfish resources of the Gulf of Alaska. Anchorage.http://www.afsc.noaa.gov/REFM/Docs/2015/GOApollock.pdf
  13. Dorn, M. K. Aydin, S. Barbeaux, M. Guttormsen, B. Megrey, K. Spalinger, and M. Wilkins. 2008. Alaska Fisheries Science Center - National Marine Fisheries Service. Gulf of Alaska Walleye Pollock. National Marine Fisheries Service. December 2008.http://www.afsc.noaa.gov/REFM/docs/2008/GOApollock.pdf
  14. National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), 2010. Endangered Species Act – Section 7 Consultation Draft Biological Opinion.http://alaskafisheries.noaa.gov/protectedresources/stellers/esa/biop/draft/draft0810.pdf
  15. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), 2012b. Federal Register Vol.76, No. 226, Wednesday, November 23, 2011. Rules and Regulations. Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the Gulf of Alaska Pollock Fishery; Amendment 93. Final Rule. 77 FR 42629. p. 42629-42637.http://alaskafisheries.noaa.gov/frules/77fr42629.pdf
  16. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), 2012a. Federal Register Vol.77, No. 50, Wednesday, March 14, 2012. Rules and Regulations. Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Gulf of Alaska; Final 2012 and 2013 Harvest Specifications for Groundfish. Final Rule. 77 FR 15194. p. 15194-15226.http://alaskafisheries.noaa.gov/frules/77fr15194.pdf
  17. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), 2013. Federal Register Vol.78, No. 2, Thursday, January 3, 2013. Rules and Regulations. Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone off Alaska; in season adjustment to the 2013 Gulf of Alaska Pollock and Pacific Cod Total Allowable Catch amounts. Temporary Rule. 78 FR 267. p. 267-270.http://alaskafisheries.noaa.gov/frules/78fr267.pdf
  18. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), 2014. Federal Register Vol.79, No. 44, Thursday, March 6, 2014. Rules and Regulations. Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Gulf of Alaska; Final 2014 and 2015 Harvest Specifications for Groundfish. Final Rule. 79 FR 12890. p. 12890-12921.http://alaskafisheries.noaa.gov/frules/79fr12890.pdf
  19. NMFS, 2012. 2011 Gulf of Alaska Catch Report (through 31 Dec 11). National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS). Alaska Region, Sustainable Fisheries. April 2012. 3 pp.http://alaskafisheries.noaa.gov/2011/car110_goa.pdf
  20. North Pacific Fishery Management Council (NPFMC) , 2011. DRAFT NPFMC Recommendations for Final OFLs, ABCs, and TACs (mt) for 2012 and 2013 for Gulf of Alaska Groundfish ( December 9, 2011).http://www.alaskafisheries.noaa.gov/npfmc/PDFdocuments/SPECS/GOA%20Specs_Final-1211.pdf
  21. North Pacific Fishery Management Council (NPFMC), 2014. Fishery Management Plan for Groundfish of the Gulf of Alaska. North Pacific Fishery Management Council. Last updated January 2014. Anchorage, Alaska. 129 pp.http://www.npfmc.org/wp-content/PDFdocuments/fmp/GOA/GOAfmp.pdf
  22. NPFMC. 2012. Measures to address Gulf bycatch. North Pacific Fishery Management Council (NPFMC), Anchorage, Alaska.http://www.npfmc.org/wp-content/PDFdocuments/halibut/GOAPSC_comprehAction512.pdf
  23. NPFMC. 2015. Fishery Management Plan for Groundfish of the Gulf of Alaska. North Pacific Fishery Management Council (NPFMC), Anchorage, Alaska.http://www.npfmc.org/wp-content/PDFdocuments/fmp/GOA/GOAfmp.pdf
  24. NPFMC/NMFS, 2012. Habitat Areas of Particular Concern (HAPC): Areas of Skate Egg Concentration. Initial Review Draft. North Pacific Fishery Management Council (NPFMC). National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), Alaska Region. March 2012. 179 pp. http://alaskafisheries.noaa.gov/npfmc/PDFdocuments/conservation_issues/HAPC/SkateHAPC_InitRev312.pdf
  25. Rice, J., Bowen, D., Hanna, S. and Blyth-Skyrme, R., 2012. Second Annual Surveillance Report Gulf of Alaska (GOA) Pollock Fishery. Intertek Moody Marine Ltd. July 2012. 38 pp.http://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/fisheries-in-the-program/certified/pacific/gulf-of-alaska-pollock/Reassessment-downloads-1/20120725_GOA_SR.pdf
  26. Rice, J., Bowen, D., Hanna, S. and Knapman, P., 2011. First Annual Surveillance Report for the Gulf of Alaska Pollock Fishery. Intertek Moody Marine Ltd. July 2011. 43 pp.http://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/certified/pacific/gulf-of-alaska-pollock/Reassessment-downloads-1/GOA_Pollock_Surveillance_Report_1.pdf
  27. Rice, J., Bowen, D., Hanna, S., Blyth-Skyrme, R. 2013. Third Annual Surveillance Report Gulf of Alaska (GOA) Pollock Fishery. Intertek Moody Marine, July 2013, 30pphttp://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/fisheries-in-the-program/certified/pacific/gulf-of-alaska-pollock/Reassessment-downloads-1/20130716_SR_GOA_POL.pdf
  28. Rice, J., Bowen, D., Hanna, S., Blyth-Skyrme, R. and Knapman, P., 2010. MSC Public Certification Report for the Gulf of Alaska Pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) Fishery. v.5. Moody Marine Ltd. September 2010. Dartmouth, Canada. 176 pp.http://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/certified/pacific/gulf-of-alaska-pollock/Reassessment-downloads-1/GOA-Pollock-Public-Certification-Report.pdf
  29. Rice, J., Bowen, D., Trumble, R.J., 2014. Fourth Annual Surveillance Report - Gulf of Alaska (GOA) Pollock Fishery. MRAG Americas, Inc, July 2014. 11pphttp://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/fisheries-in-the-program/certified/pacific/gulf-of-alaska-pollock/Reassessment-downloads-1/20140724_SR_POL051.pdf
  30. Rice, J., D. Bowen, S. Hanna, R. B.-S., P. Knapman, 2010. MSC Assessment Report for The Gulf of Alaska Pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) Fishery. Version 3 – Public Comment Draft Report, June 2010. Moody Marine Ltd.http://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/certified/pacific/gulf-of-alaska-pollock/Reassessment-downloads-1/GOA%20Pollock%20Public%20Consultation%20Draft%20Report_FINAL.pdf
  31. Zador, S. (ed.). 2015. Ecosystem Considerations 2015, Stock Assessment and Fishery Evaluation Report. North Pacific Fisheries Management Council. Anchorage.http://www.afsc.noaa.gov/REFM/Docs/2015/ecosystem.pdf
References

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