Last updated on 25 January 2017

SUMMARY

SUMMARY

IDENTIFICATION

SCIENTIFIC NAME(s)

Melanogrammus aeglefinus

SPECIES NAME(s)

Haddock


ANALYSIS

Strengths

The current biomass estimate are near a time series high. Managers have recently instituted hard quotas to limit catch. Harvest has been below set quotas for a number of years. Managers have recently instituted bycatch quotas, but their effectiveness has not been measured. Mangers in both countries are working on bycatch and protected species management measures.

Weaknesses

Model suffers from a retrospective pattern. SSB is overestimated and F underestimated in the terminal year. There is considerable uncertainty surrounding the strength of the most recent year classes. Otter trawls, the main gear used to harvest haddock,can cause serious damage to bottom habitat; while other gear types can impact PET species. This fishery tends to close early do to catches of other non-targeted stocks which are retained or discarded; such as yellow tailed flounder and cod. This prevents the full utilization of the quota.

FISHSOURCE SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

7.3

Managers Compliance:

10

Fishers Compliance:

10

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

9.4

Future Health:

10


RECOMMENDATIONS

CATCHERS & REGULATORS

1. For gear types that impact the benthic habitat (i.e. otter trawl and bottom long line), implement a comprehensive habitat management plan including a benthic protected area network.

2. If not already using bycatch reduction devices, implement the “Eliminator” trawl and other technologies to reduce bycatch of other species/stocks.
3. Conduct research and analysis into documenting the most recent year class and verifying its strength.

RETAILERS & SUPPLY CHAIN

1. If sourcing from the US fishery, contact the New England Fishery Management Council and request that they implement a comprehensive habitat management plan including a benthic protected area network, implement mandatory bycatch reduction technologies for all gears, and conduct research to verify the strength of the most recent year class.

2. If sourcing from the Canadian fishery, contact the Regional Director-General for the Maritimes Region and request that they implement a comprehensive habitat management plan including a benthic protected area network, implement mandatory bycatch reduction technologies for all gears, and conduct research to verify the strength of the most recent year class.

3. If possible, buyers should source from vessels that use the “Eliminator” trawl and other gear technology that reduce bycatch and improve selectivity.


FIPS

No related FIPs

CERTIFICATIONS

No related MSC fisheries

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

ASSESSMENT UNIT MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
E Georges Bank E Georges Bank Canada Bottom trawls
Longlines
United States Bottom trawls
Georges Bank Georges Bank United States Bottom trawls
Longlines
Single boat bottom otter trawls

Analysis

OVERVIEW

Last updated on 7 August 2014

Strengths

The current biomass estimate are near a time series high. Managers have recently instituted hard quotas to limit catch. Harvest has been below set quotas for a number of years. Managers have recently instituted bycatch quotas, but their effectiveness has not been measured. Mangers in both countries are working on bycatch and protected species management measures.

Weaknesses

Model suffers from a retrospective pattern. SSB is overestimated and F underestimated in the terminal year. There is considerable uncertainty surrounding the strength of the most recent year classes. Otter trawls, the main gear used to harvest haddock,can cause serious damage to bottom habitat; while other gear types can impact PET species. This fishery tends to close early do to catches of other non-targeted stocks which are retained or discarded; such as yellow tailed flounder and cod. This prevents the full utilization of the quota.

RECOMMENDATIONS

Last updated on 17 August 2016

Improvement Recommendations to Catchers & Regulators

1. For gear types that impact the benthic habitat (i.e. otter trawl and bottom long line), implement a comprehensive habitat management plan including a benthic protected area network.

2. If not already using bycatch reduction devices, implement the “Eliminator” trawl and other technologies to reduce bycatch of other species/stocks.
3. Conduct research and analysis into documenting the most recent year class and verifying its strength.

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain

1. If sourcing from the US fishery, contact the New England Fishery Management Council and request that they implement a comprehensive habitat management plan including a benthic protected area network, implement mandatory bycatch reduction technologies for all gears, and conduct research to verify the strength of the most recent year class.

