Summary

IDENTIFICATION

SCIENTIFIC NAME

Penaeus setiferus

SPECIES NAME(S)

Northern white shrimp

Considering samples from North Carolina (USA) to Campeche (Mexico) there is some evidence of genetic separation of a population of northern white shrimp on NW Atlantic (U.S. Atlantic coast) from a population in the Gulf of Mexico (Ball & Chapman, 2003). US stocks are assessed at federal level and management measures can be defined at federal and/or stadual levels: Northern Gulf of Mexico and NW Atlantic. A distinct assessment unit exists in Campeche Bank (Ramos-Miranda et al., 2009).

RELATED LINKS:


ANALYSIS

Strengths

Once an overcapitalized fishery, shrimp fishing effort in the US Gulf of Mexico has considerably declined since the early 2000s. Current fishing mortality estimates are far below the overfishing limit; spawning biomass is at high levels and well above the limit that defines an overfished condition. Measures to reduce the bycatch of juvenile red snapper led to the mandated use of better performing bycatch reduction devices (BRDs) in federal waters. NOAA has implemented a fleet-wide turtle excluder device (TED) performance standards that requires an 88% TED effectiveness rate, which is monitored through tri-annual reviews of inspection records. The US shrimp fleet has improved TED compliance, meeting this performance standard during every 4-month monitoring period since mid-2014. In addition, Louisiana has repealed the law specifically banning state law enforcement officers from enforcing federal turtle excluder device regulations.

Weaknesses

The current observer coverage in the fishery is not sufficient to adequately quantify and characterize bycatch across the entire fishery. Even with better performing bycatch reduction devices in place, there are 2.5 pounds discards for every 1 pound of harvested shrimp (a vast improvement from the baseline, but still high). There are limited data on the benthic impacts of shrimp trawling in the Gulf of Mexico (though most of the trawling does take place over resilient muddy and sandy bottoms).

SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

≥ 8

Managers Compliance:

≥ 8

Fishers Compliance:

≥ 8

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

≥ 8

Future Health:

≥ 8


RECOMMENDATIONS

RETAILERS & SUPPLY CHAIN
  • Contact the NOAA Observer Program and ask them to perform an evaluation of the Gulf of Mexico shrimp observer program to determine statistically robust coverage levels.
  • Minimize bycatch by keeping gear well tuned and have turtle excluder devices (TEDs) and bycatch reduction devices (BRDs) inspected by a qualified expert at least one a year. Document these inspections to record compliance with BRD and TED regulations.

FIPS

  • Gulf of Mexico shrimp:

    Stage 4, Progress Rating B

CERTIFICATIONS

No related MSC fisheries

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

ASSESSMENT UNIT MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
Northern Gulf of Mexico Alabama United States Pushed skimmer nets
Small mesh bottom trawls
Florida United States Small mesh bottom trawls
Louisiana United States Pushed butterfly nets
Pushed skimmer nets
Small mesh bottom trawls
Mississippi United States Pushed butterfly nets
Pushed skimmer nets
Small mesh bottom trawls
Texas United States Small mesh bottom trawls

Analysis

OVERVIEW

Last updated on 22 November 2014

Strengths

Once an overcapitalized fishery, shrimp fishing effort in the US Gulf of Mexico has considerably declined since the early 2000s. Current fishing mortality estimates are far below the overfishing limit; spawning biomass is at high levels and well above the limit that defines an overfished condition. Measures to reduce the bycatch of juvenile red snapper led to the mandated use of better performing bycatch reduction devices (BRDs) in federal waters. NOAA has implemented a fleet-wide turtle excluder device (TED) performance standards that requires an 88% TED effectiveness rate, which is monitored through tri-annual reviews of inspection records. The US shrimp fleet has improved TED compliance, meeting this performance standard during every 4-month monitoring period since mid-2014. In addition, Louisiana has repealed the law specifically banning state law enforcement officers from enforcing federal turtle excluder device regulations.

Weaknesses

The current observer coverage in the fishery is not sufficient to adequately quantify and characterize bycatch across the entire fishery. Even with better performing bycatch reduction devices in place, there are 2.5 pounds discards for every 1 pound of harvested shrimp (a vast improvement from the baseline, but still high). There are limited data on the benthic impacts of shrimp trawling in the Gulf of Mexico (though most of the trawling does take place over resilient muddy and sandy bottoms).

