Last updated on 24 August 2016

SUMMARY

SUMMARY

IDENTIFICATION

SCIENTIFIC NAME(s)

Lepidopsetta bilineata

SPECIES NAME(s)

Rock sole

COMMON NAMES

Southern rock sole

Rock sole or southern rock sole Lepidopsetta bilineata is managed as part of the shallow-water flatfish complex, which also includes the Northern rock sole (L. polyxystra), the yellowfin sole (Pleuronectes asper), starry flounder (Platichthys stellatus), butter sole (Pleuronectes isolepis), English sole (Pleuronectes vetulus), Alaska plaice (Pleuronectes quadrituberculatus), and sand sole (Psettichthys melanostictus), as these species are caught in the shallow-water flatfish fishery (Turnock et al. 2009). 

Both Rock sole species are caught in the shallow-water flatfish fishery and are not targeted specifically, as they cooccur with several other species. These species were differentiated in survey data beginning in 1996, and were differentiated in the fishery observer data beginning in 1997. Data for more recent years have the species listed as northern (N), southern (S), or “undifferentiated” (U) rock sole as adult northern and southern rock sole are difficult to differentiate visually. There is considerable uncertainty about the fraction of annual rock sole catch that is northern or southern rock sole (A’mar and Palsson 2015).

This fishery was certified by the Marine Stewardship Council system in June 2010. Click here to link to the MSC fishery page and to learn more about the MSC fishery certification unit.


ANALYSIS

Strengths

Stock is well above biomass target and exploitation is very low.
Managers set precautionary quotas

Weaknesses

Individual species TACs are not used. Quotas and most management occurs as a multi-species complex. This can lead to individual species being depleted should exploitation and effort increase.

Options

Suggest that individual ABC be used and individual species have their own quotas.
Work on improving model to better capture some of the recommendations set forth by the peer reviewers and the MSC team.

FISHSOURCE SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

≥ 6

Managers Compliance:

≥ 6

Fishers Compliance:

≥ 8

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

10

Future Health:

10


RECOMMENDATIONS

RETAILERS & SUPPLY CHAIN
  • Monitor the performance of the fishery and its management to ensure the fishery continues to be eligible for condition-free MSC re-certification.

FIPS

No related FIPs

CERTIFICATIONS

  • Alaska Flatfish - Gulf of Alaska:

    MSC Recertified

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

ASSESSMENT UNIT MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
Gulf of Alaska US Alaska United States Single boat bottom otter trawls

Analysis

OVERVIEW

Last updated on 30 August 2016

Strengths
US Alaska

Last updated on 30 August 2016

Stock is well above biomass target and exploitation is very low.
Managers set precautionary quotas

Weaknesses
US Alaska

Last updated on 30 August 2016

Individual species TACs are not used. Quotas and most management occurs as a multi-species complex. This can lead to individual species being depleted should exploitation and effort increase.

Options
US Alaska

Last updated on 30 August 2016

Suggest that individual ABC be used and individual species have their own quotas.
Work on improving model to better capture some of the recommendations set forth by the peer reviewers and the MSC team.

RECOMMENDATIONS

Last updated on 1 November 2018

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain
  • Monitor the performance of the fishery and its management to ensure the fishery continues to be eligible for condition-free MSC re-certification.

1.STOCK STATUS

STOCK ASSESSMENT
US Alaska

Last updated on 30 August 2016

The stock assessment model is a two species two sex mixed fishery statistical catch-at-age population dynamics model using maximum likelihood estimation which was recently peer reviewed (A’mar et al. 2012).

SCIENTIFIC ADVICE
US Alaska

Last updated on 30 August 2016

Model has undergone some recent changes but most are minor. model captures uncertainty well and has little retrospective pattern (A’mar et al. 2012).

Reference Points

Last updated on 30 Aug 2016

Reference points are not broken out by species on the management side, but calculations of MSY based reference points are in the assessment and shown here in the data and score section for reference.

CURRENT STATUS
US Alaska

Last updated on 30 August 2016

Exploitation is very low and stock is growing at a rapid pace (A’mar et al. 2012).

Trends

Last updated on 30 Aug 2016

Further stock growth is expected in the short term given low exploitation and near average recruitment (A’mar et al. 2012)

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

MANAGEMENT
US Alaska

Last updated on 30 August 2016

Set TACs not broken down by species, but final TACs for the shallow water flatfish group have been set by managers at lower then advised (Turnock et al., 2010).

Recovery Plans

Last updated on 30 Aug 2016

A recovery plan is in place should the stock fall below it’s biomass threshold.

COMPLIANCE
US Alaska

Last updated on 30 August 2016

Overall fisher’s compliance with set TACs for the whole shallow water flatfish group is strong. Recent catches of northern rock sole have been ~ 10% of the Overfishing level (OFL). There are not no reports IUU fishing, hence is considered negligible (Powers et al. 2010).

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

BYCATCH
ETP Species
US Alaska

Last updated on 30 August 2016

Halibut and the crab species are the only PSC species that appear to interact with the flatfish fisheries. Because halibut are found on the same ground as flatfish species for most of the year the bycatch of halibut is often what causes the flatfish fisheries to be closed rather than attainment of the flatfish TAC. Gear modifications have been voluntarily adopted in an attempt to reduce halibut bycatch. By sharing observer data, fishermen identify crab bycatch ‘hotspots’ so they can be avoided. The NPFMC has also introduced seasonal closed areas for trawling to minimise bycatch of crab and halibut within the BSA (Powers et al. 2010).

Other Species
US Alaska

Last updated on 30 August 2016

The retention rate over 2000 to 2006 has been increasing, supporting the view that the management policy to reduce wastage by discarding is being effectively implemented (Powers et al. 2010).