2. If sourcing from the Canadian fishery, contact the Regional Director-General for the Maritimes Region and request that they implement a comprehensive habitat management plan including a benthic protected area network, implement mandatory bycatch reduction technologies for all gears, and conduct research to verify the strength of the most recent year class.

3. If possible, buyers should source from vessels that use the “Eliminator” trawl and other gear technology that reduce bycatch and improve selectivity.

1.STOCK STATUS

STOCK ASSESSMENT

Last updated on 20 August 2014

An age structure Virtual Population Analysis is used to assess haddock. This model provides reference points, projections, and other indications of stock status. Overall stock was last benchmarked in 2008 and updated in 2012 (Brooks et al., 2012). An updated assessment from the agreement area indicates similar results (TRAC, 2014)

SCIENTIFIC ADVICE

Last updated on 7 August 2014

Assessment suffers from a retrospective pattern.Model tends to overestimate SSB and underestimate F in the terminal year.There is also uncertainty with regards to the projections using most recent mean weights and lengths.Further there is considerable uncertainty with regards to the most recent year classes (Brooks et al., 2012).

Overall scientific uncertainty is accounted for when advice is given.

Reference Points

Last updated on 07 Aug 2014

Managers employ the use of biological MSY based reference points for fishing mortality (F) and spawning stock biomass (SSB).Quotas are set after consideration of scientific uncertainty by the NEFMC Science and Statistical Committee (Brooks et. al, 2012).

CURRENT STATUS

Last updated on 7 August 2014

The U.S. Georges Bank haddock stock is not overfished and overfishing is not occurring. Stock is at a very high biomass and fishing mortality has been very low in recent years. This is in part due to fact that the harvesters cannot fully utilize the quota because of bycatch restrictions (Brooks, et al., 2012)

Trends

Last updated on 07 Aug 2014

Spawning stock biomass levels are near a time series high (1931-2010) due to a large recruitment event in 2003 as well as subsequent events.A second large year class is estimated for 2010.it should be noted that this large 2010 year class estimate has a high degree of uncertainty associated with it (Brooks et al., 2012).

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

MANAGEMENT

Last updated on 7 August 2014

Mangers on the US side have been following the scientific advice.There is a shared resource agreement between the US and Canada.Quotas are set appropriately.However full utilization of the quota is not possible given the bycatch of cod, and other stocks/species (Brooks et al., 2012).

Recovery Plans

Last updated on 07 Aug 2014

Stock is abovebiomass thresholds and targets, so a building plan is not in effect. As with other US stocks a rebuilding plan would be implemented if the stock falls below it’s threshold biomass level.

COMPLIANCE

Last updated on 7 August 2014

Harvesters comply with regulations for both the US and Canada.Vessels are required to carry on-board observers when available. Vessels are also monitored at sea using satellite based vessel monitoring systems (VMS).Landings are reported at the trip level upon off-loading, and reports are cross checked with dealer reports regularly (Brooks et al., 2012).

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

BYCATCH
ETP Species

Last updated on 7 August 2014

The directedgill net fishery impacts Bottlenose dolphin, Common dolphin, Fin whale, Gray seal, Harbor porpoise, Harbor seal, Harp seal, Hooded seal, Humpback whale, Minke whale, North Atlantic right whale, Risso’s dolphin, White-sided dolphin, and Atlantic Sturgeon as a category 1 fishery (NMFS, 2014). Overall gillnet gear is responsible for over 50% Potential Biological Removal (PBR) level. However, gear modifications (weak links, pingers, and excluders), closed areas, and other management actions are in place to limit and reduce incidents of mortality. The most recent indications (NMFS, 2013) suggest that while target mortality rates for some PET species/stock are being exceeded,these PET populations are still rebuilding. TheBottom Trawl Fishery has little to no impact but is rated as a Category 2 fishery with associated management measures to prevent most interactions.