RECOMMENDATIONS
Florida
United States
Small mesh bottom trawls

Last updated on 7 February 2017

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain
  • Contact the NOAA Observer Program and ask them to perform an evaluation of the Gulf of Mexico shrimp observer program to determine statistically robust coverage levels.
  • Minimize bycatch by keeping gear well tuned and have turtle excluder devices (TEDs) and bycatch reduction devices (BRDs) inspected by a qualified expert at least one a year. Document these inspections to record compliance with BRD and TED regulations.

1.STOCK STATUS

Stock Assessment

Last updated on 12 December 2012

The condition of each shrimp stock is monitored annually. A new assessment model, Stock Synthesis (SS-3), was used to assess the Northern white shrimp in 2011. This model is now considered the most appropriate choice for modeling gulf shrimp (Hart and Nance, 2012), and incorporates commercial fishing data (from 1984-2011) with fishery independent surveys (SEAMAP and Louisiana State Shrimp Surveys), deemed to greatly improving the precision of estimates (Hart, 2012).

Unlike previous assessments, where stock reproductive capacity and exploitation status (overfishing index) was estimated in terms of the number of surviving parents, output data is now generated in terms of spawning stock biomass and fishing mortality estimates (F) (Hart, 2012; Hart and Nance, 2012).

Scientific Advice

Last updated on 12 December 2012

In the past, NMFS scientists used to define overfishing for brown, pink, and white shrimp in the Gulf of Mexico in terms of spawning population size (parent stock size). However, with the recent revision of the assessment methodology, which presents outputs in terms of spawning stock biomass (SSB) and fishing mortality (F), there is a need to update the definitions of overfishing and overfished, so the comparison between the new model outputs (i.e. SSB and F) with these definitions is possible and the stock status effectively assessed. New definitions of overfishing and overfished in terms of F and SSB, respectively, have thus been recently proposed (Hart and Nance, 2012), but are yet to have been formally adopted.

Reference Points

Last updated on 22 November 2014

Proposed Amendment 15 to the Fishery Management Plan (see “Managers’ Decisions” section above) includes possible changes to stock status determination criteria. The potential new reference points in Amendment 15, “Overfishing” and “Overfished” thresholds, have been under discussion since 2011, and would bring fishery reference points in line with outputs of the newest stock assessments.

Amendment 15 presents the Council with three alternative approaches to setting these reference points (including not making any changes), and designates one of the three options as "preferred.’ For defining overfishing, the preferred method defines the maximum fishing mortality threshold (MFMT) as the maximum apical fishing mortality rate (F) computed for the fishing years 1984 to 2012 plus the 95% confidence limits. Species specific MFMT values will be recomputed during updated assessments, but only among the years 1984-2012. The values for each species will be updated every 5 years.

As for the preferred method of defining overfished status, the minimum sustainable stock threshold (MSST) is defined as the minimum total annual spawning biomass minus the 95% confidence limit for the fishing years 1984 to 2012. Species specific MSST values will be recomputed during the updated assessments, but only among the fishing years 1984-2012. The values for each species will be updated every 5 years.

Proposed (preferred) MFMT for Gulf of Mexico white shrimp: 0.77
Proposed (preferred) MSST for Gulf of Mexico white shrimp: 125,229 metric tons of tails (GMFMC, 2014).

Current Status

Last updated on 27 March 2013

The stock of white shrimp is healthy. Spawning stock biomass has been increasing since the early 2000s, and was estimated at c. 460,000 tonnes in 2011, well above the proposed overfished level (110,000 tonnes). Fishing mortality has been decreasing and currently is far below the overfishing limit (Hart, 2012; Hart and Nance, 2012).

Trends

Last updated on 13 December 2012

After a period of more than 15 years with fluctuations in the spawning stock biomass (SSB) around the 150,000 tonnes, SSB has been steadily increasing since 2003 and is currently much above the overfished limit. Fishing mortality (F) has been showing a decreasing trend in the past decade, with latest F (2011) being estimated at 0.22. Despite the large fluctuations, overall landings of white shrimp appear to be decreasing since 2006 (Hart, 2012; Hart and Nance, 2012).

