Last updated on 27 September 2016

SUMMARY

SUMMARY

IDENTIFICATION

SCIENTIFIC NAME(s)

Melanogrammus aeglefinus

SPECIES NAME(s)

Haddock

Genetic studies indicated a significant differentiation of Iceland Haddock stock (Giӕver and Forthun, 1999; ICES, 2014c).

Since 2014, all Iceland landings of Haddock are within the Marine Stewarsdship Council (MSC) certificate scope (Daníelsson and Medley, 2014). 


ANALYSIS

Strengths

A precautionary management plan was adopted in 2013. The estimated spawning stock (SSB) has slightly increased from last year, after a decreasing trend since 2008 and the 2014 year class is estimated to be strong. Harvest rate is below the target level. Discarding is illegal and has been minor since 2001 and bycatch of non-commercial species is minimal. Permanent and temporary area closures to protect vulnerable benthic ecosystems are in place. Since the 2013/2014 fishing season, set TAC has been following the harvest control rule and scientific advice. All Iceland landings of haddock are within the Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) and Iceland Responsible fisheries certificates scope.

Weaknesses

The stock is predicted to decrease over the next two years, due to poor recruitment in recent years. There is some uncertainty on the state of stock in assessment based on data input from surveys and in prediction of growth and therefore in the short and medium term forecasts. Sharks and skates are taken as bycatch but catch rates are incomplete and the status of stocks is unknown.

A harvest strategy has not yet been implemented, although it is expected to be in late 2012. There is some uncertainty in prediction of growth and therefore in the short and medium term forecasts. Growth is to some degree density dependent but is predicted to improve with reduced stock in coming years (ICES, 2011b). Reports from fishermen in 2009 indicate that the low cod quota makes fishing haddock without a large cod bycatch very difficult. This could indicate that haddock quotas in Icelandic waters are too high (ICES, 2011b). The stock is at risk of being harvested unsustainably as F has been generally above Fpa. Discarding is not included in the assessment and this could influence recruitment estimates.

FISHSOURCE SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

≥ 8

Managers Compliance:

10

Fishers Compliance:

9.6

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

≥ 6

Future Health:

8.6


RECOMMENDATIONS

CATCHERS & REGULATORS

1. Obtain more information on the fishery’s impact on sharks and skates to improve understanding of bycatch rates and stock statuses.
2. Ensure implementation of a benthic protected area network that is representative of all habitat types and provides adequate protection to the most vulnerable marine ecosystems.

RETAILERS & SUPPLY CHAIN

1. Contact the Icelandic Marine Research Institute to a) express support for the policy of the Icelandic government to protect vulnerable marine ecosystems (cold-water corals and hydrothermal vents), from significant adverse impact from bottom contacting gear and b) request regular public update on the policy’s real time application and progress in establishing a representative benthic protected area network and c) obtain more information on the fishery’s impact on sharks and skates to improve understanding of bycatch rates and stock statuses.


FIPS

No related FIPs

CERTIFICATIONS

  • Samherji Icelandic cod & haddock trawl & longline:

    Withdrawn

  • ISF Iceland haddock:

    MSC Certified

  • Atlantic cod and haddock longline, handline and Danish seine:

    Withdrawn

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

ASSESSMENT UNIT MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
Icelandic Icelandic Iceland Bottom trawls
Danish seines
Gillnets and entangling nets
Handlines hand operated
Longlines
Midwater trawls
Seine nets
Single boat bottom otter trawls

Analysis

OVERVIEW

Last updated on 20 August 2012

Strengths

A precautionary management plan was adopted in 2013. The estimated spawning stock (SSB) has slightly increased from last year, after a decreasing trend since 2008 and the 2014 year class is estimated to be strong. Harvest rate is below the target level. Discarding is illegal and has been minor since 2001 and bycatch of non-commercial species is minimal. Permanent and temporary area closures to protect vulnerable benthic ecosystems are in place. Since the 2013/2014 fishing season, set TAC has been following the harvest control rule and scientific advice. All Iceland landings of haddock are within the Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) and Iceland Responsible fisheries certificates scope.

Weaknesses

The stock is predicted to decrease over the next two years, due to poor recruitment in recent years. There is some uncertainty on the state of stock in assessment based on data input from surveys and in prediction of growth and therefore in the short and medium term forecasts. Sharks and skates are taken as bycatch but catch rates are incomplete and the status of stocks is unknown.

