Last updated on 3 November 2016

SUMMARY

SUMMARY

IDENTIFICATION

SCIENTIFIC NAME(s)

Sebastes mentella

SPECIES NAME(s)

Beaked redfish

The Workshop on Redfish Stock Structure (ICES, 2009a) reviewed the stock structure of Sebastes mentella in the Irminger Sea and adjacent waters. Based on the outcome of the WKREDS meeting, ICES concluded that there are three biological stocks of S. mentella:

  • a “Deep Pelagic” stock (NAFO Areas 1–2, ICES Subareas V, XII, and XIV >500 m) – primarily pelagic habitats, including demersal habitats west of the Faroe Islands;
  • a “Shallow Pelagic” stock (NAFO Areas 1–2, ICES Subareas V, XII, and XIV < 500 m) – extending to ICES Subareas I and II, but primarily pelagic habitats, including demersal habitats east of the Faroe Islands;
  • an “Icelandic slope” stock (ICES Division Va and Subarea XIV) – primarily demersal habitats.

ANALYSIS

Strengths

The stock structure appears to have been ascertained. The impacts the fishery has on the habitat and other species in the region are regarded as negligible. A multiannual interim set of management measures to gradually decrease catches has been agreed in 2011 by some of the NEAFC contracting parties.

Weaknesses

Stock size is thought to be very low. No analytical assessment is conducted due to short time series of survey data and insufficient data from commercial catches. Reporting of landings is patchy and considered problematic. There is still no formal agreement by all nations on a management plan and TAC allocation scheme. Russia has objected the recommendation of management measures for 2011-2014.

Options

A management/recovery plan which accounts for uncertainties and the unique properties of the fishery should be developed and effectively implemented. Additional countries should participate in the survey efforts to improve the availability of fishery-independent information and improved effort in the reporting of landings is needed.

FISHSOURCE SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

< 6

Managers Compliance:

< 6

Fishers Compliance:

< 6

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

< 6

Future Health:

< 6


FIPS

No related FIPs

CERTIFICATIONS

No related MSC fisheries

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

ASSESSMENT UNIT MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
Irminger Sea shallow pelagic NEAFC and NAFO Regulatory Areas Denmark Midwater trawls
Faroe Islands Midwater trawls
Iceland Midwater trawls
Lithuania Midwater trawls
Norway Midwater trawls
Portugal Midwater trawls
Russian Federation Midwater trawls

Analysis

OVERVIEW

Last updated on 28 October 2013

Strengths

The stock structure appears to have been ascertained. The impacts the fishery has on the habitat and other species in the region are regarded as negligible. A multiannual interim set of management measures to gradually decrease catches has been agreed in 2011 by some of the NEAFC contracting parties.

Weaknesses

Stock size is thought to be very low. No analytical assessment is conducted due to short time series of survey data and insufficient data from commercial catches. Reporting of landings is patchy and considered problematic. There is still no formal agreement by all nations on a management plan and TAC allocation scheme. Russia has objected the recommendation of management measures for 2011-2014.

Options

A management/recovery plan which accounts for uncertainties and the unique properties of the fishery should be developed and effectively implemented. Additional countries should participate in the survey efforts to improve the availability of fishery-independent information and improved effort in the reporting of landings is needed.

1.STOCK STATUS

STOCK ASSESSMENT

Last updated on 24 October 2013

No analytical assessment is conducted, but survey and catch and effort data are collected, and biological sampling is conducted. The assessment of stock status is qualitative and based primarily on acoustic and trawling survey data (ICES, 2009b, 2013a,b).

Catch data raises problems as reporting by several countries is problematic (ICES, 2011b). Survey data also raises problems: acoustic surveys are limited by depth and coverage; and the data series in the trawl surveys is relatively short and surveys only conducted every second year. No dependable recruitment indices exist yet (ICES, 2009b, 2013a,b).

SCIENTIFIC ADVICE

Last updated on 24 October 2013

In the absence of quantitative information, as in previous years ICES advised that the directed fishery should be closed for 2014 and by-catch be reduced as far as possible. A lack of management agreement over TAC allocations (namely the unilateral quotas set by the Russian Government) have resulted in catches exceeding ICES advice and presenting an increased risk of over-exploitation (ICES, 2013a). ICES have thus advised that a recovery plan which takes into account the uncertainties in the data and the properties of the fishery should be developed and formally implemented (ICES, 2013a).

