Last updated on 23 September 2016

SUMMARY

SUMMARY

IDENTIFICATION

SCIENTIFIC NAME(s)

Gadus morhua

SPECIES NAME(s)

Atlantic cod

Four genetically distinct populations may exist in the North Sea (Hutchinson et al., 2001) but are considered to not be reproductively isolated, suggesting the existence of a unique stock in the North Sea (ICES, undated). Further studies about stock structure in the North Sea and connection with adjacent stocks should be conducted (Neuenfeldt et al., 2013; ICES, 2014d).


ANALYSIS

Strengths
  • The spawning stock has shown an increase since 2006 and is slightly just below the correspondent limit reference point.
  • A recovery plan has been implemented.
  • MSY reference points have been defined in 2010. Discards have been decreasing.
  • Fishing mortality (F) declined from 2000 and reached now the target. The quality of data has been improving.
  • Technical management measures applied at the EU and country levels.
  • Mitigation measures are in place and bycatch numbers of harbour porpoise have reduced considerably.
Weaknesses
  • ‘The recovery of the stock is still fragile’. F is estimated to be well above FMSY. Recruitment since 2000 has been poor. Monitoring the progress of North Sea cod recovery is made difficult by uncertainties in stock assessments.
  • Discarding represents 28% of total removals. The management system in place has not controlled F as predicted.
  • Catch limits have been overpassing the advice.
  • Protected species are impacted by the fishery. Environmental parameters found to influence the stock recovery.
  • Benthic biomass and productivity estimated to be reduced by 56% and 21%, respectively, comparing unfished and trawled areas.

FISHSOURCE SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

≥ 6

Managers Compliance:

10

Fishers Compliance:

8.7

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

7.8

Future Health:

7.3


RECOMMENDATIONS

RETAILERS & SUPPLY CHAIN
  • Monitor the progress in closing out conditions placed upon the MSC certification of the fishery and if agreed timelines are met. Offer assistance in closing conditions where possible.

1. Support the initiation of an industry led North Sea cod fishery improvement project or Marine Stewardship Council certification.
2. Engage with the Seafish Discard Action Group (DAG) and the North Sea Advisory Council (NS AC) by participating in meetings.


FIPS

No related FIPs

CERTIFICATIONS

  • Scottish Fisheries Sustainable Accreditation Group (SFSAG) North Sea cod:

    MSC Certified

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

ASSESSMENT UNIT MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
North Sea, Eastern English Channel and Skagerrak European Union Denmark Bottom trawls
Danish seines
Set gillnets (anchored)
United Kingdom Bottom pair trawls
Bottom trawls
Danish seines
Scottish seines
Norway Norway Bottom trawls

Analysis

OVERVIEW

Strengths
  • The spawning stock has shown an increase since 2006 and is slightly just below the correspondent limit reference point.
  • A recovery plan has been implemented.
  • MSY reference points have been defined in 2010. Discards have been decreasing.
  • Fishing mortality (F) declined from 2000 and reached now the target. The quality of data has been improving.
  • Technical management measures applied at the EU and country levels.
  • Mitigation measures are in place and bycatch numbers of harbour porpoise have reduced considerably.
Weaknesses
  • ‘The recovery of the stock is still fragile’. F is estimated to be well above FMSY. Recruitment since 2000 has been poor. Monitoring the progress of North Sea cod recovery is made difficult by uncertainties in stock assessments.
  • Discarding represents 28% of total removals. The management system in place has not controlled F as predicted.
  • Catch limits have been overpassing the advice.
  • Protected species are impacted by the fishery. Environmental parameters found to influence the stock recovery.
  • Benthic biomass and productivity estimated to be reduced by 56% and 21%, respectively, comparing unfished and trawled areas.
RECOMMENDATIONS

Last updated on 28 June 2016

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain

1. Support the initiation of an industry led North Sea cod fishery improvement project or Marine Stewardship Council certification.
2. Engage with the Seafish Discard Action Group (DAG) and the North Sea Advisory Council (NS AC) by participating in meetings.