Icelandic
Iceland
Longlines

Last updated on 20 August 2012

A harvest strategy has not yet been implemented, although it is expected to be in late 2012. There is some uncertainty in prediction of growth and therefore in the short and medium term forecasts. Growth is to some degree density dependent but is predicted to improve with reduced stock in coming years (ICES, 2011b). Reports from fishermen in 2009 indicate that the low cod quota makes fishing haddock without a large cod bycatch very difficult. This could indicate that haddock quotas in Icelandic waters are too high (ICES, 2011b). The stock is at risk of being harvested unsustainably as F has been generally above Fpa. Discarding is not included in the assessment and this could influence recruitment estimates.

RECOMMENDATIONS

Last updated on 31 August 2016

Improvement Recommendations to Catchers & Regulators

1. Obtain more information on the fishery’s impact on sharks and skates to improve understanding of bycatch rates and stock statuses.
2. Ensure implementation of a benthic protected area network that is representative of all habitat types and provides adequate protection to the most vulnerable marine ecosystems.

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain

1. Contact the Icelandic Marine Research Institute to a) express support for the policy of the Icelandic government to protect vulnerable marine ecosystems (cold-water corals and hydrothermal vents), from significant adverse impact from bottom contacting gear and b) request regular public update on the policy’s real time application and progress in establishing a representative benthic protected area network and c) obtain more information on the fishery’s impact on sharks and skates to improve understanding of bycatch rates and stock statuses.

1.STOCK STATUS

STOCK ASSESSMENT

Last updated on 7 January 2016

Icelandic haddock is mostly found on the Icelandic continental shelf and younger ages (0-group and juveniles) are detected in East Greenland waters (ICES, 2012a); recently, a large part of the fishable stock has also been found off the north coast due to changing seawater temperatures (ICES, 2012b; 2015b).

The assessment of Icelandic haddock has since 2007 been conducted with an Adapt type model with input data based on landings-at-age and two survey indices (Icelandic spring and autumn groundfish surveys) (ICES, 2015b). Growth in the assessment year was based on the average of the growth of 2013 and 2014 to reduce the effect of interannual variability observed. Currently growth rate is 6% higher than the average in 1985–2012.

Discards in 2014 were estimated to be less than 1% (MRI, 2015a); they are considered negligible and are not included in the assessment (ICES, 2015a)For assessment and advisory purpose the natural mortality is set to 0.2 for all age groups (ICES, 2013b), although there is indications of increased natural mortality after age 6, which will be investigated further (ICES, 2015b).

The assessment is considered to be very consistent. The main uncertainty in the assessment relates to the differences between the assessments based on each of the two surveys, with the final assessment tuned with both surveys data, fitting in between (ICES, 2015a; MRI, 2015a). The current assessment shows some upward revision of the stock compared to last year assessment, mostly caused by more growth than predicted The stock is predicted to decrease in next two years, as incoming year classes are small, until the strong 2014 year-class recruits to the stock. CPUE data, not used directly in the assessment support that the stock might be larger (ICES, 2015b).

SCIENTIFIC ADVICE

Last updated on 8 January 2016

A management plan was adopted in April, 2013 and considered to be precautionary by the ICES and in conformity with the MSY approach (Björnsson, 2013; ICES, 2013c). According to the Harvest Control Rule (HCR) in the management plan, TAC for the next fishing year is 40% of the estimated reference biomass (45 cm and larger haddock) in the beginning of the next calendar year. Harvest rate will be reduced below 40% if the spawning stock is estimated to be below Blim (45,000 tons) (ICES, 2015a).

ICES advised on the basis of the management plan that catches in the fishing year 2015/2016 should be no more than 36,400 tons. All catches are assumed to be landed (ICES, 2015a).

Reference Points

Last updated on 08 Jan 2016

The Icelandic Fisheries authorities formally adopted in April 2013 a management plan for the Icelandic haddock stock for the next period of 5 fishing years, starting from the 2013/14, including a harvest control rule (HCR). ICES has evaluated the current biological precautionary reference points and considers that Blim = 45,000 tons is appropriate. In 2013, Btriggerwas defined at the same level. According to the HCR, this means that the harvest rate will be reduced when the spawning stock is estimated lower than Btrigger (ICES, 2014a; MRI, 2014).

