Last updated on 19 October 2016

SUMMARY

SUMMARY

IDENTIFICATION

SCIENTIFIC NAME(s)

Clupea harengus

SPECIES NAME(s)

Atlantic herring

North Sea autumn spawning herring is considered and assessed as a single stock, consisting of four spawning components, which are genetically homogeneous. Some mixing with other neighboring stocks occurs, particularly in Division IIIa (with Western Baltic Spring Spawning herring) (ICES, 2015b).


ANALYSIS

Strengths
  • There is an updated management plan since 2008 which is consistent with the precautionary and MSY approaches.
  • Fishing mortality has been low in recent years.
  • Spawning stock biomass has been increasing and is currently estimated to be well above the precautionary reference point, Bpa.
  • The directed herring fishery is considered a “very clean” fishery, with almost no impact on the seabed and minimal bycatch, including of Endangered, Threatened and Protected (ETP) species.
  • Slippage associated to highgrading is not allowed in the North Sea and Skagerrak, and discarding is prohibited in Norway.
  • Fishers’ compliance has been improving.
  • Bycatch of non-target species is small, and interactions with PET species are null in the MSC certified fishery. Fishing gear does not impact the seabed.
Weaknesses
  • The series of weak recruitment observed since 2002 is the lowest observed; the stock is considered to remain in a low productivity phase.
  • TACs are generally set higher than ICES recommendations.
  • Sampling in the areas of overlap with Baltic stocks is limited, as is of discarding practices.
  • Two MSC conditions related to compliance with the defined harvest control rule are open and two recommendations were made during re-certification.

FISHSOURCE SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

8.4

Managers Compliance:

10

Fishers Compliance:

10

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

10

Future Health:

9.3


RECOMMENDATIONS

RETAILERS & SUPPLY CHAIN
  • Monitor the performance of the fishery and its management to ensure the fishery continues to be eligible for condition-free MSC re-certification.

FIPS

No related FIPs

CERTIFICATIONS

  • Northern Ireland Pelagic Sustainability Group (NIPSG) Irish Sea-Atlantic mackerel & NS herring:

    MSC Full Assessment

  • Scottish Pelagic Sustainability Group Ltd. North Sea Herring:

    MSC Recertified

  • Pelagic Freezer Trawler Association North Sea Herring:

    MSC Recertified

  • PFA & SPSG North Sea Herring:

    MSC Certified

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

ASSESSMENT UNIT MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
North Sea autumn spawners EU/Norway Denmark Midwater trawls
Purse seines
France Midwater trawls
Germany Midwater trawls
Ireland Midwater trawls
Lithuania Midwater trawls
Netherlands Midwater trawls
Norway Seine nets
Single boat midwater otter trawls
Sweden Midwater trawls
Purse seines
United Kingdom Drift gillnets
Midwater trawls

Analysis

OVERVIEW

Last updated on 20 March 2014

Strengths
  • There is an updated management plan since 2008 which is consistent with the precautionary and MSY approaches.
  • Fishing mortality has been low in recent years.
  • Spawning stock biomass has been increasing and is currently estimated to be well above the precautionary reference point, Bpa.
  • The directed herring fishery is considered a “very clean” fishery, with almost no impact on the seabed and minimal bycatch, including of Endangered, Threatened and Protected (ETP) species.
  • Slippage associated to highgrading is not allowed in the North Sea and Skagerrak, and discarding is prohibited in Norway.
  • Fishers’ compliance has been improving.
EU/Norway
United Kingdom
Midwater trawls

Last updated on 14 March 2014

  • Bycatch of non-target species is small, and interactions with PET species are null in the MSC certified fishery. Fishing gear does not impact the seabed.
Weaknesses
  • The series of weak recruitment observed since 2002 is the lowest observed; the stock is considered to remain in a low productivity phase.
  • TACs are generally set higher than ICES recommendations.
EU/Norway
United Kingdom
Midwater trawls

Last updated on 14 March 2014

  • Sampling in the areas of overlap with Baltic stocks is limited, as is of discarding practices.
  • Two MSC conditions related to compliance with the defined harvest control rule are open and two recommendations were made during re-certification.
RECOMMENDATIONS
EU/Norway
United Kingdom
Midwater trawls

Last updated on 13 December 2018

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain
  • Monitor the performance of the fishery and its management to ensure the fishery continues to be eligible for condition-free MSC re-certification.