North Sea, Eastern English Channel and Skagerrak
European Union
United Kingdom
Bottom trawls

Last updated on 13 December 2018

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain
  • Monitor the progress in closing out conditions placed upon the MSC certification of the fishery and if agreed timelines are met. Offer assistance in closing conditions where possible.

1.STOCK STATUS

STOCK ASSESSMENT
North Sea, Eastern English Channel and Skagerrak

The assessment includes the North Sea (Sub-area IV), Skagerrak (the northern section of Division IIIa) and the eastern Channel (Division VIId). A state–space age-structured assessment (SAM) model with estimates of unaccounted removals is used. Input data comprises two survey indices and combined commercial and discard information (commercial catches considered unreliable); natural mortality from multispecies model. Discards have been included in the assessment since 2004. The overall reporting (in particular through fully documented fisheries) of catch data provided to ICES has improved since 2006(ICES, 2014c,d).

The main sources of uncertainty are (1) some aspects of input data (e.g., historical landings and discards); (2) discrepancies between the information coming from fishery dependent and independent data; and (3) recruitment and fishing mortality (F) assumptions in the assessment forecast; the spawning stock (SSB) has been overestimated (ICES, 2014c).

SCIENTIFIC ADVICE
North Sea, Eastern English Channel and Skagerrak

Following the ICES MSY framework plan implies F to be reduced to 0.11, lower than FMSY (0.19) because SSB 2015<MSY Btrigger (150,000 tons). This is expected to result in landings (including unallocated removals) of less than 17,220 tons in 2015 and to an SSB of 124,697 tons in 2016.

The EU-Norway agreement management plan as updated in December 2008 and the EU long-term plan for this stock (Council Regulation (EC) 1342/2008) (further details in the Recovery plan section) were both found by ICES to be precautionary if implemented and enforced correctly. The plans’ target F is set at 0.4 for a healthy stock. TAC projections for 2015 indicate the management plans’ long-term phase has been reached, implying a target F2015 = 0.22, which means total landings should be no more than 26,713 tons in 2015 (for Subarea IV and Divisions IIIa West and VIId), and total removals no more than 35,485 tons (assuming discard rates remain the same as in 2013) (ICES, 2014c,d).

Since 2012, ICES offers mixed-fisheries advice (ICES, 2012c). In contrast to single-species advice there is no single recommendation for mixed fisheries but rather a range of plausible scenarios. The mixed fishery in North Sea includes cod, haddock, whiting, saithe, plaice, sole, and Nephrops fisheries. In the most precautionary scenario (“minimum”: i.e., “fishing stops when the catch for any one of the stocks considered meets the single-stock advice; ICES, 2013b), cod and Nephrops are the limiting species for the North Sea demersal fisheries in 2015. The ‘minimum’, ’cod management plan’ and ‘effort management’ scenarios of the mixed-fisheries analyses are both consistent with the single-species advice for cod; the scenario ‘max’ implies an F > Fpa what is not precautionary (ICES, 2014c,d).

Reference Points

ICES proposed a precautionary SSB level (Bpa) at 150,000 tons, and a lower limit reference point, Blim, of 70,000 tons, below which recruitment is impaired. In terms of F reference points, Flim is defined at 0.86 and Fpa as 0.65. Target F is set at 0.4 under the 2008 management plan. In 2010, ICES’ MSY approach defined FMSY= 0.19 and Btrigger = 150,000 tons, at the same level as Bpa (ICES, 2014c,d).

CURRENT STATUS
North Sea, Eastern English Channel and Skagerrak

There has been a gradual improvement in the status of the stock over the last few years but ‘the recovery of the stock is still fragile’ (ICES, 2014d). SSB has increased from the historical low in 2006 (21,600 tons) and is now slightly below Blim. F declined from 2000s levels (around 1.0) and is now estimated to be at 0.4, between Fpa and the FMSY proxy. Recruitment has been poor since 2000 (ICES, 2014c,d).