ICES recommended that a precautionary harvest rate HRpa = 0.46 and the harvest ratio giving maximum yield (HMSY) was estimated as0.52.However, the Harvest ratio target for the Management plan is 0.40. ICES concludes that the harvest control rule for Icelandic haddock in the request is precautionary and in accordance with the ICES MSY approach (ICES, 2013c; ICES, 2014a).

No target biomass reference point has been defined (ICES, 2015a).

CURRENT STATUS

Last updated on 8 January 2016

Age 3+ haddock at the beginning of 2015 are estimated at 112,000 tons (reference stock biomass) and the reproductive biomass (SSB) is estimated at 78,000 tons (MRI, 2015a), showing an increase of 8% from last year estimate, after a decreasing trend since 2008.

Growth of haddock is considered density dependent. The stock was large in 2003–2009 and growth was very slow. Since 2009 the stock size has decreased and growth gradually improved. In 2013 and 2014 growth is estimated to be above the average of the last 30 years, which caused mean weight at age in 2015 to be higher than expected and an upward revision of the stock status in the current assessment compared to last year’s assessment (ICES, 2015b).

The 2014 year class is estimated to be strong, after 6 consecutive weak year classes from 2008-2013. Spawning biomass (SSB) and catch are predicted to decrease over the next two years when the average year classes (2004–2007) disappear from the stock and are replaced by the small (2008–2013) year classes. An increase is expected within two years, when the 2014 year-class recruits to the stock (ICES, 2015b).

The harvest rate of haddock in last assessment is estimated at 35%, lower than the target level defined in the management plan (MRI, 2015a). Landings by Icelandic fleets in the fishing season 2012/2013 were 40,000 tons 18% below the previous fishing year, while landings in 2013/2014 were 39,000 tons, similar to the previous season (MRI, 2015a).

Trends

Last updated on 08 Jan 2016

During the early sixties haddock landings reached around 100,000 tons (ICES, 2007). Following this phase and up to 2003 annual landings did not exceed 70,000 tons. From 2004 a steady increase in landings occurred, peaking at 110,000 tons in 2007, the largest catches in over 40 years. Landings have been falling since then and are now below the historical average. The percentage of catch caught with each different gear is not stable over time and catches by longline and Danish seine have increased recently, whereas gillnet and bottom trawl catches have decreased (ICES, 2012a; 2015a).

Spawning Stock Biomass (SSB) reached 141,600 tons in 1981, then decreased to just below 46,300 tons in 1987 and reached 110,700 tons in 1990. The stock remained mostly around 60,000 and 90,000 tons during the 1990s but a rapid recovery was observed from 2001 due to several strong year classes (ICES, 2011a), with a historical high of around 182,000 tons attained in 2004. A generally decreasing trend has followed as the stronger year classes were replaced by average ones, and SSB was estimated at 78,000 tons in 2015. SSB has though decreased more than the reference biomass (45 cm and larger haddock) as proportion mature by age/size has been decreasing (ICES, 2015b).

Fishing mortality (F) trends are inversely related to SSB changes. F levels have generally been above Fpa of 0.47 (and consequently above the revised 2009 Fpa value of 0.35) apart the beginning of the 1980s and the three-year interval previous to the 2004 SSB peak. Since 2012, F is below Fpa and harvest rate is below the adopted Htarget (0.4) (ICES, 2015a).

Recruitment is highly variable, characterized by occasional strong year classes followed by a series of weaker years. It was high in the period 1998–2003, with five strong year classes, of which the 2003 year class was very strong. The 2008–2013 year classes are all estimated to be weak while the 2014 year class is estimated to be strong (ICES, 2015a).

Landing figures from the early 1960s support the observation that the stock can become very large in warm periods. The groundfish surveys show that the proportion of the haddock stock inhabiting the waters north of Iceland has increased from 2000 to 2006 and has remained high since then (ICES, 2013a; 2015b). Spatial distribution of the landings does not change very much from year to year but catches from the area north of Iceland have increased gradually over the last 10-15 years (ICES, 2014b; 2015b).