Georges Bank
Georges Bank
United States
Longlines

Last updated on 7 August 2014

Long line gear has little interactions with PET species with the exception of turtles, seabirds and some mammals via entanglement. The most recent indications (NMFS, 2013) suggest that while target mortality rates for some PET species/stock are being exceeded,these PET populations are still rebuilding. Further gear modifications, closed areas and other measures are in place to limit interactions as well as sea-bird mortality (NEFMC, 2014)

Other Species

Last updated on 21 August 2014

TThe incidental fishery is part of the of the NE US multi-species groundfish fishery. Whilemuch of the incidental catch is now retained and counted against the individual species quota, discards in this fishery are still substantial. Both directed and non directed fisheries are subject to closure should these others stock achieve their yearly quota. At-sea monitoring has increased substantial in recent years. Seasonal closures and effort controls are also used to minimize impacts (NEFMC, 2014).

Stocks encountered in the fishery include dogfish, cod, window pane flounder, yellowtail flounder and skate.

Georges Bank
Georges Bank
United States
Longlines

Last updated on 7 August 2014

While long line gear has minimal bycatch, some does occur. However, the incidental fishery is part of the of the NE US multi-species groundfish fishery.Much of this incidental catch is now retained and counted against the individual species quota. Both directed and non directed fisheries are subject to closure should these others stock achieve their yearly quota. At-sea monitoring has increased substantial in recent years. Seasonal closures are effort controls are also used to minimize impacts (NEFMC, 2014).

Stocks encountered in the fishery include dogfish, cod, window pane flounder, yellowtail flounder and skate.

HABITAT

Last updated on 7 August 2014

The directed gillnet fishery has little bottom impact with the possible exception of deep-water coral.However managers have recently implemented area closures to protect this vital habitat.

The trawl fishery has some bottom impact, particularly in the areas of hard substrate. However a lengthy management process is currently underway to close very sensitive areas.Seasonal closures, gear modifications, and other management measures are also in place (NEFMC, 2014).

Marine Reserves

Last updated on 07 Aug 2014

Numerous closed area and protected areas are within this region some of which include a completeclosure to all gear types. There is a network of areas closed to all fishing gears through the region, to protect habitats, reduce fishing mortality on juvenile fishes, and to conserve discreet spawning units (NEFMC, 2014) some of these are permanent, others seasonal.

Georges Bank
Georges Bank
United States
Longlines

Last updated on 7 August 2014

The directed and incidental long line fishery has little bottom impact with the possible exception of deep-water coral.However managers have recently implemented area closures to protect this vital habitat.

Also a lengthy management process is currently underway to close very sensitive areas.Seasonal closures, gear modifications, and other management measures are also in place (NEFMC, 2014).

Marine Reserves

Last updated on 07 Aug 2014

Numerous closed area and protected areas are within this region some of which include a completeclosure to all gear types. There is a network of areas closed to all fishing gears through the region, to protect habitats, reduce fishing mortality on juvenile fishes, and to conserve discreet spawning units (NEFMC, 2014) some of these are permanent, others seasonal.

FishSource Scores

Last updated on 30 January 2017

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

As calculated for 2010 data.

The score is 7.3.

This measures the F at low biomass as a percentage of the F management target.

The F at low biomass is 0.260 (from management plan). The F management target is 0.390 .

The underlying F at low biomass/F management target for this index is 66.7%.

As calculated for 2013 data.

The score is 10.0.

This measures the Set TAC as a percentage of the Advised TAC.

The Set TAC is 32.2 ('000 t). The Advised TAC is 35.7 ('000 t) .

The underlying Set TAC/Advised TAC for this index is 90.2%.

As calculated for 2013 data.

The score is 10.0.

This measures the Catch as a percentage of the Set TAC.

The Catch is 6.60 ('000 t). The Set TAC is 32.2 ('000 t) .