Trends

The cod stock declined severely during the late 1990s and early 2000s. Total catches reached its peak in 1981 (322,870 tons). Since then have been gradually decreasing. SSB declined steadily from the early 1970’s to the mid-2000s, but has been increasing since 2006 (the lowest value of the time series) towards Blim. F increased until the early 1980’s remained around 1.0 until 2000; since then has declined, and is now between Fpa and FMSY proxy. Recruitment has been poor since 2000s. The proportion of discards relative to catch has declined in recent years and unaccounted removals are considered to not exist from 2006 onwards (ICES, 2014c,d).

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

MANAGEMENT
North Sea, Eastern English Channel and Skagerrak
Recovery Plans

In 2004, agreement was reached within the EU on a formal recovery plan but the measures introduced proved insufficient to reduce F to levels required to rebuild the stock (EC, 2008). As such the EU submitted and approved a proposal in 2008 to amend the EC cod recovery plan and Norwegian authorities also defined a recovery and subsequent management plan.

An EU-Norway revised recovery plan, which entered into force on 1 January 2009, foresaw an initial recovery phase, aiming for a reduction in F of at least 75% in 2009, 65% in 2010 and application of 10% decreases in the following years, until F reduced below the target determined by a HCR. This HCR, aimed at the longer-term management of the stock, determines a F between 0.2 and 0.4 according to the estimated SSB in relation to Bpa and Blim, and applies a 20% constraint on TACs in successive years (EC, 2008). The set TACs were to be complemented by an effort management regime allocated to Member States and managed domestically (EC, 2008). The plan stated that discarding and other sources of mortality would be estimated and counted (ICES, 2008d).

ICES evaluated both the EC management plan (EC 1342/2008) and the EU–Norway agreed long-term plan in March 2009 and concluded that these management plans were in accordance with the precautionary approach, if implemented and enforced adequately (ICES, 2011a). A joint ICES–STECF group met during 2011 and concluded that although there has been a gradual reduction in F and discards in recent years, the plans for North Sea cod have not controlled F as envisaged (ICES, 2014d). However, reductions in F since 2011 have been more pronounced than projected in that evaluation (ICES, 2013a). The EU and Norway requested in 2013 that ICES evaluate a change to the management plan allowing for more flexibility in TACs, but ICES found the proposed rules not to be precautionary (ICES, 2013d).

European Union

Cod are taken by towed gears in mixed demersal fisheries so mixed-fisheries considerations are of primary importance for the management of North Sea cod. Achieving cod management objectives would require significant decrease of the F exerted by all demersal fisheries (ICES, 2010a).

Management of cod is by Total Allowable Catches (TACs) defined under a management plan and by technical measures. The EU and Norway agreed for 2014 to deviate from the plan’s agreed harvest control rule (HCR), under a provision that allows for such if the management plan’s objectives cannot be met and an interpretation of ICES’s projections that biomass may continue to increase even with a moderate TAC increase, whereas discards would be expected to increase if a TAC reduction as foreseen under the HCR were implemented (EU and Norway, 2014; ICES, 2014a,b). However, the increased TAC is also expected to increase discarding and ICES noted that additional reduction measures are required (ICES, 2014b). The TAC for ICES subarea IV was thus increased 5% to 27,799 tons (EU, Norway, 2014) and the TACs for Divisions IIIa West and VIId at 4,000 and 1,600 tons respectively (ICES, 2014d), bringing the total TAC to 33,400 tons, above the 28,809 tons foreseen in the management plan. The total TAC for 2013 was set at 31,800 tons, also above ICES’ advice of 25,400 tons.

Several effort restrictions were introduced in some EC countries in 2003 for the protection of the North Sea cod stock, and resulted in decreases in F and discards. In 2009, under the EU management plan, the management program switched from a days at sea to a kW/day system (EC 43/2009), in which different amounts of kW/days are allocated within each area by Member State to different groups of vessels depending on gear and mesh size (ICES, 2011a,b). In February 2008 Scotland implemented a national scheme known as the ‘Conservation Credits Scheme’. The principle of this two-part scheme involves additional time at sea in return for the adoption of measures which aim to reduce mortality on cod and lead to a reduction in discard numbers. ICES notes that from the initial year of operation (2008) cod discarding rates in Scotland have decreased from 62% to 24% in 2011. A closed-circuit TV onboard was applied – Danish and German vessels are allowed to discard undersized cod and UK vessels are not permitted. (ICES, 2014c,d).