The low fishing pressure in recent years has slowed the decline of the stock despite poor recruitment (MRI, 2015a). The reference stock is expected to decrease in the next two years until the 2007 cohort leaves the stock, after which the stock should increase again when the 2014 cohort joins it (MRI, 2015a).

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

MANAGEMENT

Last updated on 8 January 2016

Until 1991, the management of the stock is relative to calendar years, and since then is for fishing years, starting on 1st September and ending on 31st August (MRI, 2015a).

A management plan was adopted by the Icelandic government in April 2013 (ICES, 2013a). The fishery is currently TAC-regulated by the Ministry of Fisheries, with the TAC for 2015/2016 set at 36,400 tons based on the approved HRC (IRF, 2015). For the 2012/2013 fishing season the TAC was set at 36,000 tons, 12.5% higher than the advised value for that year. TAC has been set at the same level as advised by ICES since the 2013/2014 fishing season. The management plan calls for a substantial reduction in fishing effort compared to the last 30 years (ICES, 2013a), which is being met (ICES, 2015a).

Additional regulations include minimum mesh size limits, a landing size of 45 cm, mandatory use of trawl grids in certain areas and real-time closures to protect concentrations of juveniles if more than 25% of the catch is below the landing size (ICES, 2012b, 2012a, 2013a). The effects of these measures have not yet been analyzed (ICES, 2014a). Since 2000 log-books are obligatory for all vessels fishing in Icelandic waters, to record location, catch and other variables for each tow/setting (ICES, 2012a). Discarding is illegal; landings need to be weighed and identified under the realm of the Directorate of Fisheries (IMFA, 2012b; ICES, 2011b). With exception forhalibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus), that should be returned live to the sea. The new regulation specifies how vessels of various categories (e.g. longliners, trawlers) must treat the catch to ensure it is released with minimal harm (Chaudhury and Lockwood, 2013).

Recovery Plans

Last updated on 08 Jan 2016

The Government of Iceland has adopted in 2013 a management plan for the Icelandic Haddock stock. The management plan implies substantial reduction in fishing effort compared to the last 30 years. ICES has evaluated the plan and it is considered to be precautionary and in conformity with the MSY approach (ICES, 2014a). Harvest rate has been decreasing and is estimated to be currently below Htarget, set at 0.4 (ICES, 2015a).

Icelandic
Iceland

The only condition defined by the Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)was to support the development of a harvest strategy and associated management measures. By the first annual surveillance audit, MRI have completed their work on developing a long-term management plan and harvesting strategy for Icelandic haddock. This condition was then closed (Chaudhury and Lockwood, 2013). Recommendations comprise data collection, collaboration with MRI (stock status and trends, habitat mapping program) and registration of bycatch, PET species and biogenic reefs (DNV, 2012). Icelandic Group (IG) have shown positive intent with respect to the recommendations (Chaudhury and Lockwood, 2013).

COMPLIANCE

Last updated on 7 January 2016

In 2014, total landings were 34,000 tons (39,600 tons in the fishing season), with 39% taken by bottom trawl, 49% by longlines, 11% by Danish seine, and 1% by other gear (ICES, 2015a).

In recent years ICES-calculated catches have generally slightly exceeded the set TAC; in 2012/2013 catches overpassed TAC by 10% and in 2013/2014 by 2.5% (ICES, 2015a).

Discards are illegal in Icelandic waters (ICES, 2013b). Discarding was an issue from 1994-1997, estimated at 40% of landings (by number) and is observed to be a larger problem in years when the biomass is small and recruiting classes are large and also when recruits are found within the main fishing areas (ICES, 2010b). But since 2001 discard estimates for haddock have been ranging between 0.04% and 4.4% by weight (ICES, 2014a) due to reduced spatial overlap between fisheries and recruits and in recent years also due to very low number of recruits (ICES, 2014b). Discards were estimated to be less than 1% in the period 2011–2014 (MRI, 2015a). Discards are not included in the assessment (ICES, 2014a,b; 2015a,b) and this can influence recruitment estimates (ICES, 2012a).

Unaccounted mortality of juvenile haddock is a potential issue, particularly when the distribution of recruits and the fisheries overlaps and is worsened when larger haddock are rare and Fishing mortality is high. An increased proportion of haddock has been caught by longliners in recent years, which may affect this hidden mortality (ICES, 2012a).

