Summary

IDENTIFICATION

SCIENTIFIC NAME

Hoplostethus atlanticus

SPECIES NAME(S)

Orange roughy

Several studies (e.g. Oke et al. 1997; Varela et al. 2012) have been conducted using distinct techniques (microsatellites,  allozyme or mtDNA analysis, diet and behaviour, etc.) in different geographic scales (New Zealand, Australia, Namibia, and Chile, North Atlantic). In samples collected from Hebrides (NW Ireland) to Sedlo bank (near the Azores archipelago), a panmitic population was found in the NE Atlantic and significant differences with the Namibian population (White et al. 2009). Genetic studies also found differences among New Zealand and Australian stocks (Branch 2001). But the worldwide stock structure of orange roughy is still currently unknown and a lack of significant differentiation among far geographic samples is revealed (Varela et al. 2012). Main fisheries are conducted in New Zealand, Australia, NE Atlantic and Namibia, where different regional units are considered for assessment and management purposes:

  • Australia: four units are based on regional spawning grounds and migration patterns (Upston et al., 2014): Western Zone (Sandy Cape), Southern Zone (Maatsuyker and Pedra Branca), Southern Remote Zone (Cascade Plateau), Eastern Zone (St. Patricks Head and St. Helens Hill).
  • New Zealand: presumable biological stock structure is based on the spawning grounds identified but the nine assessment/management units here considered according to main fisheries operating in the region, not always coincide with the boundaries of the biological stocks (more details in MPI, 2014a).
  • Within the management unit Northern North Island (ORH 1) there are several biological stocks with unclear boundaries: Mercury-Colville is an assessment unit; there are other stocks that are not assessed
  • Within the management unit Cape Runaway to Banks Peninsula (ORH 2A, 2B, 3A) there are two biological stocks and correspondent assessment units: East Cape (ORH 2A North) and Mid-East Coast (ORH 2A South, 2B, 3A)
  • Within the management unit Chatham Rise and Puysegur (ORH 3B) there are at least two biological stocks with correspondent assessment units: NW Chatham Rise, East and South Rise, Puysegur and the remainder of the sub-Antarctic area
  • Within the management unit Challenger Plateau (ORH 7A) there is a biological stock which includes also the Westpac Bank outside the New Zealand EEZ, managed by the South Pacific RFMO.
  • West coast South Island (ORH 7B)
  • In the NE Atlantic there are 3 units recognized but considered as inadequate according to the species’ biology and sparse information available (ICES 2008, OSPAR Commission 2010): Rockall, NW Scotland and North Ireland (Subarea VI), Irish Sea, SW Ireland, Porcupine Bank, English Channel and Bristol Channel, Celtic Sea (Subarea VII) and NE Atlantic includes remaining areas (areas I, II, IIIa, IV, V, VIII, IX, X, XII, XIV). 
  • Off Namibia according to the last stock assessment report (South East Atlantic Fisheries Organization 2014;Bensch et al. 2009). 

ANALYSIS

Strengths
  • Orange roughy in this area have been caught as bycatch species of the cardinalfish fishery.
  • Previous studies indicated no impacts of this fishery on protected seabirds and marine mammals.
Weaknesses
  • There is no current stock status assessment: recent abundance indices are not available to evaluate the sustainability of this stock.
  • Reported catches have below the limit but are only available until 2009 which is considered out of date.
  • The management approach is “subject to proposed ORH management strategy evaluation".
  • An agreement by stakeholders was done after the last adaptive management programme (in place until 2006/2007), it is considered that this decision is based on scientific recommendations but no quantitative advice has been provided since then.
  • Impact of bottom trawling on seamounts in Northern North Island is not known.

SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

< 6

Managers Compliance:

≥ 6

Fishers Compliance:

10

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

NO SCORE

Future Health:

NO SCORE


FIPS

No related FIPs

CERTIFICATIONS

No related MSC fisheries

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

ASSESSMENT UNIT MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
Mercury-Colville NZ Northern North Island (ORH 1) New Zealand Bottom trawls

Analysis

OVERVIEW

Last updated on 19 September 2014

Strengths
  • Orange roughy in this area have been caught as bycatch species of the cardinalfish fishery.
  • Previous studies indicated no impacts of this fishery on protected seabirds and marine mammals.
Weaknesses
  • There is no current stock status assessment: recent abundance indices are not available to evaluate the sustainability of this stock.
  • Reported catches have below the limit but are only available until 2009 which is considered out of date.
  • The management approach is “subject to proposed ORH management strategy evaluation".
  • An agreement by stakeholders was done after the last adaptive management programme (in place until 2006/2007), it is considered that this decision is based on scientific recommendations but no quantitative advice has been provided since then.
  • Impact of bottom trawling on seamounts in Northern North Island is not known.