In 2010, there were 165 closures, and from July 2010 the area of each closure increased (from 50 square nautical miles to 225 square nautical miles). In 2011 and 2012, there were 185 and 173 of these larger closures respectively.

Minimum landing size (MLS) is set at 35cm at the EU level but additional measures are also implemented at the country level: in Belgium and Norway MLS at 40cm; in Denmark at 35cm in North Sea and 40cm in Skagerrak. Other technical measures comprise restrictions in twine size gears, limits of length gear and ban on lifting bags in the UK. Minimum mesh size at 120mm is mandatory for vessels operating in Norwegian sector of the North Sea (ONS, undated; ICES, 2014d).

COMPLIANCE
North Sea, Eastern English Channel and Skagerrak
European Union

Since the early 2000s, official landings have been fluctuating around the set TACs; however, with the exception of 1996, 1998 and 1999, total removals (i.e., including discards and unaccounted removals) have always exceeded the set TAC (ICES, 2013a). There have been considerable efforts to reduce discards by some countries and levels declined from the historical level in 2007 (48%) to just above average in 2011 and 2012 (24%). Of the total estimated removals in 2013 (45,524 tons), 12,939 tons were discarded. Catch reporting has however improved considerably in recent years, and ICES considers “there is no unaccounted mortality from 2006 onwards” (ICES, 2014c,d).

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

BYCATCH
ETP Species
North Sea, Eastern English Channel and Skagerrak

Of the Protected, Endangered and Threatened (PET) species distributed in the North Sea, harbour porpoise Phocoena phocoena (IUCN Red List: “Least Concern”; Hammond et al., 2008) and grey seals Halichoerus grypus (IUCN Red List: “Least Concern”; Thompson and Härkönen, 2008) directly interact with the fishery. Cod is part of the diet of both species, comprising about 9% and 14% of their diet composition, respectively (ICES, 2012c). Recent cod recruitment low values are probably a result of an increasing predation pressure by these cetaceans: grey seals prey on ages 3-6 cod and harbour porpoises on cod up to age 3. (ICES, 2014c).

The latest abundance estimates for the population of Harbour porpoise in the North Sea and adjacent waters was at 215,600 individuals (ICES, 2013c). A conservation plan for the species in place since 2009 aims “to maintain the species at a favorable conservation status”; bycatch reduction is transversal to five of the twelve actions defined. The gillnet fishery is primarily conducted by Denmark, Norway, and the UK. In 2001, the total bycatch in the cod fishery was around 2,000 porpoises; since then effort reductions in this fishery have likely led to a decrease (ICES, 2014c) and mitigation measures, such as pingers (e.g. Larsen 2004, Pinn et al, 2009, Camphuysen and Siemensma, 2011) and others, have been introduced to reduce porpoise bycatch at a regional level (ICES, 2008h). In 2011, the porpoise estimated bycatch in these management areas was around 140 individuals (ICES, 2013c).

Other Species
North Sea, Eastern English Channel and Skagerrak

Cod is fished in a mixed demersal fishery that also targets haddock, whiting, Nephrops, plaice and sole with towed gears and also in directed fisheries employing fixed gears (ICES, 2014c).

Large-scale discarding is known to occur in the mixed demersal trawl fisheries in the North Sea. Discards are mainly composed of small and juvenile fish below or close to the minimum landing size and of larger individuals of species without a reliable market. In recent years discards have been decreasing and in 2013 were estimated at around 28% (12,939 tons) of the total removals (ICES, 2014c).