The Icelandic Haddock Fishery was certified by the Marine Stewardship Council system in April 2012. This unit of certification comprises the Iceland EEZ and different gear types like Demersal trawl, Long-line, Danish Seine net, Gill net, Hook and line by small vessels, Gears from other Icelandic fisheries also landing haddock (indirectly) (IRF, 2011; DNV, 2012). In 2014, the pelagic trawl fleet joined the MSC certification which resulted in all Iceland landings of haddock are within the Marine Stewarsdship Council certification program (Vottunarstofan Tún, 2014a). Additionally, since 2013 the haddock fishery is also certified by the Iceland Responsible Fisheries.

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

BYCATCH
ETP Species

Last updated on 8 January 2016

The seabird community in Icelandic waters is composed of relatively few but abundant species, accounting for roughly ¼ of total number and biomass of seabirds within the ICES area. Most seabirds feed on small fish, like capelin (Mallotus villosus) in north Icelandic waters and sandeels (Ammodytidae) in south Icelandic waters. In this context, they are in direct competition with cod and haddock and may be disadvantaged in the presence of a high cod and haddock stock biomass (DNV, 2012). At least 12 species of cetaceans occur regularly in Icelandic waters, and an additional 10 species have been recorded more sporadically (ICES, 2011b). Of the commonly recorded cetacean species, Blue whale Balaenoptera musculus, Sei whale Balaenoptera borealis and Fin whale Balaenoptera physalus are Endangered (2008 IUCN Red List), and the Sperm whale Physeter macrocephalus is Vulnerable (2008 IUCN Red List) (IUCN, 2012). Icelandic-registered fishing vessels are encouraged to record marine mammal bycatch in the e-logbook (DNV, 2012).

Other PET species include Greenland, porbeagle, basking, blue and thresher sharks, blue fin tuna, leatherback turtle, sharp nosed skate and grey or common skate Dipturus batis (DNV, 2012), which is listed as critically endangered (IUCN, 2012). Within the MSC certification framework, it was recommended to establish management measures to ensure the fishery does not hinder common skate populations rebuilding (Vottunarstofan Tún., 2014b) and MRI began a re-evaluation of possible impacts of the fishery on skates’ populations (Vottunarstofan Tún., 2015).

Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus) is within a rebuilding plan in Iceland since 2012 (Regulation 470/2012), which requires live Atlantic halibut to be returned to the sea (Vottunarstofan Tún., 2014b). Landings dropped to 36–45 tons in 2012–2014, compared to 555 tons in 2011, however biomass indices from the groundfish survey indicate that currently the stock is severely depleted. MRI recommended that the management policy from 2012 remain until significant recovery of the stock is observed (MRI, 2015b).

Cold water corals Lophelia pertusa are in the OSPAR List of Threatened and/or Declining Species and Habitats and protected by closure areas (Gunnarsson et al., 2011; DNV., 2012). Iceland declared five additional protected areas in 2014 where all trawling is banned with the objective of protecting sites with high densities of cold water corals (Vottunarstofan Tún., 2015).

Interactions with and impacts on Protected, Endangered and Threatened (PET) species by the fishery are very unlikely, apart from a small risk of seabird entanglement (DNV, 2012). Data is collected by an MRI observer program.

Other Species

Last updated on 8 January 2016

This species is caught in directed fisheries, as well as in mixed demersal fisheries. There are differences between the different gears used in the main retained species (cod, haddock, saithe, golden redfish, Atlantic wolfish, lumpfish, etc), i.e. species contributing more than 5% to the total demersal catch by gear (Chaudhury and Lockwood, 2013).However, fishermen can have a relatively good control of the relative catch composition of the different species (ICES, 2014b). Catches of retained species are recorded in exactly the same manner as target species and quantities are set against vessel quota for the species and the national TAC (DNV, 2012). Discarding of commercial species is not allowed in Iceland waters. Discarding of non-commercial species is permitted but such species are small fishes so the likelihood of being retained by demersal fishing gear is very small as the meshes are too large . The number of fishes taken as bycatch will be extremely small and the potential effect on their respective populations infinitesimally small relative to their widespread distributions throughout the North Atlantic (Chaudhury and Lockwood, 2013). There is some catch of Blue skates in the longline and Danish seine fisheries, but in a small portion.