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

Managers' Decisions

Last updated on 14 November 2014

White, brown, and pink shrimp species in the Gulf of Mexico are managed by the Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council under a federal Fishery Management Plan (FMP) that went into effect in 1981 (GMFMC, 1981). Further, the FMP is amended nearly annually with new controls to limit catch, access and bycatch. Effort is the primary control for the management of this fishery. Individual states also regulate shrimp harvest within their own state waters (3 nautical miles offshore in AL, LA, and MS, and 9 miles offshore of TX and FL).

Proposed Amendment 15 to the FMP (GMFMC, 2014) is under consideration as of November 2014 (the Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council will vote on the measure after the public comment period ends). In addition to changing stock status determination criteria, the Amendment also defines the response to possible overfishing (if the fishing mortality rate exceeds the maximum threshold in two consecutive years, appropriate committees or panels are convened to review the situation, and may recommend fishing pressure reductions if excess fishing is determined to be a contributing factor).

Florida

Last updated on

Specific regulations are in place for shrimping in Florida state waters (≤ 9 nautical miles): e.g. closed seasons, bag and size limits, fishing gear restrictions and requirements, use of TEDs and BRDs (FFWCC, 2011).

Recovery Plans

Last updated on 12 December 2012

Not applicable.

Compliance

Last updated on 21 November 2014

In order to acquire a federal commercial shrimp permit, Gulf shrimp fishermen must complete and submit a Gear Characterization form and report annual landings of shrimp and value by species. Permit holders must also participate in NMFS-sponsored electronic logbook reporting if selected.

Fishermen’s compliance with TED regulations is not currently a concern. In 2012, data emerged that suggested compliance with TEDs was lower than expected and the capture rate of sea turtles was higher than expected (NOAA, 2012b). In light of this information NOAA issued a TED performance standard that requires an 88% TED effectiveness rate (TEDs must be installed in compliance with regulations such that 88% of sea turtles encountered by the shrimp fleet can escape the nets) (NOAA, 2013). To monitor compliance NOAA reviews inspection records tri-annually (four month periods) to estimate compliance and effectiveness rates. If the TED effectiveness rate falls below 88% but remains at or above 84%, there will be an enforcement pulse and an increase in outreach to shrimpers to ensure their TEDs are properly installed. If TED effectiveness falls below 84% for two consecutive periods, there will be a minimum of 30-day shrimp fishery closure in the respective area, during which an enforcement pulse and increased outreach will help shrimpers to rectify the problems in TED installation (NOAA, 2016). When this system was first implemented, TED effectiveness consistently fell below the 88% threshold, and sometimes fell below the 84% threshold (NOAA, 2014). But since mid-2014 TED effectiveness per period has consistently remained above the 88% threshold (NOAA, 2016).

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

ETP Species

Last updated on 22 November 2014

The shrimp fishery is known to interact with several PET species, but the major concerns are over sea turtles (GMFMC, 2007). Turtle excluder devices (TEDs) have been required on shrimp otter trawls since 1990 and mandatory use of TEDs in both federal waters and some state waters has greatly reduced mortality (GMFMC, 2007). For skimmer trawls, pusher-head trawls (a type of push net) and wing nets (butterfly nets), the federal government provides an exemption to turtle excluder (TED) requirements. Vessels using these gears may employ alternative tow time restrictions in lieu of TEDs. The alternative tow time restrictions currently limit tow times to 55 minutes from April 1 through October 31, and 75 minutes from November 1 through March 31 (Statute §50 CFR 223.206 (d)(2)(i)).

Kemp’s ridley sea turtle population is rebuilding. Other populations are showing signs of increases but no definitive rebuilding is occurring yet (NOAA, 2012b).

The 2014 Endangered Species Act Section 7 Consultation and Biological Opinion found that continued operation of southeastern shrimp fishery under current regulations is not expected to cause appreciable reduction in the likelihood of survival and recovery of sea turtles, Atlantic sturgeon or smalltooth sawfish (NOAA, 2014).