Technical measures protecting juvenile fish such as sorting grids in shrimp fisheries are advised to be maintained (ICES, 2013a).

Reference Points

Last updated on 24 Oct 2013

No reference points could be defined due to data uncertainties and the lack of an analytical assessment (ICES, 2013a,b).

CURRENT STATUS

Last updated on 24 October 2013

There are no biological reference points defined. According to ICES’ latest qualitative evaluation, the stock biomass is “stable at very low levels”. Latest biomass index estimates suggest that stock size “has declined to less than 5% of the estimates at the beginning of the survey time-series in the early 1990s”. The exploitation rates are not known (ICES, 2013a).

Trends

Last updated on 24 Oct 2013

What was initially a slope fishery for redfish expanded to the pelagic distribution of the species in the Irminger Sea in 1982, with initial landings reaching 60,600 t (ICES, 2009d). A peak of 105,000 t in 1986 had decreased to 27,000 t in 1991 due to a reduction in effort (ICES, 2008a). The last peak in landings was observed in 2003 (56,700 t), but they have been dropping ever since, and stabilized around 2,500 from 2008 (except in 2011) (ICES, 2013a). However, landings are most likely underestimated however, due to incomplete reporting (ICES, 2013b).

Stock status cannot be quantitatively evaluated, but available indices suggest that stock size has dropped sharply during 90s and has remained at very low levels since then (ICES, 2013a).

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

MANAGEMENT

Last updated on 24 October 2013

The redfish pelagic fishery in the Irminger sea is managed by the North East Atlantic Fisheries Commission (NEAFC). No formal management plan has been develop or implemented yet (ICEs, 2013a). In 2011, a multiannual interim set of management measures was agreed by Northeast Atlantic Fisheries Commission (NEAFC) contracting parties. For 2011, and according to ICES advice, NEAFC agreed that there should be no fishery in this management area. Fisheries for 2012 to 2014 would depend upon the development of a recovery plan and from future scientific advice (NEAFC, 2011a,b).

Russian Federation has however objected this set of management measures for 2011-2014 (NEAFC, 2011b), and decided on unilateral quotas for both shallow and deep pelagic stocks. Despite ICES advice of “no directed fishery” a Russian unilateral quota for 2013 was set at 27,000 t (ICES, 2013a). According to ICES, the inability of the current management system in restraining catches increases the risk of over-exploitation (ICES, 2013a).

Recovery Plans

Last updated on 24 Oct 2013

No recovery plan has been adopted or formally implemented, but ICES has continuously advised that such a plan be developed (ICES, 2009b, 2011a, 2013a).

COMPLIANCE

Last updated on 24 October 2013

Satellite vessel detection studies have provided estimates indicating that reported effort may account for only 80% of total effort (ICES, 2009c). Misreporting of catches continues to be a problem in the fishery (ICES, 2013b). According to available data, discarding is not thought to be significant (ICES, 2013b).

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

BYCATCH
ETP Species

Last updated on 24 October 2013

A number of species of sharks and skates are known to be taken in the Icelandic fisheries, but information on catches is incomplete, and the status of these species is not known (ICES, 2009c).

Overwintering seabirds are an important part of the west Greenland ecosystem. The effects of fishing are unknown but harvesting of seabirds is a current problem and a management regime is being developed (ICES, 2008b). There are fewer species of seabirds in Iceland but they are abundant and none is listed on IUCN’s Red List (IUCN, 2010; IMFA, undated 1).

Marine mammal species diversity is broad, reflecting the region’s Atlantic and Arctic proximities (ICES, 2008b). Of these, hooded seals and sperm whales are considered on the Red List to be vulnerable and fin whales and sei whales to be endangered (IUCN, 2010), although other reports consider fin whales, which are commercially taken by Iceland, to be increasing in the East Greenland-Iceland area for the past 20 years and to be close to “pre-exploitation abundance” (ICES, 2008b; NAMMCO, 2003). Both belugas and narwhals, which occur in the more northerly parts of west Greenland, are considered to be ‘near threatened’ (IUCN, 2010). Additionally killer whales, long-finned pilot whales, northern bottlenose whales and walruses are present but their stock status are unknown (IUCN, 2010).

The leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea), a Red List critically endangered species, has been reported in Icelandic waters but there are no records of fishing bycatch (IMFA, undated 2).

Other Species

Last updated on 24 October 2013

The pelagic redfish fishery is thought to have an insignificant effect on other fish and invertebrate species due to low by-catch and discard rates (ICES, 2009c, 2013b).

Juvenile redfish was an important bycatch species in the shrimp fisheries off Greenland and Iceland and was behind the introduction of sorting grids as a mandatory measure (ICES, 2009c).

HABITAT

Last updated on 24 October 2013

A southwestern shift in the pelagic redfish fishery has been observed since 1996, related to environmental changes (ICES, 2009d) as an overall warming of the Irminger Sea has been registered (ICES, 2009c). This pelagic redfish fishery is considered to have a negligible impact on the ecosystem (ICES, 2009c, 2011b, 2013a).

Marine Reserves

Last updated on 24 Oct 2013

Iceland operates a number of area closures: a quick closure system prohibits fishing for two weeks if juveniles exceed a set percentage of catches (in the case of redfish, over 20% of fish under 33 cm); temporary or permanent closures protect juveniles; and closures of spawning grounds of cod, plaice and wolfish are also enforced (ICES, 2009c; IMFA, undated 3).

Eight Marine Protected Areas have been designated around Iceland (Wood, 2007), of which it is known that dragged fishing gear is forbidden in Surtsey, traditional fishing practices are permitted in Hornstrandir and Búðahraun and no fishing restrictions operate in Breiðafjörður (EAI, 2002; Wood, 2007). Off the northwest coast of Iceland, fishing with Danish seines, bottom and pelagic trawl is not allowed within the 12 nm line from the coast. Off the remaining coast bottom trawling is only permitted within the 12 nm line for smaller vessels (some restrictions still apply) (IMFA, undated 3).

Greenland National Park covers a broad marine portion (111,000 km2) but regulations covering fishing are not known (Wood, 2007). Area closures are also employed (ICES, 2008b).

FishSource Scores

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

As calculated for 2012 data.

The score is < 6.

Although a multi-annual interim set of management measures has been agreed in 2011 by almost all NEAFC contracting parties (except for Russia) (NEAFC, 2011a,b), a formal agreement by all nations on a management plan and TAC allocation scheme is still lacking (ICES, 2013a,b). The inability of the current management system in controlling catches increases the risk of over-exploitation (ICES, 2013a).

As calculated for 2012 data.

The score is < 6.

There is still a lack of agreement on the management and TAC allocation scheme. Despite ICES advice on “no-directed fishery” on the past years, the Russian Federation has objected the set of management measures for 2011-2014 proposed by the NEAFC (NEAFC, 2011a,b), and decided on unilateral quotas for both shallow and deep pelagic stocks. The Russian unilateral quota for 2013 was 27,000 t (ICES, 2013a).

As calculated for 2012 data.

The score is < 6.

Misreporting of catches is considered a problem in this fishery (ICES, 2013b).Misreporting of catches is flagged as a problem (ICES, 2011a).

STOCK HEALTH:

As calculated for 2012 data.

The score is < 6.

There are no biological reference points defined. According to ICES latest qualitative evaluation, the stock biomass is “stable at very low levels” (ICES, 2013a).

As calculated for 2012 data.

The score is < 6.

Although exploitation rates are unknown, the current status of the stock and inability of the current management system in controlling catches increases the risk of over-exploitation (ICES, 2013a).

No data available for biomass
No data available for biomass
To see data for catch and tac, please view this site on a desktop.
No data available for fishing mortality
No data available for fishing mortality
No data available for recruitment
No data available for recruitment
To see data for management quality, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for stock status, please view this site on a desktop.
DATA NOTES

1) set TAC and advised TAC up to 2009 apply to both shallow and deep stocks; but catches refer to the shallow stock only (ICES, 2013a).