1.STOCK STATUS

STOCK ASSESSMENT

Last updated on 14 March 2014

A benchmarking was conducted of the stock assessment process in 2012 and changes were adopted which improved the quality of the assessment, and also resulted in a shift in perception of the stock.

An age-based analytical method (FLSAM) is now employed, using data from commercial catches and four survey time-series of North Sea herring targeting several life stages. Inputs from the North Sea ecosystem are now included in the assessment. Discards and bycatches are also now included, but unallocated removals in herring fisheries remain a concern (ICES, 2013a). Sampling of commercial landings in 2013 covered 80% of total catches (slightly less than in previous year), but with different percentages depending on the métier (ICES, 2013b). Landings and catch-at-age data is collated from Subarea IV and Divisions VIId and IIIa. Denmark and Norway, the main countries conducting industrial fisheries, provide information on bycatch of herring.

The model is found to be appropriate and to describe the data well. Both spawning stock biomass (SSB) and Fishing mortality (F) are considered reliably estimated; unlike previous years, no underestimation pattern of SSB was observed in the 2013 assessment. Uncertainty of stock origin in overlap zones may also affect the quality of the assessment (ICES, 2013a).

SCIENTIFIC ADVICE

Last updated on 14 March 2014

From 2010 ICES has started to gradually implement a Maximum Sustainable Yield (MSY) approach in its advice, which will generally be more cautious than the heretofore used precautionary approach (PA). During the transition, three options for catch advice have been presented: according to the MSY approach, the PA, and to a management plan satisfying fishery objectives that has been found to be precautionary (ICES, 2010b). Although the latest ICES advice provides six catch forecasts for 2014, based on example scenarios for catch sharing among fleets, only the most relevant are provided below (ICES, 2013a):

The management plan scenario implies herring catches in the North Sea of 470,037 tonnes for fleet A (Subareas IV and VIId herring directed fisheries with purse-seiners and trawlers with 32mm minimum mesh size and bycatch in Norwegian industrial fisheries), 12,400 tonnes for fleet B (Subareas IV and VIId herring bycatch in the North Sea under EU regulation, taken in small-mesh fisheries, <32mm), 11,200 tonnes for fleet C (Subarea IIIa herring directed fisheries) and 2,400 tonnes for fleet D (Subarea IIIa herring small-mesh bycatch) in 2014 (ICES, 2013a).

MSY approach: The MSY framework implies a fishing mortality increase to F=0.27 which is expected to result in catches of no more than 503,399 tonnes in 2014 and to lead to an SSB of around 1.8 million tonnes in 2014; MSY B trigger is not defined (ICES, 2013a). No advice is provided in terms of the precautionary approach, as F[~pa~ is no longer considered a “operational reference point” for the management of the NS herring stock.

Starting 2013, ICES also provides multispecies considerations for the north sea stocks, with the intent of getting managers familiarized with this concept, and to promote multispecies management in the future. According to the multispecies analysis conducted in 2013, yield from almost all species is strongly affected by the abundance of cod and saithe, the main predator fish species in the North sea (ICES, 2013c).

The North Sea autumn-spawning stock is thought to constitute a complex of spawning components, which mix outside of spawning seasons. ICES continues to recommend that a share of 11% of the total North Sea TAC be attributed to the Downs spawning component, which is managed via a separate sub-TAC (ICES, 2013a). Considering additional management measures, ICES recommends that activities that may disturb spawning grounds, such as gravel extraction, should be prohibited immediately before, during and after the spawning season (ICES, 2012a, 2013a).

Reference Points

Last updated on 14 Mar 2014

Reference points were re-evaluated after the 2012 benchmarking of the stock:
The precautionary level for stock biomass (Bpa) was determined to be 1.0 million tonnes and the limit reference point (Blim) was maintained at 800,000 tonnes. The precautionary level for fishing mortality (Fpa), previously 0.25 for adults (2-6 ringers) (ICES, 2012a), is no longer (ICES, 2012c) .