HABITAT
US Alaska

Last updated on 30 August 2016

Considered as no concern fishery with little detrimental effect and the natural fluctuation due to its low exploitation rate. It is a stable and heavly monitored fishery.

FishSource Scores

Last updated on 14 February 2018

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

As calculated for 2012 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

Stock assessed as part of a multi-species separate sex model incorporating both Northern and Southern Rock Sole. (A’mar et al. 2012)

As calculated for 2010 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

Set TACs not broken down by species, but final TACs for the shallow water flatfish group have been set by managers at lower then advised (Turnock et al., 2010)

As calculated for 2010 data.

The score is ≥ 8.

Overall fisher's compliance with set TACs for the whole shallow water flatfish group is strong. Recent catches of northern rock sole have been ~ 10% of the Overfishing level (OFL). There are not no reports IUU fishing, hence is considered negligible (Powers et al, 2010).

STOCK HEALTH:

As calculated for 2012 data.

The score is 10.0.

This measures the SSB as a percentage of the 40%B0.

The SSB is 84.4 ('000 t). The 40%B0 is 39.5 ('000 t) .

The underlying SSB/40%B0 for this index is 214%.

As calculated for 2012 data.

The score is 10.0.

This measures the F as a percentage of the F35%B0.

The F is 0.0100 (age-averaged). The F35%B0 is 0.230 .

The underlying F/F35%B0 for this index is 4.35%.

To see data for biomass, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for catch and tac, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for fishing mortality, please view this site on a desktop.
No data available for recruitment
No data available for recruitment
To see data for management quality, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for stock status, please view this site on a desktop.
DATA NOTES
US Alaska

Last updated on 30 August 2016

Notes: 1) Stock managed as part of a multi-species complex; 2) Reference points for biomass are not broken out by species; 3) Set TAC is not broken out by species, hence it was not included here. 4) Note catches and landings are extrapolated based on flatfish catches identified to species by at-sea observers

Download Source Data

Registered users can download the original data file for calculating the scores after logging in. If you wish, you can Register now.

Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

No related FIPs

Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

SELECT MSC

NAME

Alaska Flatfish - Gulf of Alaska

STATUS

MSC Recertified on 1 June 2010

SCORES

Principle Level Scores:

Principle Score
Principle 1 – Target Species – Arrowtooth flounder 98.8
Principle 1 – Target Species – Flathead Sole 98.8
Principle 1 – Target Species – Northern Rock Sole 98.8
Principle 1 – Target Species – Southern Rock Sole 98.8
Principle 1 – Target Species – Rex Sole 87.5
Principle 2 - Ecosystem 89.7
Principle 3 – Management System 99.0

Certification Type: Gold

Sources

Credits
  1. A’mar, T. Martin, M. Palsson, W. 2012. Chapter 4.1: Assessment of the northern and southern rock sole (Lepidopsetta polyxystra and bilineata) stocks in the Gulf of Alaska for 2013. NMFS NOAA Alaska Fisheries Science Centerhttp://www.afsc.noaa.gov/REFM/Docs/2012/GOAnsrocksole.pdf

  2. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), 2011. Federal Register Vol.76, No. 40, Tuesday, March 1, 2011. Rules and Regulations. Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Gulf of Alaska; Final 2011 and 2012 Harvest Specifications for Groundfish. Final Rule; closures.http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-03-01/pdf/2011-4402.pdf

  3. North Pacific Fishery Management Council (NPFMC), 2009. Stock Assessment and Fishery Evaluation Report for the Groundfish Resources of the Gulf of Alaska. 1405 p.http://www.afsc.noaa.gov/refm/docs/2009/GOAshallowflat.pdf

  4. North Pacific Fishery Management Council (NPFMC), 2011. Fishery Management Plan for Groundfish of the Gulf of Alaska. North Pacific Fishery Management Council. April 2011. 130 pp.http://www.fakr.noaa.gov/npfmc/fmp/goa/GOA.pdf

  5. Powers, J ., Tingley, G., Hanna, S. and Knapman, P., 2010. Public Certification Report for the Gulf of Alaska Southern Rock Sole Trawl Fishery. Moody Marine LTD. May 2010.http://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/certified/pacific/gulf-of-alaska-flatfish/assessment-downloads-1/20.05.2010-goa-s-rock-sole-pcr.pdf

  6. Rice, J., Bowen, D., Hanna, S., Blyth-Skyrme, R. 2013. Third Annual Surveillance Report Gulf of Alaska Flatfish Fisheries. Intertek Moody Marine, July 2013, 28pphttp://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/fisheries-in-the-program/certified/pacific/gulf-of-alaska-flatfish/assessment-downloads-1/20.05.2010-goa-s-rock-sole-pcr.pdf

  7. Rice, J., Bowen, D., Trumble, R. J., 2014. Fourth Annual Surveillance Report- Gulf of Alaska Flatfish Fishery. MRAG Americas, Inc., July 2014. 14pphttp://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/fisheries-in-the-program/certified/pacific/gulf-of-alaska-flatfish/assessment-downloads-1/20140724_SR_FLA049.pdf

  8. Turnock, B., A'mar, T. and Wilderbuer, T., 2009. Gulf of Alaska Shallow-water Flatfish. In: Alaska Fisheries Science Center (ed.) Stock Assessment and Fishery Evaluation Report for the Groundfish Resources of the Gulf of Alaska. p. 465-494.http://www.afsc.noaa.gov/refm/docs/2009/GOAshallowflat.pdf

  9. Turnock, B. Stockhausen, W. Wilderbuer, T. Wilkins, M. 2010 Gulf of Alaska Shallow-water Flatfish. North Pacific Fishery Management Council Stock Assessment and Fishery Evaluation Report.http://www.afsc.noaa.gov/REFM/docs/2010/GOAshallowflat.pdf

References

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