The underlying Catch/Set TAC for this index is 20.5%.

STOCK HEALTH:

As calculated for 2010 data.

The score is 9.4.

This measures the SSB as a percentage of the SSBmsy.

The SSB is 167 ('000 t). The SSBmsy is 125 ('000 t) .

The underlying SSB/SSBmsy for this index is 134%.

As calculated for 2010 data.

The score is 10.0.

This measures the F as a percentage of the F management target.

The F is 0.180 (age-averaged). The F management target is 0.390 .

The underlying F/F management target for this index is 46.2%.

To see data for biomass, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for catch and tac, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for fishing mortality, please view this site on a desktop.
No data available for recruitment
No data available for recruitment
To see data for management quality, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for stock status, please view this site on a desktop.
DATA NOTES

Notes: Data includes both Western and Eastern Georges Bank components. Catches include both US and Canadian catches. Catches are on the fishing year, May 1 to April 30. Most recent years catch preliminary. There are two assesments for this stock; a US assessment an a “TRAC” (Trans-boundary Assessment Committee)assessment. The TRAC assessment only uses data from within the shared area (See TRAC, 2014; figure 1), while the US assessment covers the entire stock. As such the US assessment is what was used to generate the scores for this stock.

Download Source Data

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Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

No related FIPs

Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

No related MSC certifications

Sources

Credits
  1. Brooks, E.N., Sutherland, S.J., Van Eeckhaute, L., Palmer, M. 2012. Georges Bank Haddock, Groundfish Assessment Updates 2012, NOAA, 84 pages. http://www.nefsc.noaa.gov/publications/crd/crd1206/gbhaddock.pdf
  2. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). 2002. Workshop on the Effects of Fishing Gear on Marine Habitats off the Northeastern United States, October 23-25, 2001. Northeast Region Essential Fish Habitat Steering Committee. Boston, Massachusetts.http://www.nefsc.nmfs.gov/nefsc/publications/crd/crd0201/
  3. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), 2010a. Federal Register Vol. 75, No. 68. 15 CFR Part 902; 50 CFR Part 648; Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act Provisions; Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast (NE) Multispecies Fishery; Amendement 16; Final Rule.http://www.nero.noaa.gov/nero/regs/frdoc/10/10MultiAmend16FR.pdf
  4. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), 2010a. Federal Register Vol. 75, No. 68. 15 CFR Part 902; 50 CFR Part 648; Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act Provisions; Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast (NE) Multispecies Fishery; Amendement 16; Final Rule.http://www.nero.noaa.gov/nero/regs/frdoc/10/10MultiAmend16FR.pdf
  5. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), 2010b. Federal Register Vol. 75, No. 68. 50 CFR Part 648. Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; Framework Adjustment 44.http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-04-09/pdf/2010-7235.pdf
  6. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), 2010b. Federal Register Vol. 75, No. 68. 50 CFR Part 648. Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; Framework Adjustment 44.http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-04-09/pdf/2010-7235.pdf
  7. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), 2011. Federal Register Vol.76, Monday, April 25, 2011. 50 CFR Part 648; Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act Provisions; Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast (NE) Multispecies Fishery; Framework Adjustment 45.http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-04-25/pdf/2011-9705.pdf