2) As the summed TACs have generally greatly exceeded advised TAC levels, catches have not come close to the TACs even when considering both shallow and deep stocks and estimated unreported catches, and fishers’ compliance is assigned a perfect score in spite of the occurrence of unreported fishing.

3) Spawning stock biomass and fishing mortality are not determined so neither target nor reference points are set and the precaution of the management strategy and the present and future health of the fish stock cannot be quantitatively scored. Qualitative scores have thus been attributed to scores 4 and 5.

4) No formal agreement has been reached on the set TACs for 2011-2014. Despite NEAFC multi-party recommendation of no fishery until further ICES advice, the Russian Federation has objected this agreement and issued unilateral quotas (NEAFC, 2011b).

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Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

No related FIPs

Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

No related MSC certifications

Sources

Credits
  1. EAI, 2002. National Parks: Protected areas. The Environmental Agency of Iceland.http://english.ust.is/National-Parks/Protectedareas/
  2. EC, 2011. Council Regulation (EC) No 683/2011 of 17 June 2011, amending Regulation (EU) No 57/2011 as regards fishing opportunities for certain fish stocks.http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2011:187:0001:0019:EN:PDF
  3. ICES, 2007. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee on Fishery Management, Advisory Committee on the Marine Environment and Advisory Committee on Ecosystems, 2007. ICES Advice. Book 2. 101 pp.http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/ICES%20Advice/2007/ICES%20ADVICE%202007%20Book%202.pdf
  4. ICES, 2008a. Report of the North‐Western Working Group (NWWG), 21 ‐ 29 April 2008, ICES Headquarters, Copenhagen. ICES CM 2008 /ACOM:03. 604 pp.http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Expert%20Group%20Report/acom/2008/NWWG/NWWG08.pdf
  5. ICES, 2008b. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee, 2008. ICES Advice, 2008. Book 2. 109 pp.http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/ICES%20Advice/2008/ICES%20ADVICE%202008%20Book%202.pdf
  6. ICES, 2009a. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee, Book 2: Iceland and East Greenland. 2.4.6 Introduction to the redfish complex in Subareas V, VI, XII, and XIV. 13 pp.http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2009/2009/smn-intro.pdf
  7. ICES, 2009b.Report of the ICES Advisory Committee, Book 2: Iceland and East Greenland. 2.4.9 Beaked Redfish (Sebastes mentella) in Subareas V, XII, XIV and NAFO Subareas 1+2 (Shallow Pelagic stock < 500 m). 8 pp.http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2009/2009/smn-sp.pdf
  8. ICES, 2009c. Report of the North Western Working Group (NWWG), 29 April - 5 May 2009, ICES Headquarters, Copenhagen. Diane Lindemann. 655 pp.http://www.ices.dk/publications/library/Pages/default.aspx
  9. ICES, 2009d. Report of the Workshop on Redfish Stock Structure (WKREDS), 22-23 January 2009, ICES Headquarters, Copenhagen (ICES CM 2009/ACOM:37). 71 pp.http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Expert%20Group%20Report/acom/2009/WKREDS/WKREDS09.pdf
  10. ICES, 2010a. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee, Book 2: Iceland and East Greenland 2.4.9 Ecoregion: Iceland and East Greenland; Stock: Beaked redfish (/i>Sebastes mentella) in Subareas V, XII, and XIV and NAFO Subareas 1+2 (Shallow pelagic stock < 500 m). Advice summary for 2011, 9 pp.http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2010/2010/smn-sp.pdf
  11. ICES, 2010b. Report of the North-Western Working Group (NWWG), 27 April - 4 May 2010, ICES Headquarters, Copenhagen. ICES CM 2010/ACOM:07. 751 pp.http://www.ices.dk/publications/library/Pages/default.aspx