FMSY at ages 2-6 (previously=Fpa=0.25) is estimated to be between 0.24 and 0.30. No MSY biomass reference point is referenced (ICES, 2012c).

The harvest control rule (HCR) included in the current EU-Norway management plan (soon to be replaced) employs a lower trigger of 800 thousand tonnes and an upper trigger of 1.5 million tonnes. Fishing mortality targets to be adopted at levels above the SSB upper trigger are 0.25 for ages 2-6, based on the previous Fpa, and 0.05 for ages 0-1. A linear reduction of F2-6 with decreasing SSB to 0.10 at the lower trigger is foreseen, with the F0-1 target remaining at 0.05 in this interval. At biomass levels below the lower trigger, the ages 0-1 target F is 0.04 and the ages 2-6 target is 0.01 (ICES, 2013a).

CURRENT STATUS

Last updated on 14 March 2014

The stock has been on an increasing trend since 2007 and is considered by ICES to be at full reproductive capacity. Spawning stock biomass was estimated at 2.0 million tonnes in 2013, i.e., well above both the precautionary reference point Bpa (1.3 million tonnes) and management plan’s upper trigger of (1.5 million tonnes). Fishing mortality increased in recent years but is still well below the management plan target Ftrp and FMSY. However, the stock is considered to continue in a low productivity phase – the series of weak recruitment since 2002 is the lowest observed (ICES, 2013a).

Trends

Last updated on 14 Mar 2014

SSB decreased from the historical maximum in 1963 (2.48 million tonnes) to the historical minimum of 117 thousand tonnes in 1975, following a period of exceptionally high fishing mortality, which peaked at 1.2 in 1971. In the early 80s SSB started to gradually recover, peaking at around 1.73 million tonnes in 1990 before decreasing again to 800,500 tonnes in 1993. Following the 2012 series re-estimation, SSB has been found to be above Blim since 1984 and above Bpa since 1996. Recruitment has followed a similar pattern to SSB, with weaker classes produced during the 1970s and larger classes in the 1980s and 1990s. Classes produced in the 2000s have been amongst the weakest of the historical series. With the exception of a brief period in the late 1970s/early 1980 when the stock was at its lowest levels, fishing mortality was above FMSY until 1996. But since 1996 it has been below this level, with record lows of less than 0.01 between 2009 and 2011 (ICES, 2013a).

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

MANAGEMENT

Last updated on 7 March 2014

The North Sea Atlantic herring fishery is managed by the EU and Norway through a catch quota system (set TACs). The set TAC applies to areas IV and VIId and, from 1996, a bycatch ceiling has also been set for Subarea IV, Division VIId and EU waters of IIa (EU no. 40/2013). In 2014, both the joint EU-Norway agreed TAC and the bycatch ceiling followed ICES advice: the joint EU-Norway was agreed at 470,037 tonnes (EU Commission, 2014), as recommended by ICES for this fleet; and the provisional bycatch ceiling was set by the EU at 8,690 tonnes (Regulation (EU) No 43/2014), below the 12.4 thousand tonnes foreseen by ICES for this fleet (ICES, 2013a). However, for Division IIIa, the provisional 2014 quotas were set at 20,592 tonnes for the directed fishery and 4,690 tonnes to be taken as bycatch (Regulation (EU) No 43/2014), well above the advised catch limits.

ICES recommended that the agreed EU-Norway management plan (last updated in 2008) be revised following the benchmark, and managers had previously requested a review of the 15% constraint on TAC changes. Several harvest control rule (HCR) options put forward by Norway and the EU were reviewed in 2013. ICES concluded that all HCR options proposed included precautionary combinations of Btrigger and target F, and several of these were found to be operational for the fishery, albeit with trade-offs between high and stable yields, and varying risk (ICES, 2012c).