HABITAT
North Sea, Eastern English Channel and Skagerrak

Bottom trawling modifies the biomass, production, size structure, and diversity of benthic communities, with the intensity and patchiness of bottom trawling disturbance determining the aggregate impacts. The effect on the benthic invertebrate community in the northern North Sea from all otter trawling is estimated to represent an annual mortality of approximately 25% of the standing-crop biomass (ICES, 2010a) but the effort declined since 1999. Beam trawling removes 39% of standing-crop biomass (ICES, 2008h). In areas where bottom trawl activity occurs, the benthic biomass and productivity were estimated to be reduced by 56% and 21%, respectively, comparing to unfished areas (Hiddink et al., 2006).

Grey gurnards, herring, whiting and seabirds are important predators of 0-group cod (ICES, 2014d). Nicolas et al. (2014) found recently that, besides fishing pressure, the Sea Surface Temperature (SST), which has been increasing in the last years, and availability of preys such as copepods, are intimately related with cod recruitment reduction.

Marine Reserves

A number of measures for temporary closures have been or are being employed, in order to reduce fishing pressure on cod. No information has yet been found on areas permanently closed to fishing. Until 2010, 185 closure areas have been established in a total of 225 square nautical miles (ICES, 2012a).

Numerous coastal Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) have been designated along the coasts of the countries bordering the North Sea, with varying conservation statuses and management measures (Wood, 2007). EU Member States are presently implementing a network of marine protected sites under the Natura 2000 initiative in order to protect vulnerable and endangered habitats and species. Fisheries management and control measures will be defined for sites on a case-to-case basis by Member States and offshore sites are also planned (EC, 2007).

MPAs on their own have not been found to produce benefits for the ecosystem in the North Sea but instead fishing effort displacement towards non-protected areas (Greenstreet et al., 2009).

FishSource Scores

Last updated on 14 December 2018

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

As calculated for 2016 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

According to ICES, the management plan in place was “in accordance with the precautionary approach if implemented and enforced adequately” but the stock assessment and reference points were reviewed in 2015 and the management strategy has to be re-evaluated and adapted accordingly; until there the MSY approach is applied (ICES, 2016a).

As calculated for 2016 data.

The score is 10.0.

This measures the Set TAC as a percentage of the Advised TAC.

The Set TAC is 40.5 ('000 t). The Advised TAC is 49.3 ('000 t) .

The underlying Set TAC/Advised TAC for this index is 82.2%.

As calculated for 2015 data.

The score is 8.7.

This measures the Catch as a percentage of the Set TAC.

The Catch is 37.9 ('000 t). The Set TAC is 35.1 ('000 t) .

The underlying Catch/Set TAC for this index is 108%.

STOCK HEALTH:

As calculated for 2016 data.

The score is 7.8.

This measures the SSB as a percentage of the MSY Btrigger.

The SSB is 161 ('000 t). The MSY Btrigger is 165 ('000 t) .

The underlying SSB/MSY Btrigger for this index is 97.7%.

As calculated for 2015 data.

The score is 7.3.

This measures the F as a percentage of the F management target.

The F is 0.385 (age-averaged). The F management target is 0.330 .

The underlying F/F management target for this index is 117%.

To see data for biomass, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for catch and tac, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for fishing mortality, please view this site on a desktop.
No data available for recruitment
No data available for recruitment
To see data for management quality, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for stock status, please view this site on a desktop.
DATA NOTES
North Sea, Eastern English Channel and Skagerrak

1) Advised TAC for 1991 is for Division IIIa and Division VIId and for 1992 is for Divisions VIId; since 2010 it includes Subarea IV (North Sea), Divisions VIId (Eastern Channel) and IIIa West (Skagerrak) (ICES, 2015a). For 2017 is recommended at 47,430 tonnes following the MSY approach until the re-evaluation of the management strategy according to changes in the stock assessment and reference points. The recommendation does include discards as the EU landing obligation is in place for the stock since January 2016 (ICES, 2015a; EU 2015/2440).
2) For score #3 calculation purposes, 2015 values are official landings i.e. do not include discards since the EU landing obligation was only applied since January 2016 (EU, 2015). The TAC is for divisions IV; Union waters of IIa; that part of IIIa not covered by the Skagerrak and Kattegat (COD/2A3AX4) and includes EU and Norwegian quotas (Council Regulation 2016/72). 
3) The Ftarget based on the MSY approach is set at 0.33 and Fadvised at low biomass at 0.2 is according to the EU–Norway management strategy (ICES, 2015a).