1.STOCK STATUS

Stock Assessment

Last updated on 18 September 2014

The last stock assessment was conducted in 2001 using a deterministic stock reduction technique, to determine both current and virgin biomass B0. Maximum exploitation rate was fixed at 0.67, sexes separately and a Beverton-Holt stock-recruitment relationship was assumed. Abundance indices and commercial catch-effort (mean catch per tow) data were used. Trawl surveys were performed in June 1995, winter 1998 and June 2000. The results from those surveys indicated a decreasing trend but the environmental variables may have influenced the distribution of orange roughy. The size frequency data show high levels of stock variability between fisheries on features or feature groups (MPI, 2014).

Assessments were carried out for three alternative sets of biomass indices and all resulted in similar B0 estimates. Yield estimates resulted from the assessment are all much lower than recent catches. No assessment of stock status in Mercury-Colville box is currently available (MPI, 2014).

Scientific Advice

Last updated on 18 September 2014

Stock assessments are conducted by independent researchers contracted by the Ministry for Primary Industries (MPI) and the results are peer reviewed by the Deepwater Fisheries Assessment Working Group (DFAWG) which is composed by scientists of the National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA), the Ministry and the industry. The DFAWG, under MPI, evaluates the state of the fisheries and stocks and analyze management scenarios, not being responsible by management recommendations or decisions which are taken by the MPI. A final decision is discussed in a multi-stakeholder meeting.

In the plenary document, catches for Mercury-Colville box are to be maintained at 200 tons (MPI, 2014). But the agreement by stakeholders was done after the last AMP and no scientific advice has been provided since then.

Reference Points

Last updated on 19 October 2014

In the 2001 stock assessment, three alternative models were developed having resulted in similar reference points. B0 was defined at 3,000 tons (Alternative 1) and 3,200 tons (Alternatives 2 and 3). The MSY biomass reference point (BMSY) was defined as 960 tons (Alternative 1) and 900 tons (Alternatives 2 and 3). It was assumed that BMSY corresponds to 30% of B0 (MPI, 2014). However BMSY for orange roughy stocks was reassessed in 2014 at 26% of B0 (Cordue, 2014, DWG, 2014).

Current Status

Last updated on 19 October 2014

The current status of the orange rough biomass in Mercury-Colville box is not known: there are not current abundance indices to compare with the MSY reference point B(MSY) and the estimate of virgin biomass is not available.

The 2001 assessment of the Mercury-Colville box indicated that biomass had been reduced to 10-15% B0 which was well below estimated BMSY (currently thought to be 26% B0). Information collected since that time has not improved the understanding about the status of the stock (MPI, 2014).

Trends

Last updated on 18 September 2014

This fishery was developed in 1994. Prior that period, reported landings were generally small (MPI, 2014).

Between 1995-2000, the catch limit for the Mercury–Colville Box was 1,000 tons. Due to the stock condition, this value was reduced to 30 tons in 2000/2001, to be caught as bycatch in the cardinalfish fishery. Catches have been smaller than the catch limit and the target species has mostly been recorded as cardinalfish. On average, catch rates have been below or equal to 0.2 tons/tow, but tons/hour increased during the period 2007-2009 (Anderson and Dunn, 2012).

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

Managers' Decisions

Last updated on 18 September 2014

The New Zealand’s Ministry for Primary Industries (MPI) manages the fishery under a Quota Management System (QMS) since 1986 in order to maintain stock biomass levels that support the Maximum Sustainable Yield (MSY). Scientists and managers work in close relationship in the process of defining catch limits. The options recommended by the Minister/Ministry in the initial and final position papers, and in the letter for stakeholders are in line with the stock assessment developed and with the Harvest Standard Strategy (MoF, 2008). However, the initial and final position papers are not available for this stock.

The Mercury and Colville stockis within the Quota Management Area (QMA) ORH 1. This area was divided in 4 sub-areas (A-D) to which a total catch and feature (area within a 10 n. mile radius of the shallowest point) catch/limits were assigned.The Mercury-Colville “Box” is located within Area D (MPI, 2014).

From 1995–96, ORH 1 became subject to a five year adaptive management programme (AMP), increasing the TACC to 1.190 tons, with a catch limit of 1,000 tons for the area in the western Bay of Plenty (Mercury-Colville ‘box’). This AMP was concluded in 2000 and the overall TACC was reduced to 800 tons. However, in 2001, this QMA was reintroduced into the AMP with different design parameters for the five years, and the overall TACC was increased to 1,400 tons. Main goals of this AMP were the determination of the stock size, of the geographical extent and of the long-term sustainable yield, spreading the effort in an attempt to reduce fishing pressure on any one sub-area or feature (and Area D in particular).The TACC for sub-area D was defined as 200 tons but for the Mercury-Colville “Box” (located within Area D) has been given a specific limit of 30 tons per year to allow for the bycatch of orange roughy when fishing for black cardinalfish Epigonus telescopus. The AMP was discontinued in 2007 but the sub-area and feature limits have been kept, in agreement with stakeholders (Anderson and Dunn, 2012; MPI, 2014).