Other Target and Bycatch Species

Last updated on 5 December 2014

Federal fishery managers require mandatory observer coverage to monitor bycatch and sea turtle interactions. Observer coverage is low, at only about 2% of effort, but does generate information on the species and quantities of bycatch in the shrimp fishery.

To address bycatch the use of bycatch reduction devices (BRDs) has been required since 1998. Posteriorly, managers de-certified the use of several BRDs as part of the red snapper rebuilding plan (GMFMC, 2007) and required the use of BRDs that reduce finfish bycatch by at least 30%. However, in state waters only two Gulf states (Florida and Texas) require the use of BRDs (GMFMC, 2007).

Although not a main bycatch species, bycatch of juvenile red snapper in shrimp trawls (which accounts for less than 0.5% of total catch in the shrimp fishery) in the western Gulf of Mexico was found to be a key factor in the decline of this commercially valuable species (GMFMC, 2007). The Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council (GMFMC) established regulations to address the red snapper bycatch by the shrimp trawl fishery. The GMFMC believes that to end overfishing and rebuild the red snapper stock, large reductions in bycatch mortality from the shrimp fishery need to be achieved either through technological means such as Bycatch Reduction Devices (BRDs) and through a reduction in effort by the shrimp fishery. Electronic logbook data show that shrimp effort has decline (likely due to economic pressures) beyond the reduction target, thus no forced reductions in effort have been required.

In July 2014, a bycatch status study commissioned by the Florida Pink shrimp FIP, Texas Shrimp FIP, and Sustainable Fisheries Partnership was completed.This study used federal fishery observer data, the long-term fishery independent survey dataset of SEAMAP, biological information on the bycatch species, and shrimp fishery effort data to identify the main bycatch species of the Gulf of Mexico shrimp fishery, evaluate their status, and determine whether or not there is a correlation between shrimp fishery effort and the status of the byatch populations.The study showed that the only main bycatch species or species groups (comprising 5% or more of the catch by weight) in the Gulf of Mexico shrimp fishery are Atlantic croaker, longspine porgy, sea trouts, and inshore lizardfish. SEAMAP abundance data indicate that all of these populations are either stable or increasing, and comparison of the abundance data with shrimp fishery effort data suggest that only Atlantic croaker and sea trout population abundance appear to be correlated with shrimping effort.Both populations appear to have been increasing since shrimp effort decline in the early 2000s, and have demonstrated high resilience.While further studies, especially full-fledged stock assessments, on these populations would be helpful, this study indicates that the shrimp fishery does not pose a risk of serious or irreversible harm to the bycatch species or species groups (LGL, 2014).

Habitat

Last updated on 12 December 2012

Benthic impacts of shrimp trawling in the Gulf of Mexico are not expected to be significant as most trawling is conducted over muddy and sandy bottoms, and valuable coral areas are closed to trawling (GMFMC, 2012). However, some studies also point out that the frequency and intensity of trawling in the Gulf is high and leads to more severe impacts on the bottom, despite the resiliency of the habitat. NRC identified Gulf as one of the most intensively trawled areas in the US.

Marine Reserves

Last updated on 12 December 2012

Sixteen marine reserves have been established within the jurisdiction of the Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council for various purposes and different fisheries. None relate directly to white shrimp concerns although two have shrimp conservation purposes. A cooperative Tortugas Shrimp Sanctuary is included as a reserve with the state of Florida to permanently close a shrimp nursery ground in the Florida Keys to the use of trawls and harvest or possession of shrimp. The Texas Closure of a nursery ground off Texas is cooperatively closed by the Gulf Council and the state of Texas for 45 to 60 days out to either 15 or 200 miles (GMFMC, 2006).

Other environmental sites of special interest relevant to penaeid shrimp and red snapper in the Gulf of Mexico include the seasonal closure of federal and state inshore waters to shrimping in Southwest Florida from November 1 through May 20 to protect juvenile stone crab and prevent loss of stone crab traps in trawls, over 4,051 square nautical miles; and the Central Florida shrimp/stone crab Separation Zones, which require closure of state and federal waters to either shrimping or crabbing from October 5 to May 203. Several small marine reserves exist to protect soft coral areas (GMFMC, 2006).