Download Source Data

Registered users can download the original data file for calculating the scores after logging in. If you wish, you can Register now.

Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

No related FIPs

Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

SELECT MSC

NAME

Scottish Fisheries Sustainable Accreditation Group (SFSAG) North Sea cod

STATUS

MSC Certified on 18 July 2017

SCORES

Principle Level Scores:

Principle Score
Principle 1 – Target Species 90.0
Principle 2 – Ecosystem 85.3
Principle 3 – Management System 95.0

Certification Type: Silver

Sources

Credits

EU, Norway, 2014. Agreed Record of Fisheries Consultations between the European Union and Norway for 2014. London, 12 March 2014. 36 pp.http://www.regjeringen.no/pages/38649625/2014_Bilateral_EU_No_March.pdf

Greenstreet, S. P. R., Fraser, H. M., Piet, G. J. 2009. Using MPAs to address regional-scale ecological objectives in the North Sea: modelling the effects of fishing effort displacement, ICES Journal of Marine Science, 66: 90–100http://icesjms.oxfordjournals.org/content/66/1/90.full

Hammond, P.S., Bearzi, G., Bjørge, A., Forney, K., Karczmarski, L., Kasuya, T., Perrin, W.F., Scott, M.D., Wang, J.Y., Wells, R.S., Wilson, B. 2008. Phocoena phocoena. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.1 [Accessed 16 July 2014]http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/17027/0

Hiddink, J. G., Jennings, S., Kaiser, M. J., Queirós, M. J., Duplisea, D. E., and Piet, G. J. 2006. Cumulative impacts of seabed trawl disturbance on benthic biomass, production, and species richness in different habitats. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 63: 721–736http://www.researchgate.net/publication/40107263_Cumulative_impacts_of_seabed_trawl_disturbance_on_benthic_biomass_production_and_species_richness_in_different_habitats?ev=prf_cit

Hutchinson, W. F., Carvalho, G. R., Rogers, S. I. 2001. Marked genetic structuring in localised spawning populations of cod Gadus morhua in the North Sea and adjoining waters, as revealed by microsatellites, Marine Ecology Progress Series 223: 251-260http://www.int-res.com/articles/meps/223/m223p251.pdf

ICES, 2006. Report of the Working Group on Ecosystem Effects of Fishing Activities (WGECO). 5-12 April 2006, ICES Headquarters, Copenhagen (ACE:05).http://www.ices.dk/products/CMdocs/2006/ACE/WGECO06.pdf

ICES, 2008. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee on Fishery Management, Advisory Committee on the Marine Environment and Advisory Committee on Ecosystems. Book 6: The North Sea. 6.1 Ecosystem overview.http://www.ices.dk/committe/acom/comwork/report/2008/2008/6.1-6.2%20North%20Sea%20ecosystem%20overview.pdf

ICES, 2010a. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee. Book 6: North Sea. 6.4.2 Cod in Subarea IV (North Sea) and Divisions VIId (Eastern Channel) and IIIa West (Skagerrak). Advice summary for 2011. 20 pp.http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2010/2010/cod-347.pdf

ICES, 2010b. Report of the Working Group on the Assessment of Demersal Stocks in the North Sea and Skagerrak (WGNSSK). 5-11 May 2010, ICES Headquarters, Copenhagen, (ICES CM 2010/ACOM:13).http://www.ices.dk/reports/ACOM/2010/WGNSSK/WGNSSK%202010.pdf

ICES. 2010b. Report of the Working Group on the Assessment of Demersal Stocks in the North Sea and Skagerrak (WGNSSK), 5 -11 May 2010, ICES Headquarters, Copenhagen. ICES CM 2010/ACOM:13. 1058 pp.http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Expert%20Group%20Report/acom/2010/WGNSSK/WGNSSK%202010.pdf