Catch per Unit of Effort (CPUE) index is used in ORH 1 as a management tool to control CPUE in each feature: when CPUE decrease on a feature, fishers should move to another feature (MPI, 2014a). According to the Annual Operational Plan 2013/2014, the management approach of this fishery is “subject to proposed ORH management strategy evaluation” (MPI, 2013).

Recovery Plans

Last updated on 18 September 2014

There is no recovery plan in place.

Compliance

Last updated on 18 September 2014

The reported catch can be overestimated because of fish loss with trawl gear damage and ripped nets but there are no estimations for this area. In other orange roughy fisheries, a level of 5% has been estimated. Since 2006, 100% observer coverage was requested by the Minister, but this has not been fully achieved, as someis taken as bycatch (MPI, 2014).

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

ETP Species

Last updated on 18 September 2014

Previous studies indicated that this fishery has no impacts on seabirds and marine mammals (MPI, 2014).

Other Target and Bycatch Species

Last updated on 18 September 2014

Orange roughy in the Mercury-Colville box has been mainly caught as bycatch in the cardinalfish fishery and the catches have been small than the catch limit (30 tons) (Anderson and Dunn, 2012).

Habitat

Last updated on 18 September 2014

The overall impact of bottom trawling on seamounts in ORH 1 is not known. According to the Working Group, the effect of deliberately spreading effort may to increase the possible benthic impact (MPI, 2014).

Marine Reserves

Last updated on 20 October 2014

Since 2007, 30% (1,200 Km2) of the Economic Exclusive Zone (EEZ) is closed to bottom trawling (and dredging) to protect the seafloor, through the implementation of 17 Benthic Protection Areas (BPA) (MPI, 2014). However, 82% of the protected areas were implemented in waters too deep to fish, while only 3%–15% of marine habitats less than 1500 m deep were protected (Rieser et al. 2013).With respect to the orange roughy species range, only 16% of habitat has been estimated to fall under the protection of BPAs (MPI, 2010). Several seamounts have been closed to fishing and the Norfolk Deep is included in the BPAs within New Zealand’s EEZ (MPI, 2014).

A network of Marine Protected Areas (MPA) is established and includes 38 marine reserves (territorial waters) and 6 marine mammal sanctuaries besides other levels of protection (e.g. marine parks, closures, protection zones). The MPA policy was published in 2006 and the first phase concerned the territorial sea where impacts were more important and considering that BPAs were already providing protection to seabed ecosystems within the EEZ. Implementation of offshore MPAs was postponed to 2013 until when all protected areas and levels, readjustments and proposals were being analyzed (MPI, 2009).

According to Leathwick et al. (2008), the current system of marine protected areas is not very representative and does not provide protection for a large number of fish species. The current BPAs were to be reviewed after 2013 and if existing BPAs were found not to be representative then further closures were to be considered (MPI, 2010).

FishSource Scores

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

As calculated for 2014 data.

The score is < 6.

The Adaptive Management Programme (AMP) was discontinued in 2007. Catch per Unit of Effort (CPUE) index is used in Northern North Island (ORH 1) as a management tool and the fishery is regulated by catch limits at 30 tons since 2000/2001, in agreement with stakeholders. However, according to the Annual Operational Plan 2013/2014, the management approach of this fishery is “subject to proposed ORH management strategy evaluation” (MPI, 2013). The current stock status is unknown and no recent biomass estimates are available (MPI, 2014a).

As calculated for 2014 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

Although the Adaptive Management Programme (AMP) was discontinued, the sub-area and feature limits within the overall Northern North Island (ORH 1) TACC have been kept. In the plenary document, catches for Mercury-Colville box are to be maintained at 30 tons (MPI, 2014a). The agreement by stakeholders was done after the last AMP, it is considered that this decision is based on scientific recommendations but no quantitative advice is provided.

As calculated for 2009 data.

This measures the Catch as a percentage of the Set TACC.

The Catch is 0.0240 ('000 t). The Set TACC is 0.0300 ('000 t) .

The underlying Catch/Set TACC for this index is 80.0%.

STOCK HEALTH:

As calculated for 2001 data.

This measures the as a percentage of the .

The is . The is .

The underlying / for this index is .

No data available for recruitment
Data notes

1) The current status of the stock is unknown since there are not current abundance indices to compare with the reference points. No new information was added since then so scores #4 and #5 cannot be determined. Assessments (2001) were carried out for three alternative sets of biomass indices that presented similar results. Alternative 2 and 3 are represented in the graphic above for the period 1999-2000 (MPI, 2014a). A Catch per Unit Effort index is also presented (tons/tow) from 1992/1993 to 2008/2009 (Anderson and Dunn, 2012).

