Last updated on 3 August 2016

SUMMARY

SUMMARY

IDENTIFICATION

SCIENTIFIC NAME(s)

Loligo opalescens

SPECIES NAME(s)

Opalescent inshore squid, California market squid

COMMON NAMES

Market squid

Loligo opalescens is fished by purse seine vessels along the coast of California from North to Southis and is one of the most important in the State of California in terms of landings and revenue. Fishers target spawning squid because they die shortly after they reproduce. The fishery is managed by the Fish and Game Commission of the California Department of Fish and Game under California's Marine Life Management Act. The law requires that California market squid is managed with a fishing management plan. The current plan was implemented in the 2005/6 fishing season (MSFMP 2005).

The market squid (Loligo opalescens) fishery is one of the most important in the State of California in terms of landings and revenue.


ANALYSIS

Strengths

Stocks managed by seasonal quotas and other restrictions. Fishery complies with quotas with the exception of the last few years.

Weaknesses

Stock status is unknown. Quotas are not set using an analytical model with projections and uncertainty. Some concerns over bycatch and habitat interactions.

Options

Consider developing an analytical model to base quota on. Suggest increased data collection to gather information to make an analytical assesmentbpossible in the near future.

FISHSOURCE SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

≥ 6

Managers Compliance:

≥ 6

Fishers Compliance:

10

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

≥ 6

Future Health:

≥ 6


RECOMMENDATIONS

CATCHERS & REGULATORS

1. Support the fishery improvement project to address sustainability issues in this fishery.
2. Communicate to fishery managers that there are sustainability issues in this fishery that may be affecting the sale of products, and request that they comprehensively evaluate and address such issues.

RETAILERS & SUPPLY CHAIN

1. Work with other suppliers and buyers on a pre-competitive basis to start a supplier roundtable to review improvement needs in this and other similar fisheries, catalyze and support fishery improvement projects, and monitor progress in improvement efforts.
2. This profile is not currently at the top of our priority list for update/development, and we can’t at this time provide an accurate prediction of when it will be developed. To speed up an evaluation of the sustainability status of non-prioritized fisheries we have initiated a program whereby industry can directly contract SFP-approved analysts to develop a FishSource profile on a fishery. More information on this External Contributor Program is available at http://www.sustainablefish.org/fisheries-information.


FIPS

No related FIPs

CERTIFICATIONS

No related MSC fisheries

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
US California United States Purse seines

Analysis

OVERVIEW

Last updated on 3 August 2016

Strengths
US California

Last updated on 3 August 2016

Stocks managed by seasonal quotas and other restrictions. Fishery complies with quotas with the exception of the last few years.

Weaknesses
US California

Last updated on 3 August 2016

Stock status is unknown. Quotas are not set using an analytical model with projections and uncertainty. Some concerns over bycatch and habitat interactions.

Options
US California

Last updated on 3 August 2016

Consider developing an analytical model to base quota on. Suggest increased data collection to gather information to make an analytical assesmentbpossible in the near future.

RECOMMENDATIONS

Last updated on 28 July 2016

Improvement Recommendations to Catchers & Regulators

1. Support the fishery improvement project to address sustainability issues in this fishery.
2. Communicate to fishery managers that there are sustainability issues in this fishery that may be affecting the sale of products, and request that they comprehensively evaluate and address such issues.

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain

1. Work with other suppliers and buyers on a pre-competitive basis to start a supplier roundtable to review improvement needs in this and other similar fisheries, catalyze and support fishery improvement projects, and monitor progress in improvement efforts.
2. This profile is not currently at the top of our priority list for update/development, and we can’t at this time provide an accurate prediction of when it will be developed. To speed up an evaluation of the sustainability status of non-prioritized fisheries we have initiated a program whereby industry can directly contract SFP-approved analysts to develop a FishSource profile on a fishery. More information on this External Contributor Program is available at http://www.sustainablefish.org/fisheries-information.

1.STOCK STATUS

STOCK ASSESSMENT
US California

Last updated on 3 August 2016

No Analytical assessment.Fishery dependent data used to set quotas.

SCIENTIFIC ADVICE
US California

Last updated on 3 August 2016

Large uncertainties surrounding stock status.

Reference Points

Last updated on 03 Aug 2016

Reference points are not formally in place.Quotas set using a type of egg per recruit model from fishery dependent data (Stewart & Port-Minner, 2010).

CURRENT STATUS

Last updated on 30 August 2016

Trends

Last updated on 30 Aug 2016

The California fishery for market squid (Loligo opalescens) was established over 130 years ago in Monterey Bay, central California. The fishery expanded into southern California after the 1950s, but remained relatively minor until the late 1980s, when worldwide demand for all squid species increased. Landings in California prior to 1987 rarely exceeded 20,000 metric tons. Since then, landings have increased fourfold, and squid is now the state’s largest fishery in both tons landed and market value. The number of vessels participating in the fishery has also increased from approximately 85 to over 130 (Vojkovich 1998).