  8. NEFMC. 2004. Framework Adjustment 40A to the Northeast Multispecies Fishery Management Plan. NEFMC; National Marine Fisheries Service.http://www.nefmc.org/nemulti/frame/frame_40A.html
  9. NEFMC, 2014. Omnibus Essential Fish Habitat Amendment 2, New England Fishery Management Council. Volumes 1-5.http://www.nefmc.org/habitat/index.html
  10. NEFMC, 2014. Omnibus Essential Fish Habitat Amendment 2, New England Fishery Management Council. Volumes 1-5.http://www.nefmc.org/habitat/index.html
  11. NEFSC. 2008. Assessment of 19 Northeast Groundfish Stocks through 2007: Report of the 3rd Groundfish Assessment Review Meeting (GARM III), Northeast Fisheries Science Center, Woods Hole, Massachusetts, August 4-8, 2008. US Dept. of Commerce, NOAA Fisheries, NEFSC Ref. Doc. 08-15. http://www.nefsc.noaa.gov/nefsc/publications/crd/crd0815/garm3b.pdf
  12. New England Fishery Management Council (NEFMC). 2003. Amendment 13 to the Northeast Multispecies Fishery Management Plan. NEFMC; National Marine Fisheries Service. 4 volumes.http://www.nefmc.org/nemulti/index.html
  13. New England Fishery Management Council (NEFMC), 2006. Framework Adjustment 43 to the Northeast Multispecies (Groundfish) Fishery Management Plan (FMP) Including a Regulatory Impact Review (RIR) and Initial Regulatory Flexibility Analysis (IRFA).http://www.nefmc.org/nemulti/frame/fw43/final_fw43_feb06.pdf
  14. New England Fishery Management Council (NEFMC), 2009. Acceptable Biological Catch (ABC) Recommendations for the Northeast Multispecies Fishery. To: Paul J. Howard, Executive Director; From: Dr. Steve Cadrin, Chairman, Scientific and Statistical Committee; Date: September 23, 2009.http://www.nefmc.org/tech/Reports/Reports%20to%20Council%202009/Groundfish/SSCSep09%20groundfish%20_5_.pdf
  15. NMFS, 2013. U.S. Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico Marine Mammal Stock Assessments – 2012http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/pr/sars/pdf/ao2012.pdf
  16. Northeast Fisheries Science Center (NEFSC). 2007. 2007 Annual Incidental Take Report. NEFSC.http://www.nefsc.noaa.gov/fsb/
  17. TRAC. 2014. Eastern Georges Bank Haddock. TRAC Status Report 2014/02.http://www.nefsc.noaa.gov/saw/trac/TSR_2014_02_EGB-hadd-1.pdf
  18. Transboundary Resources Assessment Committee (TRAC), 2010. Eastern Georges Bank Haddock Status Report 2010/04.http://www2.mar.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/science/trac/TSRs/TSR_2010_04_E.pdf
  19. Transboundary Resources Assessment Committee (TRAC), 2011. Eastern Georges Bank Haddock. TRAC Status Report 2011/03.http://www2.mar.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/science/trac/TSRs/TSR_2011_03_E.pdf
  20. Transboundary Resources Assessment Committee (TRAC), 2012. Eastern Georges Bank Haddock. TRAC Status Report 2012/03, 6 pages.http://www2.mar.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/science/trac/TSRs/TSR_2012_03_E.pdf
  21. DFO. 2010C Impacts of Longline and Gillnet Fisheries on Aquatic Biodiversity and Vulnerable Marine Ecosystems. DFO Can. Sci. Advis. Sec. Sci. Advis. Rep. 2010/012http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/Library/340472.pdf
  22. DFO. 2011. Assessment of Atlantic Halibut on the Scotian Shelf and Southern Grand Banks (NAFO Divisions 3NOPs4VWX5Zc). DFO Can. Sci. Advis. Sec. Sci. Advis. Rep. 2011/001. http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/csas-sccs/Publications/SAR-AS/2011/2011_001-eng.pdf
  23. SARA (Government of Canada), 2014 Species at Risk Public Registry. Accessed: July 2014.http://www.sararegistry.gc.ca/sar/index/default_e.cfm?stype=species&lng=e&index=1&common=&scientific=&population=&taxid=5&locid=0&desid=0&schid=0&desid2=0&
  24. DFO, 2006. Impacts of Trawl Gears and Scallop Dredges on Benthic Habitats, Populations and Communities. DFO Can. Sci. Advis. Sec. Sci. Advis. Rep. 2006/025.http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/csas/Csas/status/2006/SAR-AS2006_025_E.pdf
References

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