Atlantic wolffish (Anarhichas lupus) biomass index is above average but recruitment indices are at historically low levels. Within the MSC certification framework, it was recommended to establish management measures to ensure the fishery does not hinder recovery and rebuilding of population (Vottunarstofan Tún., 2014). MRI recommended a continued closure of the major spawning area off West Iceland during the spawning and incubation season in autumn and winter (MRI, 2015c).

HABITAT

Last updated on 8 January 2016

In Iceland, the effects of otter trawling have been investigated and the results suggested that only a few species were affected by trawling (MRI, 2011). Cold water corals, areas with aggregation of large sponge, maerl beds are identified as vulnerable habitats by MRI regarding the bottom trawl fishery; other fishing gears do not interact with the seabed (Gunnarsson et al., 2011; IMR, 2011).Numerous areas off Icelandic waters are closed temporarily or permanently to all fisheries to protect juveniles and benthic habitats (ICES, 2012a), including the hard-coral (Lophelia pertusa)(DNV, 2012).

However, in recent years there has been an increased effort on mapping the distribution of benthic communities and habitats vulnerable to trawling (MRI, 2011; Lockwood et al., 2012). Important and vulnerable ecosystems such as cold-water coral (CWC) reefs, with the predominance of Lophelia pertusa, occur mainly in the southern Icelandic coast (Hall-Spencer and Stehfest, 2009). Implemented in 2009, the electronic logbook system helps to monitor the interaction of the fishery (based on the fishing effort) with CWC (Burgos and Ragnarsson, 2012). The BIOICE program has been in operation since 1992 with the aim of producing a basic inventory of benthic fauna within Icelandic territorial waters. Following a scientific mapping, 14 coral areas with Lophelia pertusa have been closed for all fisheries using bottom contact gear. The vulnerable habitats identified by OSPAR overlap with fisheries to some extent, but also all have some depth refuge from fisheries impacts in Icelandic waters (Gascoine et al., 2014; Vottunarstofan Tún., 2014).

Marine Reserves

Last updated on 08 Jan 2016

Several areas off Icelandic waters are closed temporarily or permanently to all fisheries, presumably to protect not only juvenile fish stocks, but also other species groups and benthic habitats (ICES, 2011a; Lockwood et al., 2012). 14 coral areas of Lophelia pertusa have been closed to fisheries with bottom contact (Burgos and Ragnarsson, 2012; Vottunarstofan Tún., 2014).In addition, a quick-response (real-time) closure system has been in force since 1976, aimed at protecting juvenile fish. Fishing is prohibited for at least two weeks in areas where the number of small fish in the catches has been observed by inspectors to exceed threshold percentages (25% or more of <55 cm cod and saithe, 25% or more of <45 cm haddock and 20% or more of <33 cm redfish) (DNV, 2012). Preliminary results indicate that relatively small areas closed for a short time do not contribute for the protection of juveniles. On the other hand, several consecutive quick closures often lead to closures of larger areas for a longer time and force the fleet to operate in other areas. The effect of these longer closures has not been evaluated. Spawning areas have been closed during the spawning season for all fisheries, from 1995, for 2-3 weeks, to protect the spawning stock (ICES, 2013a).

Seven designated Nature Reserves, established from 1974 to 1988, and one Conservation Area, designated in 1995, exist along the Icelandic coast and off Surtsey Island totaling 3,507 km2 (Wood, 2007). Iceland has 39 marine protected areas (in accordance with the OSPAR definition), including 11 relative large areas and 16 offshore areas, which are closed year-round or seasonally or have restricted access for fisheries management purposes (detailed information in Hoyt, 2005).

FishSource Scores

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

As calculated for 2015 data.

The score is ≥ 8.

A management plan was adopted by the Icelandic government in April 2013 and considered to be precautionary by ICES and in conformity with the MSY approach (ICES, 2013c). Additional management measures as minimum mesh and landing size limits, mandatory use of trawl grids in certain areas and real-time closures are in place.

As calculated for 2016 data.

The score is 10.0.

This measures the Set TAC as a percentage of the Advised TAC.

The Set TAC is 36.4 ('000 t). The Advised TAC is 36.4 ('000 t) .

The underlying Set TAC/Advised TAC for this index is 100%.

As calculated for 2014 data.

The score is 9.6.