US California

Last updated on 3 August 2016

Status is unknown (Stewart & Port-Minner, 2010)

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

MANAGEMENT
US California

Last updated on 30 August 2016

Management by hard quotas and seasonal/area closures. Substantial quota overages in last few years. The 2005 Management Plan intends to introduce the following Fishery Control Rules:

  1. Establish a seasonal catch limitation of 118,000 tons;
  2. Continue existing closures from noon Friday to noon Sunday from the U.S.- Mexico border to the California-Oregon border;
  3. Continue existing squid monitoring programs (port sampling and logbooks);
  4. Continue existing regulations that do not require a squid permit when fishing for live bait or incidental take of two tons or less;
  5. Maintain existing wattage requirements (maximum of 30,000 watts) and modify shielding requirements that the lower edges of the shields shall be parallel to the deck of the vessel;
COMPLIANCE
US California

Last updated on 3 August 2016

Substantial quota overages in the last few years

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

BYCATCH
ETP Species

Last updated on 30 August 2016

Ecological Concerns include treatned bird species and the Plan demands:

 • Seasonal Closures for Seabirds: Squid may not be taken using attracting lights in all waters of the Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary at any time

HABITAT
US California

Last updated on 3 August 2016

Some negative habitat impacts (Stewart & Port-Minner, 2010).

FishSource Scores

Last updated on 3 May 2018

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

As calculated for 2016 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

An analytic assessment has been completed (Dorval, et. al, 2013) but the results are not used in management (CDFG, 2014)

As calculated for 2016 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

Quotas are in place, but are based on a three year average from 1999 to 2001 (MSFMP, 2005). Reference points based on egg escapement are defined, but the numerical values have not been generated (CDFG, 2014). Quotas are based on a historical average harvest with no precautionary multiplier to account for uncertainty (MSFMP, 2005)

As calculated for 2014 data.

The score is 10.0.

This measures the Catch as a percentage of the Set TAC.

The Catch is 104 ('000 t). The Set TAC is 107 ('000 t) .

The underlying Catch/Set TAC for this index is 97.2%.

STOCK HEALTH:

As calculated for 2016 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

Biomass is not known and varies markedly from year to year based on environmental conditions (CDFG, 2014). Because of it's short life-span (less than a year) it is an annual crop dependent on the previous spawners biomass/fecundity with a large stock recruitment variability (Frey, 2012)

As calculated for 2016 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

Fishing mortality is not known, but numerous mechanisms are in place to prevent over-exploitation including quotas, seasons, and limited entry into the fishery (CDFG, 2014 and Frey, 2012).

No data available for biomass
No data available for biomass
To see data for catch and tac, please view this site on a desktop.
No data available for fishing mortality
No data available for fishing mortality
No data available for recruitment
No data available for recruitment
To see data for management quality, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for stock status, please view this site on a desktop.
DATA NOTES
US California

Last updated on 30 August 2016

Notes
Catch prior to 2006 is by calendar year. Catch 2006-present as fishing year (April though March)
Assessment was recently conducted and published, but the results are not used for management.
Reference points are defined in the Management Plan, but their values are not calculated.
Quotas are based on a historical average harvest with no precautionary multiplier to account for uncertainty

Download Source Data

Registered users can download the original data file for calculating the scores after logging in. If you wish, you can Register now.

Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

No related FIPs

Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

No related MSC certifications

Sources

Credits
  1. CDFW, 2014. MSC pre-assessment for Market Squid.http://opc.ca.gov/webmaster/ftp/project_pages/Rapid%20Assessments/Market%20Squid.pdf

  2. Dorval, E., Crone, P.R., and McDaniel, J.D. 2013. Variability of egg escapement, fishing mortality and spawning population in the market squid fishery in the California Current Ecosystem. Marine and Freshwater Research. 64(1) 80-90.http://www.publish.csiro.au/paper/MF12085.htm

  3. Frey, 2012. Seafood Watch Report. Market Squid Doryteuthis (Loligo) opalescens. Monterey Bay Aquarium‎/Seafood Watch http://safinacenter.org/documents/2014/06/squid-market-california-seafood-watch-report.pdf

  4. MSFMP, 2005. Market Squid Fishery Management Plan .http://www.dfg.ca.gov/marine/msfmp/index.asp

  5. Stewart, J. & Port-Minner S., 2010 California Market Squid.Seafood Watch Seafood Report.) http://www.montereybayaquarium.org/cr/cr_seafoodwatch/content/media/MBA_SeafoodWatch_CAMarketSquidReport.pdf

  6. Vojkovich, M., 1998. The California fishery for market squid (Loligo opalescens). CALIFORNIA COOPERATIVE OCEANIC FISHERIES INVESTIGATIONS REPORT, pp.55-60. http://www.calcofi.org/publications/calcofireports/v39/Vol_39_Vojkovich.pdf

References

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    Opalescent inshore squid - Eastern Pacific, US California, United States, Purse seines

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