Recovery Plans

Last updated on 07 Mar 2014

There is a management plan in place, agreed between the EU and Norway, updated in 2008 and which ICES continues to recommend be revised, but considers to be precautionary in the interim (ICES, 2012a). It focuses on keeping SSB above the limit reference point (Blim= 800,000 tonnes) and on fixing target fishing reference points by age groups (ICES, 2009). A reduced target F for juveniles and a higher trigger biomass for reducing the adult F, are the main modifications of the management plan. The revised rule specifies F for juveniles (F0-1) and for adults (F2-6) not to be exceeded, at 0.05 and 0.25 respectively, for the situation where the SSB is above the trigger biomass (1500,000 tonnes). When the SSB is below the trigger biomass, F is reduced to give F2-6=0.25-(0.15*(1,500,000-SSB)/700,000) for 2-6 ringers and no more than 0.05 for 0-1 ringers, allowing a stronger reduction in TAC if necessary. When the SSB is below Blim (800,000 tonnes), measures are to be taken so that fishing mortality is less than 0.1 for for adults (2+ ringers) and below 0.04 for juveniles (ICES, 2013a).

The agreement has also a constraint at 15% change in the TAC from one year to the next, and the F0-1 and F2-6 are assumed to apply to the total F summed over the directed fishery and bycatches in other fisheries (ICES, 2013a).

EU/Norway
United Kingdom

In terms of other management measures, Regulation (EC) No. 43/2009 was implemented to prohibit slippage (release of entire catch) in the North Sea and Skagerrak, providing the quota is available and the fish are above minimum landing size.

Midwater trawls

Last updated on 21 March 2014

The two conditions set under the recertification of the MSC fishery require that reference target points be set considering the role of herring as a key low trophic level species; and that the new harvest control rule be redefined to better avoid excessive TAC variation and be adhered to. A new MSC recommendation is that the revised management plan explicitly state its context as to wider ecosystem objectives (FCI, 2013).

COMPLIANCE

Last updated on 14 March 2014

Until recently, actual total catches in areas IV and VIId have systematically exceeded set catch limits. For the past decade the overshoots have been primarily a result of overfishing by fleet A (Subareas IV and VIId directed fisheries and by-catch in Norwegian industrial fisheries), although they have decreased in volume in recent years. The total catch in 2009 for areas IV and VIId was 168,000 tonnes, below the agreed TAC and bycatch ceiling for the first time (ICES, 2012a). Since 2009, catches have been close to the set TACs; in 2012, total catches for areas IV and VIId, of 424 thousand tonnes, were slightly above the sum of set TAC and bycatch ceiling, mainly due a 2% overshoot of the TAC for the directed fishery (ICES, 2013a, 2013b).

Bycatch ceilings since 1996 have been preventing excesses; data from industrial fisheries are available from Norway and Denmark. Catch estimates of herring taken as bycatch by other small-mesh fisheries in the North Sea may be underestimated. Discard rates are related to gear types (ICES, 2011b) and are thought to be low; discard estimates have been provided by the Scottish observer program but this has now ended (ICES, 2013b), and are monitored in the Dutch, English, and German fisheries (ICES, 2011a). The misreporting of catches has reportedly decreased substantially in recent years, with area misreporting virtually eliminated (ICES, 2013b).

EU/Norway
United Kingdom
Midwater trawls

Last updated on 14 March 2014

Conditions 1 and 2 of the MSC certified fishery related to slippage events. Since there is no evidence of slippage nor was it found necessary to monitor or evaluate these events, both have been closed (Hervàs et al., 2011). MSC condition 3 concerns compliance of fishers with the client quota for the duration of MSC certification. Since the client quota has never been surpassed, this condition is on target. MSC condition 5 was related to active supporting of TACs being set according to HCR conditions. This condition was consistently “on target” and has been closed out for recertification. A new recommendation was made on recertification to supply independent verification of the lack of fisheries impacts (FCI, 2013).

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

BYCATCH
ETP Species

Last updated on 12 March 2014

Effects of this fishery on endangered, threatened or protected (ETP) species have been monitored via surveys of bycatch of cetaceans, seals, seabirds and sharks, but these incidents have been found to be rare (ICES, 2013b). Estimates of bycatch rates during pelagic trawling are unknown, although data is being collected regularly for further analysis. Shark species affected by this fishery are unknown, but bycatch events are rare and survival rates apparently high; there are ocasional reports of catches of blue shark Prionace glauca (Near Threatened; 2013 IUCN Red List) (ICES, 2013b).