  12. ICES, 2011a. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee, Book 2: Iceland and East Greenland 2.4.9 Ecoregion: Iceland and East Greenland; Stock: Beaked redfish (/i>Sebastes mentella) in Subareas V, XII, and XIV and NAFO Subareas 1+2 (Shallow pelagic stock < 500 m). Advice summary for 2012, 10 pp.http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2011/2011/smn-sp.pdf
  13. ICES, 2011b. Report of the North Western Working Group (NWWG), 26 April - 3 May 2011, ICES Headquarters, Copenhagen. ICES CM 2011/ACOM:7. 975 pp.http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Expert%20Group%20Report/acom/2011/NWWG/NWWG%20Report%202011.pdf
  14. ICES, 2012a. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee, Book 2: Iceland and East Greenland 2.4.9 Ecoregion: Iceland and East Greenland; Stock: Beaked redfish (/i>Sebastes mentella) in Subareas V, XII, and XIV and NAFO Subareas 1+2 (Shallow pelagic stock < 500 m). Advice summary for 2013, 9 pp.http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2012/2012/smn-sp.pdf
  15. ICES, 2012b. Report of the North-Western Working Group (NWWG), 26 April - 3 May 2012, ICES Headquarters, Copenhagen. ICES CM 2012/ACOM:07. 1425 pp.http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Expert%20Group%20Report/acom/2012/NWWG/NWWG%20Report%20%202012.pdf
  16. ICES, 2013a. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee, Book 2: Iceland and East Greenland 2.4.10 Ecoregion: Iceland and East Greenland; Stock: Beaked redfish (/i>Sebastes mentella) in Subareas V, XII, and XIV and NAFO Subareas 1+2 (Shallow pelagic stock < 500 m). Advice summary for 2014, 9 pp.http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2013/2013/smn-sp.pdf
  17. ICES, 2013b. Report of the North Western Working Group (NWWG), 25 April - 02 May 2013, ICES Headquarters, Copenhagen. ICES CM 2013/ACOM:07. 1538 pp.http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Expert%20Group%20Report/acom/2013/NWWG/NWWG%202013.pdf
  18. IMFA, undated 1. Seabirds. Icelandic Ministry of Fisheries and Agriculture (IMFA) Website. last accessed on 23 October 2013.http://www.fisheries.is/ecosystem/marine-life/seabirds/
  19. IMFA, undated 2. Marine Mammals. Icelandic Ministry of Fisheries and Agriculture (IMFA) Website. last accessed on 23 October 2013http://www.fisheries.is/main-species/marine-mammals/
  20. IMFA, undated 3. Management of the Icelandic Redfish Fisheries: Area Closures. Icelandic Ministry of Fisheries and Agriculture (IMFA) Website. last accessed on 23 October 2013.http://www.fisheries.is/management/fisheries-management/area-closures/
  21. IUCN, 2013. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.1. Downloaded on 17 July 2013.http://www.iucnredlist.org/
  22. NAMMCO, 2003. Study of Marine Mammals in the North Atlantic: the Fin Whale.http://www.nammco.no/webcronize/images/Nammco/651.pdf
  23. NEAFC, 2010. Recommendation by the North-East Atlantic Fisheries Commission in accordance with articles 5 and 6 of the Convention on Future Multilateral Cooperation in North-East Atlantic Fisheries at its annual meeting in November 2009 for conservation and management measures for deep and shallow pelagic redfish in the Irminger Sea and adjacent waters in the NEAFC convention area in 2010.http://www.neafc.org/system/files/%252Fhome/neafc/drupal2_files/rec2_redfish_irminger.pdf
  24. NEAFC, 2011a. Multi-annual Interim Conservation and Management Measures for Deep and Shallow Pelagic Redfish in the Irminger Sea and Adjacent waters to apply from 2011 - 2014 in the NEAFC Convention Area. 6pp. http://www.neafc.org/system/files/postalvote_redfish_Irmingersea_april2011.pdf
  25. NEAFC, 2011b. Recommendation Adopted by Postal Vote May 29th 2011: Interim Management Measures for Deep and Shallow Pelagic Redfish in the Irminger Sea.http://www.neafc.org/system/files/2011_pv_Irmingersea_redfish_measures_2011_to_2014.pdf
  26. Wood, LJ, 2007. MPA Global: A database of the world's marine protected areas. Sea Around Us Project, UNEP-WCMC & WWF.http://www.mpaglobal.org
          References

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