ICES, 2011a. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee. Book 6: North Sea. 6.4.2 Cod in Subarea IV (North Sea) and Divisions VIId (Eastern Channel) and IIIa West (Skagerrak). Advice summary for 2012. 18 pp.http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2011/2011/cod-347.pdf

ICES, 2011b. Report of the Working Group on the Assessment of Demersal Stocks in the North Sea and Skagerrak (WGNSSK), 4 - 10 May 2011, ICES Headquarters, Copenhagen. ICES CM 2011/ACOM:13. 1214 p.http://www.ices.dk/reports/ACOM/2011/WGNSSK/Sec%2014%20Cod.pdf

ICES, 2012a. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee. Book 6: North Sea. 6.4.2 Cod in Subarea IV (North Sea) and Divisions VIId (Eastern Channel) and IIIa West (Skagerrak). Advice summary for 2013. 19 pp.http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2012/2012/cod-347.pdf

ICES. 2012b. Report of the Working Group on the Assessment of Demersal Stocks in the North Sea and Skagerrak (WGNSSK), 27 April - 3 May 2012, ICES Headquarters, Copenhagen. ICES CM 2012/ACOM:13.1204 pp.http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Expert%20Group%20Report/acom/2012/WGNSSK/WGNSSK%202012.pdf

ICES, 2013a. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee. Book 6: North Sea. 6.4.3 Cod in Subarea IV (North Sea) and Divisions VIId (Eastern Channel) and IIIa West (Skagerrak). Advice summary for 2014. 20 pp.http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2013/2013/cod-347.pdf

ICES, 2013b. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee. Book 6: North Sea. 6.3.2 Mixed-fisheries advice for Subarea IV (North Sea) and Divisions IIIa North (Skagerrak) and VIId (Eastern Channel). Scenarios for 2014. 10 pp.http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2013/2013/mix-nsea.pdf

ICES, 2013c. Report of the Working Group on Bycatch of Protected Species (WGBYC), 4–8 February, Copenhagen, Denmark. ICES CM 2013/ACOM:27. 73 pp.http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Expert%20Group%20Report/acom/2013/WGBYC/wgbyc_2013.pdf

ICES, 2013d. Joint EU-Norway request on TAC setting options for cod in the North Sea and Skagerrak. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee. Book 6: North Sea. 6.3.5.5 Special request, Advice October 2013. 7 pp.http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2013/Special%20requests/EU-Norway%20TAC%20setting%20options%20for%20cod.pdf

ICES, 2014a. EU–Norway request to ICES on the 2014 TAC for cod in the North Sea. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee. Book 6: North Sea. 6.3.5.1 Special request, Advice February 2014. 2 pp.http://ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2014/Special%20Requests/EU_Norway_2014_TAC_%20for_NS_cod.pdf

ICES, 2014b. EU–Norway request to ICES on increasing the 2014 TAC for cod in the North Sea – Additional reply to part of the original request. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee. Book 6: North Sea. 6.3.5.2 Special request, Advice March 2014. 2 pp.http://ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2014/Special%20Requests/EU_Norway_2014_TAC_for_NS_cod_March.pdf

ICES, 2014c. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee. Book 6: North Sea. 6.3.3 Cod in Subarea IV (North Sea) and Divisions VIId (Eastern Channel) and IIIa West (Skagerrak). Advice summary for 2015, 19 pp.http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2014/2014/cod-347d.pdf

ICES. 2014d. Report of the Working Group for the Assessment of Demersal Stocks in the North Sea and Skagerrak (WGNSSK), 30 April–7 May 2014, ICES HQ, Copenhagen, Denmark. ICES CM 2014/ACOM:13. 1493 pphttp://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2013/2013/mult-NS.pdf

ICES, undated. ICES-Fish Map: Cod, Gadus morhua, 14 pp.http://www.ices.dk/explore-us/projects/EU-RFP/EU%20Repository/ICES%20FIshMap/ICES%20FishMap%20species%20factsheet-cod.pdf