Although bycatch of seals, mainly grey seals Halichoerus grypus, has been reported in pelagic trawls, the eastern Atlantic population is not considered to be threatened (IUCN, 2013). There is a single record of a harbour porpoise Phocoena phocoena taken as bycatch in a herring trawl in the Baltic. Among seabirds, there are records of gannets Morus bassanus entangled in the trawl nets off the SW English coast, but events of bycatch in the North Sea are comparatively much less frequent (ICES, 2013b).

EU/Norway
United Kingdom
Midwater trawls

Last updated on 14 March 2014

For this fishery, fishers’ logbooks have indicated no interactions with ETP species during fishing operations, and this has been confirmed by onboard observers’ data in the past. However, one of MSC’s recommendations is to improve independent corroboration of fisheries impacts at sea, for example via CCTV cameras (FCI, 2013).

Other Species

Last updated on 14 March 2014

North Sea herring is caught together with herring from the southwestern Baltic spring-spawning stock, under a mixed quota in some areas. ICES advises that TACs be based on the weaker stock, which is currently the Baltic stock (ICES, 2013a) but provisional quotas in Skagerrak and Kattegat have exceeded advice (Regulation (EU) No 43/2014). Known bycatches in the purse seine fishery consist of a small amount of large saithe chasing the herring migrations. The fisheries inspection services can close areas if the intermixture of saithe is too high. The directed fisheries for herring are considered to be “very clean” fisheries, with minimal bycatch of other fish (ICES, 2013a, 2013b). In one study, herring accounted for 98% by weight of catches, and the remaining 2.3% made up mostly of mackerel, followed by haddock, horse mackerel and whiting (Pierce et al., 2002 in ICES, 2012b).

Bycatch of juvenile herring takes place in industrial fisheries (ICES, 2013a, 2013b), but most of bycatch is monitored and account for in catch statistics (ICES, 2013b). Large-scale discarding of herring in the directed North Sea herring fishery is not thought to be widespread and, globally, the discard rate was less than 5% of the landed catch. The discard of unwanted herring is also currently illegal in Norway and slippage and high-grading in the EU. Discarding practices are also thought to be reducing (ICES, 2011b).

EU/Norway
United Kingdom
Midwater trawls

Last updated on 14 March 2014

In this particular MSC fishery, Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus) is the main bycatch species, but little of it is landed during herring-targeted trips. Norway pout, horse mackerel, sprat and other demersal species are also caught. These are retained and catches are reported. Mackerel is managed by a plan although the stock appears to be declining (FCI, 2013).

Previous anecdotal information, primarily from fishers’ logs, but also available studies and observer reports, have suggested that there is little bycatch or mortality of seabirds in this fishery. However, one of the recommendations placed on the fishery for MSC certification is to improve independent corroboration of fisheries impacts at sea, for example via CCTV cameras (FCI, 2013).

HABITAT

Last updated on 12 April 2012

Pelagic gears are employed in the fishery so effects on benthic habitats are thought to be minimal (ICES, 2013a). Herring is a demersal spawner and spawning and nursery areas are vulnerable to anthropogenic activities such as gravel extraction, with ICES advising for a moratorium on bottom disturbing activities during and around the spawning season (ICES, 2013a).

Herring is a key species in the North Sea ecosystem, as a predator of other fish stocks and as a prey for fish, seabirds and sea mammals. Herring removals may have thus indirect impacts on these taxonomic groups, e.g., via trophic (or second order) interactions, but information on these indirect impacts or interactions is limited. A recent study suggests a strong connection between herring as a predator of cod eggs and larvae, hindering the North Sea cod stock recovery (ICES, 2013b).

Marine Reserves

Last updated on 12 Apr 2012

Closed areas to the fishery include parts of the UK at times of the year when herring spawn and bans are also enforced on small-mesh sprat fisheries off the NE England coast and Danish coast, where juvenile herring are abundant (Nichols, 1999; EC No 850/98).