FishSource Scores

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

As calculated for 2016 data.

The score is ≥ 8.

A Gulf of Mexico fishery management plan for shrimp has been in effect since 1981. The plan includes provisions to protect habitat and small shrimp, monitor the annual catch, and optimize the yield from the fishery. The Gulf Council has not set actions that will be taken if the biomass falls below the Overfished Level, instead they have limited effort below historical levels (GMFMC, 2007). Specific regulations are in place for shrimping in Florida state waters (≤ 9 nautical miles): e.g. closed seasons, bag and size limits, fishing gear restrictions and requirements, use of TEDs and BRDs (FFWCC, 2011).

As calculated for 2016 data.

The score is ≥ 8.

The fishery is not managed through harvest quotas because population size is highly variable and based on environmental conditions. Instead fishing effort is limited at or below the level recommended by scientists (GMFMC, 2007).

As calculated for 2016 data.

The score is ≥ 8.

Fisher compliance with TED regulations has improved and the fleet-wide TED effectiveness rates are within the thresholds required by law (NOAA, 2016). No other compliance issues are known.

STOCK HEALTH:

As calculated for 2013 data.

The score is ≥ 8.

Spawning Stock Biomass (SSB) of white shrimp has been increasing since 2004. The estimated SSB for 2010 (460,000 tonnes) is well above the proposed overfished level (110,000 tonnes) (Hart, 2012; Hart and Nance, 2012).

As calculated for 2013 data.

The score is ≥ 8.

Annual stock assessments use fishery dependent and independent data to monitor stock health and fishing pressure. Currently, the spawning stock biomass is much larger than the overfished level and fishing pressure is far below the overfishing limit (Hart and Nance, 2012). Several regulations have been implemented to protect the stock from overfishing such as minimum legal sizes, closed seasons and closed areas to protect spawning and nursery grounds (GMFMC, 2007).

HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSE RISK

High Medium Low

This indicates the potential risk of human rights abuses within this fishery.

No data available for recruitment
Data notes
  1. Lack of TACs and target reference points prevents the calculation of numerical scores; partial qualitative scores have been attributed instead.
  2. White shrimp landings data refer to all the Gulf states, and assumed to include catches from both federal and state waters; data obtained from NOAA, 2012a.
  3. Fishing mortality (F) values in the scores data sheet are apical F, and are presented as average F from offshore and inshore fishing fleets (Hart, 2012).

Florida

Last updated on

  1. White shrimp landings data are for the Florida state only (Gulf waters), and assumed to include catches from both federal and state waters; data obtained from NOAA, 2012a.

Download Source Data

Registered users can download the original data file for calculating the scores after logging in. If you wish, you can Register now.

Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

SELECT FIP

Access FIP Public Report

Progress Rating: B
Evaluation Start Date: 3 Jun 2014
Type: Fip

Comments:

FIP rating remains at B,  last stage 4 achievement within 12 months. 

1.
FIP Development
Jun 14
2.
FIP Launch
Jun 14
May 14
3.
FIP Implementation
Sep 16
4.
Improvements in Fishing Practices and Fishery Management
Dec 16
5.
Improvements on the Water
Verifiable improvement on the water
6.
MSC certification (optional)
MSC certificate made public

Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

No related MSC certifications

Sources

Credits

Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council (GMFMC), 1981. Fishery Management Plan for the shrimp fishery of the Gulf of Mexico, United States waters. GMFMC. Tampa, Florida. 246 pp.
ftp://ftp.gulfcouncil.org/Web_Archive/Shrimp/SHRIMP%20FMP%20Final%20Nov81.pdf

Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council (GMFMC), 2006. Options Paper – Amendment 15 to the Shrimp Fishery Management Plan (including Environmental Impact Statement and Regulatory Impact Review). GMFMC, NOAA. 49 pp. http://www.gulfcouncil.org/beta/gmfmcweb/downloads/Shrimp%20Amend%2015%20Options%200506.pdf

Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council (GMFMC), 2007. Amendment 27 to the Reef Fishery Management Plan and Amendment 14 to the Shrimp Fishery Management Plan. GMFMC, NOAA. 480 pp. http://www.gulfcouncil.org/Beta/GMFMCWeb/downloads/Final%20RF%20Amend%2027-%20Shrimp%20Amend%2014.pdf

Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council (GMFMC), 2012. Generic Management Amendments. GMFMC Website. [Assessed on 11 December 2012]. http://www.gulfcouncil.org/fishery_management_plans/generic_management_amendments.php

Gulf of Mexico Fisheries Management Council (GMFMC), 2014. Amendment 15 to the Fishery Management Plan for the Shrimp Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico, U.S. Waters Public Hearing Draft. http://www.gulfcouncil.org/docs/amendments/Shrimp%20Amendment%2015.pdf

Hart, R.A. 2012. Stock Assessment of White Shrimp (Litopenaeus setiferus) in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico for 2011. September 2012. NOAA Fisheries. Southeast Fisheries Science Center. 41 pp. White_Shrimp_Stock_Assessment_2012.pdf

Hart, R.A. and Nance, J.M. 2012. Review of the Status and Health of the Gulf of Mexico Shrimp Stocks for 2011. September 2012. NOAA Fisheries. Southeast Fisheries Science Center. 12 pp. D_-_4_Status_and_Health_of_the_Gulf_of_Mexico_Shrimp_Stocks.pdf

LGL Ecological Research Associates, 2014. Descriptive Assessment of the Most Finfish Species in the US Gulf of Mexico Penaid Shrimp Fishery Bycatch. https://drive.google.com/a/sustainablefish.org/file/d/0B-yvNu3ojn4ZRmF1NEVWNnBMZzQ/view?pli=1

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Website, 2012a. Annual Commercial Landing Statistics. http://www.st.nmfs.noaa.gov/st1/commercial/landings/annual_landings.html

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), 2012b. Reinitiation of Endangered Species Act (ESA) Section 7 Consultation on the Continued Implementation of the Sea Turtle Conservation Regulations, as Proposed to Be Amended, and the Continued Authorization of the Southeast US Shrimp Fisheries in Federal Waters under the Magnuson-Stevens Act. NOAA, NMFS, SERO. 302 pp. http://sero.nmfs.noaa.gov/protected_resources/section_7/freq_biop/documents/fisheries_bo/southeastshrimpbiop_final.pdf

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), 2013. Fishermen Are Reminded of the Importance of Complying With All TED Regulations Under New Fleet-wide TED Performance Standard for Shrimp Otter Trawls. Southeast Fishery Bulletin. [Accessed 26 April 2013]. http://sero.nmfs.noaa.gov/fishery_bulletins/documents/pdfs/2013/fb13-011_otter_trawl_regs.pdf

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), 2014. Reinitiation of Endangered Species Act (ESA) Section 7 Consultation on the Continued Implementation of the Sea Turtle Conservation Regulations under the ESA and the Continued Authorization of the Southeast US Shrimp Fisheries in Federal Waters under the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Management and Conservation Act. Consultation No. SER-201 3-12255. NOAA, NMFS, SERO. 345 pp. http://sero.nmfs.noaa.gov/protected_resources/sea_turtles/documents/shrimp_biological_opinion_2014.pdf

Ponwith, B., 2012. “Southeast Fisheries Science Center’s Analysis on Skimmer Trawl Observer Data”. Memo to Roy Crabtree, Regional Administrator, Southeast Regional Office, NOAA Fisheries. 24 September, 2012. 16 pp. http://sero.nmfs.noaa.gov/pr/endangered%20species/Shrimp%20Fishery/SkimmerTrawlMemo.pdf

Scott-Denton, E., P. F. Cryer, M. R. Duffy, J. P. Gocke, M. R. Harrelson, D. L. Kinsella, J. M. Nance, J. R. Pulver, R. C. Smith, and J. A. Williams. 2012. Characterization of the U.S. Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic penaeid and rock shrimp fisheries based on observer data. Marine Fisheries Review 74(4): 1-26. http://spo.nmfs.noaa.gov/mfr744/mfr744.html

Statute §50 CFR 223.206 (d)(2)(i). Exceptions to prohibitions relating to sea turtles. http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2008-title50-vol7/xml/CFR-2008-title50-vol7-part223-subpartB.xml

References

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