IUCN, 2013. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.1. Downloaded on 17 July 2013.http://www.iucnredlist.org

Ministry of the Environment (MoE), 2009. Report No. 37 to the Storting (2008-2009): Integrated Management of the Marine Environment of the Norwegian Sea. http://www.regjeringen.no/en/dep/md/documents-and-publications/government-propositions-and-reports-/Reports-to-the-Storting-white-papers-2/2008-2009/report-no-37-2008-2009-to-the-storting.html?id=577875

Ministry of Fisheries and Coastal Affairs (MFCA), 2013. Press release No. 01/2013,18.01.13. Norway and the EU agree on fishing quotas for 2013.http://www.regjeringen.no/en/dep/fkd/press-centre/Press-releases/2013/norway-and-the-eu-agree-on-fishing-quota.html?id=712303

Neuenfeldt, S., Righton , D., Neat, F., Wright, P.J., Svedäng, H., Michalsen, K., Subbey, S., Steingrund, P., Thorsteinsson, V., Pampoulie, C., Andersen, K.H., Pedersen, M.W., Metcalfe, J. 2013. Analysing migrations of Atlantic cod Gadus morhua in the north-east Atlantic Ocean: then, now and the future. J Fish Biol. 82(3):741-63http://www.hafro.is/Bokasafn/Greinar/j_fish_biol_82-741.pdf

Nicolas, D., Rochette, S., Llope, M., Licandro, P. 2014. Spatio-Temporal Variability of the North Sea Cod Recruitment in Relation to Temperature and Zooplankton. PLoS ONE 9(2): e88447http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0088447

Official Norwegian Site (ONS), undated. Ecosystems & stocks, Marine stocks & species, Fish stocks, Cod (Gadus morhua) [Accessed 18 July 2014]http://www.fisheries.no/ecosystems-and-stocks/marine_stocks/fish_stocks/cod/#.U8j3xZRdUeg

Regulation (EC) No 1342/2008 of 18 December 2008, establishing a long-term plan for cod stocks and the fisheries exploiting those stocks and repealing Regulation (EC) No 423/2004.http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2008:348:0020:0033:EN:PDF

Regulation (EC) No 43/2009 of 16 January 2009, fixing for 2009 the fishing opportunities and associated conditions for certain fish stocks and groups of fish stocks, applicable in Community waters and, for Community vessels, in waters where catch limitations are required.http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2009:022:0001:0205:EN:PDF

Regulation (EU) No 40/2013 of 21 January 2013, fixing for 2013 the fishing opportunities available in EU waters and, to EU vessels, in certain non- EU waters for certain fish stocks and groups of fish stocks which are subject to international negotiations or agreements. Official Journal of the European Union 25.1.2013http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2013:023:0054:0153:EN:PDF

Regulation (EU) No 43/2014 of 20 January 2014 fixing for 2014 the fishing opportunities for certain fish stocks and groups of fish stocks, applicable in Union waters and, to Union vessels, in certain non-Union waters.http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/ALL/?uri=CELEX:32014R0043

Regulation (EU) No 44/2012 of 17 January 2012, fixing for 2012 the fishing opportunities available in EU waters and, to EU vessels, in certain non- EU waters for certain fish stocks and groups of fish stocks which are subject to international negotiations or agreements.http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2012:025:0055:0147:EN:PDF

Regulation (EU) No 57/2011 of 18 January 2011 fixing for 2011 the fishing opportunities for certain fish stocks and groups of fish stocks, applicable in EU waters and, for EU vessels, in certain non-EU waters.http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2011:024:0001:0125:EN:PDF

Thompson, D. and Härkönen, T. (IUCN SSC Pinniped Specialist Group) 2008. Halichoerus grypus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.1 [Accessed 16 July 2014]http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/9660/0

References

    Comments

    This tab will disappear in 5 seconds.

    Comments on:

    Atlantic cod - North Sea, North Sea, Eastern English Channel and Skagerrak, European Union, United Kingdom, Bottom trawls

    comments powered by Disqus