2) The fishing season lasts 12 months until the end of September; accordingly, the 2015 data refers to the October 2014 – September 2015 season.

3) According to the Annual Operational Plan 2013/2014, the management approach of this fishery is “subject to proposed ORH management strategy evaluation” (MPI, 2013). Score #1 was determined qualitatively and based on the available information (please mouse-over for further details).

4) Scientists and managers work in close relationship in the process of defining catch limits. The TAC is set by the Minister for the stock as a whole and catch limits for each sub-stock are agreed with the industry. The scientific advice is embedded in the management of the stock carried out by the Ministry for Primary Industries; we’re thus assuming advised TACC = set TACC (catch limits) until 2006/2007. The agreement by stakeholders was done after the last adaptive management programme (in place until 2006/2007), it is considered that this decision is based on scientific recommendations but as no quantitative advice has been provided since then, score #2 was determined qualitatively (please mouse-over for further details).

5) Catches for Mercury-Colville box are to be maintained at 30 tons. Implemented since 2000/2001, this limit regards orange roughy bycatch in the black cardinalfish fishery (MPI, 2014a). Score #3 is based on data for the 2008/2009 fishing season since reported catches are only available until 2009.

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Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

No related FIPs

Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

No related MSC certifications

Sources

Credits

Anderson, O.F. and Dunn, M.R., 2012. Descriptive analysis of catch and effort data from New Zealand orange roughy fisheries in ORH 1, 2A, 2B, 3A, 3B, 7A, and 7B to the end of the 2008–09 fishing year. New Zealand Fisheries Assessment Report 2012/20. 82 p. http://deepwater.hosting.outwide.net/wp-content/uploads/2013/08/Anderson-Dunn-2012-Descriptive-analysis-of-cpue-in-ORH-to-2008%E2%80%9309-FAR-2012-20.pdf

Cordue, P.L. 2014. A Management Strategy Evaluation for orange roughy, ISL Client Report for Deepwater Group Ltd, 42pp.http://deepwater.co.nz/wp-content/uploads/2014/08/Cordue-2014-A-Management-Strategy-Evaluation-for-Orange-Roughy.-ISL-Re....pdf

Deepwater Group (DWG), 2014c. Summary Paper: Orange Roughy Harvest Strategy. Confidential Proposed Orange Roughy Harvest Strategy, August 2014. 3pphttp://deepwater.co.nz/wp-content/uploads/2014/08/DWG-2014-Summary-Paper-ORH-Harvest-Strategy.pdf

Leathwick, J., Moilanen, A., Francis, M., Elith, J., Taylor, P., Julian, K., Hastie, T., Duffy, C., 2008. Novel methods for the design and evaluation of marine protected areas in offshore waters. Conservation Letters 1: 91–102 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1755-263X.2008.00012.x

Ministry for Primary Industries (MPI), 2009. Habitat Protection and Research, Benthic protection areas [Accessed 15 August 2014]http://www.fish.govt.nz/en-nz/Environmental/Seabed+Protection+and+Research/Benthic+Protection+Areas.htm

Ministry for Primary Industries (MPI), 2010. Orange roughy - Fisheries Plan. February 2010. 48pp http://www.fish.govt.nz/NR/rdonlyres/9A1D6630-3B77-4739-82AB-DABCDE6FBE84/0/NFP_Deepwater_and_Middledepth_Fisheries_Part_1B_ORANGEROUGHY.pdf

Ministry for Primary Industries (MPI), 2013. Annual Operational Plan for Deepwater Fisheries for 2013/14, MPI Technical Paper No: 2013/52, July, 76 pp. http://www.mpi.govt.nz/news-resources/publications.aspx

Ministry for Primary Industries (MPI), 2014. Fisheries Assessment Plenary, May 2014: stock assessments and stock status (volume 2: John Dory to Red Gurnard). Compiled by the Fisheries Science Group, Ministry for Primary Industries, Wellington, New Zealand. 1381 pp.http://fs.fish.govt.nz/Doc/23540/Fisheries%20Assessment%20Plenary%20May%202014%20Volume%202.pdf.ashx

Ministry of Fisheries (MoF), 2008. Harvest strategy standard for New Zealand Fisheries. Ministry of Fisheries, Wellington, New Zealand. 25p.http://www.fish.govt.nz/en-nz/Consultations/Archive/2008/Harvest+Strategy+Standard/default.htm?WBCMODE=PresentationUnpublished

Rieser, A., Watling, L., Guinotte, J. 2013. Trawl fisheries, catch shares and the protection of benthic marine ecosystems: Has ownership generated incentives for seafloor stewardship? Marine Policy 40: 75–83 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X12002692

References

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