This measures the Landings as a percentage of the Set TAC.

The Landings is 39.0 ('000 t). The Set TAC is 38.0 ('000 t) .

The underlying Landings/Set TAC for this index is 103%.

STOCK HEALTH:

As calculated for 2015 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

The spawning stock biomass (SSB) estimate for 2015 has slightly increased after a sharp decrease from 2007 to 2014 (ICES, 2015a). The stock is considered in full reproductive capacity (above Blim, also used as Btrigger). However, even estimated at 74% above Blim, 2015 SSB is 22% below historical average.

As calculated for 2014 data.

The score is 8.6.

This measures the Harvest rate as a percentage of the Target harvest rate U.

The Harvest rate is 0.344 (Y/SSB). The Target harvest rate U is 0.400 .

The underlying Harvest rate/Target harvest rate U for this index is 86.0%.

To see data for biomass, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for catch and tac, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for fishing mortality, please view this site on a desktop.
No data available for recruitment
No data available for recruitment
To see data for management quality, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for stock status, please view this site on a desktop.
DATA NOTES

1) A management plan was adopted by the Icelandic government in April 2013 and considered to be precautionary by the ICES and in conformity with the MSY approach.
2) Harvest rate (H = landings/reference stock biomass) is used as proxy of fishing mortality.
3) In the lack of reference points, scores 1 and 4 have been determined qualitatively, from available information (please mouse-over scores for details).
4) Advised TAC, Set TAC and Landings refer to the fishing year (from September 1 to August 31 next year). In the datasheet, for example, 2013 data regard to the 2012/2013 fishing season.
5) Catch data in the datasheet refer to the national landings; discards are considered negligible (ICES, 2015a).

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Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

No related FIPs

Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

SELECT MSC

NAME

Samherji Icelandic cod & haddock trawl & longline

STATUS

Withdrawn on 27 September 2012

SCORES

“The fishery client is withdrawing from the full assessment process and will instead join an existing MSC certificate through a certificate sharing mechanism”.

Certification Type:

Sources

Credits
  1. Bjordal, Å., 2002. The use of technical measures in responsible fisheries: regulation of fishing gear. In: Cochrane, K.L. (ed.), 2002. A fishery manager’s guidebook. Management measures and their application. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper no. 424. Rome, FAO. ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/004/y3427e/y3427e00.pdf
  2. Björnsson, H. 2013. Report of the evaluation of the Icelandic haddock management plan, ICES CM 2013/ACOM:59. 47pphttp://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Expert%20Group%20Report/acom/2013/ADHOC/IntroAndHad.pdf
  3. Burgos, J. and Ragnarsson, S.A. 2012. Examining interactions between fisheries and coral areas in Icelandic waters using fishing effort estimates at high spatial resolution, THEME C - Monitoring tools for deep-water fisheries and ecosystems. In: Ecosystem based management and monitoring in the deep Mediterranean & N. Atlantic Symposium, Galway, August 28‐31, 2012, 77 pphttp://www.conference.ie/content/EcoDeepSea_final.pdf
  4. Chaudhury, S., Lockwood, S. 2013. Marine Stewardship Council Fishery 1st Surveillance Audit report for ISF Icelandic haddock fishery. Det Norske Veritas AS (DNV), June 2013. 31 pp http://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/fisheries-in-the-program/certified/north-east-atlantic/isf_icelandic_haddock/assessment-downloads-1/20130704_SR_HAD232.pdf
  5. Daníelsson; A., Medley, P., 2014. Surveillance Visit – Report for the ISF Icelandic Haddock Fishery – 2nd Annual On-Site Surveillance Report. Vottunarstofan Tún ehf., June 2014. 24pphttp://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/fisheries-in-the-program/certified/north-east-atlantic/isf_icelandic_haddock/assessment-downloads-1/20140623_SR_HAD232.pdf
  6. Det Norske Veritas (DNV), 2012. MSC Fishery Assessment Report Final Report for: Icelandic Group PLC. Icelandic Haddock Fishery.http://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/certified/north-east-atlantic/igp_icelandic_haddock/assessment-downloads-1/20120427_PCR.pdf
  7. Directory of Fisheries, 2010. Total Allowable Catch (TAC) of species within the Icelandic EEZ.http://en.fiskistofa.is/
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