Besides coastal and insular Marine Protected Areas already in existence and with variable conservation statuses, the establishment of a network of marine special conservation areas in EU waters is currently underway within the EU Natura 2000 program, under the Birds Directive 79/409/EEC and the Habitats Directive 92/43/EEC and special fishery management measures may be applied.

EU/Norway
United Kingdom
Midwater trawls

Last updated on 20 March 2013

The Scottish pelagic fleet operates in midwater including surface water, thus there are no impacts on bottom habitats or structures (FCI, 2013).

FishSource Scores

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

As calculated for 2012 data.

The score is 8.4.

This measures the F at low biomass as a percentage of the F management target.

The F at low biomass is 0.100 (from management plan). The F management target is 0.250 .

The underlying F at low biomass/F management target for this index is 40.0%.

As calculated for 2014 data.

The score is 10.0.

This measures the Set TAC as a percentage of the Advised TAC.

The Set TAC is 479 ('000 t). The Advised TAC is 482 ('000 t) .

The underlying Set TAC/Advised TAC for this index is 99.2%.

As calculated for 2012 data.

The score is 10.0.

This measures the Catch as a percentage of the Set TAC.

The Catch is 424 ('000 t). The Set TAC is 423 ('000 t) .

The underlying Catch/Set TAC for this index is 100%.

STOCK HEALTH:

As calculated for 2013 data.

The score is 10.0.

This measures the SSB as a percentage of the SSBpa.

The SSB is 2000 ('000 t). The SSBpa is 1000 ('000 t) .

The underlying SSB/SSBpa for this index is 200%.

As calculated for 2012 data.

The score is 9.3.

This measures the F as a percentage of the F management target.

The F is 0.168 (age-averaged). The F management target is 0.250 .

The underlying F/F management target for this index is 67.2%.

To see data for biomass, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for catch and tac, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for fishing mortality, please view this site on a desktop.
No data available for recruitment
No data available for recruitment
To see data for management quality, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for stock status, please view this site on a desktop.
DATA NOTES
  1. The advised and observed fishing mortality are defined separately for the juvenile and adult fractions of the stock. Only the adult (2-6 ringers) fraction is considered here. The juvenile stock has been fished below target since 2006.
  2. Advised catches refer only to the directed fishery in areas IV and VIId in 1993-2000; and to both directed and bycatch in areas IV and VIId from 2005-2013. From 2001, ICES’s advised catches have been based on multiple scenarios. 2005-2009 advised catches use means of options when necessary. Plotted advised catches for 2010-2014 are based on the precautionary management plan.
  3. Set TAC applies to areas IV and VIId, refers to directed catches from 1987-2013 and includes bycatch ceiling from 1996-2014 (Subarea IV, Division VIId and EU waters of IIa).
  4. Catches from 1987-2012 are for Subarea IV and VIId (autumn spawners), and include misreporting, slipping and discards estimates (ICES, 2013a).

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Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

No related FIPs

Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

SELECT MSC

NAME

Northern Ireland Pelagic Sustainability Group (NIPSG) Irish Sea-Atlantic mackerel & NS herring

STATUS

MSC Full Assessment

SCORES

Certification Type:

Sources

Credits
  1. Andrews, J., Eltink, A., Nichols, J., 2011. Public Certification Report for Pelagic Freezer-Trawler Association North Sea Herring Fishery, Moody Marine Ltd, 179 p.http://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/certified/north-east-atlantic/pfa-north-sea-herring/pfa-north-sea-herring-reassessment-documents/PFA_North_Sea_Herring_Public_Certification_Report.pdf
  2. Andrews, J, Nichols J. 2012. Surveillance Report PFA North Sea Herring Fishery. Intertek Moody Marine June 2012. 25pphttp://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/certified/north-east-atlantic/pfa-north-sea-herring/pfa-north-sea-herring-reassessment-documents/SR_REVISED.pdf
  3. Andrews, J., Nichols, J. 2013. Surveillance Report PFA North Sea Herring Fishery. Surveillance Report 2 - 2013. Intertek Moody Marine, June 2013. 25pphttp://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/fisheries-in-the-program/certified/north-east-atlantic/pfa-north-sea-herring/pfa-north-sea-herring-reassessment-documents/20130618_SR_revised_HER98.pdf
  4. Andrews, J., Nichols, J., 2014. Surveillance Report 3 - PFA North Sea Herring Fishery. Intertek Fisheries Certification, June 2014. 45pp http://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/fisheries-in-the-program/certified/north-east-atlantic/pfa-north-sea-herring/pfa-north-sea-herring-reassessment-documents/20140609_SR_HER98.pdf
  5. Andrews, J., Nichols, J., 2015. Pelagic Freezer-Trawler Association North Sea Herring Trawl Fishery. 4th annual Surveillance Report. Intertek Fisheries Certification (IFC), July 2015. 54pphttps://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/fisheries-in-the-program/certified/north-east-atlantic/pfa-north-sea-herring/pfa-north-sea-herring-reassessment-documents/20150825_sr_her98-1
  6. Carleton, C., Medley, P., Southall, T., Gill, M. and McFadden, M., 2008. Public Certification Report for the assessment of the Scottish Pelagic Sustainability Group Ltd (SPSG) North Sea Herring (Clupea harengus). Food Certification International (FCI). July 2008. 109 pp.http://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/certified/north-east-atlantic/spsg-north-sea-herring/assessment-downloads-1/SPSG_NSHerring_-PublicCertificationReport_July08.pdf
  7. Chaudhury, S. and Kirkegaard, E., 2011. 2nd MSC Surveillance Report for the Danish Pelagic Producers Organisation North Sea Herring Fishery. Det Norske Veritas. July 2011. 18 pp.http://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/certified/north-east-atlantic/DPPO-North-Sea-herring/assessment-downloads-1/DPPO_NS_Herring_MSCF_Surv2_Report.pdf
  8. Chaudhury, S., and Kirkegaard, E., 2012. 3rd MSC Surveillance Report for the Danish Pelagic Producers Organisation North Sea Herring Fishery. Det Norske Veritas. August 2012. 15 pp.http://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/certified/north-east-atlantic/DPPO-North-Sea-herring/assessment-downloads-1/20120905_SR_HER34.pdf
  9. Chaudhury, S. and Lockwood, S., 2012. 3rd Surveillance Report for Norway North Sea and Skagerrak Herring Fishery. Det Norske Veritas. July 2012. 31 pp.http://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/certified/north-east-atlantic/norway-north-sea-and-skagerrak-herring/assessment-downloads-1/20120822_SR_HER89.pdf
  10. Chaudhury, S., Lockwood, S. and Pedersen, G.M., 2013. 4th Surveillance report for the Norway North Sea and Skagerrak Herring Fishery. Det Norske Veritas AS. August 2013. 35 pp.http://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/fisheries-in-the-program/certified/north-east-atlantic/norway-north-sea-and-skagerrak-herring/assessment-downloads-1/20130827_SR_HAR89.pdf
  11. Des Clers, S., Pawson, M., 2014. Surveillance Visit report for the Hastings fleet herrinh (Clupea harengus) drift net fishery. MacAlister Elliott and Partners Ltd, October 2014. 17pphttp://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/fisheries-in-the-program/certified/north-east-atlantic/hastings-fleet-pelagic-herring-and-mackerel/reassessment-downloads-1/2814r01a_hastings_herring_year_2_surveillance_report_-_final.pdf
  12. Dickey-Collas M, Grift RE, Bolle LJ, Kraak SBM, 2004. Evaluation of Stock Assessment Models. RIVO – Netherlands Institute for Fisheries Research – Report number CO23/04.http://library.wur.nl/way/bestanden/clc/1882993.pdf
  13. EU Commission, 2014. European Union and Norway reach agreement on bilateral fisheries arrangements for 2014. European Commission. Press release IP/14/264. 12 March 2014. Brussels. 1 p.http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-14-264_en.pdf
  14. FIRMS (Fishery Resources Monitoring System). 2006. Marine Resource Fact Sheet. Stock Status Report: Autumn Spawning Herring - North Sea, Eastern Channel, Skagerrak, 2006http://firms.fao.org/firms/resource/10385
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