Last updated on 1 July 2016

SUMMARY

SUMMARY

IDENTIFICATION

SCIENTIFIC NAME(s)

Penaeus merguiensis

SPECIES NAME(s)

Banana prawn, banana prawn

Banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis) constituted the largest portion of wild shrimp production in Indonesia, followed by endeavor shrimp (Metapenaeus endeavouri) and jumbo/tiger shrimp (P. monodon).


ANALYSIS

Strengths

Indonesia has had a set of laws, regulations and policies aiming to support fisheries management in the form of Ministerial Regulations (Permen), and Minister Decrees (Kepmen). In addition to regulations and policies, the Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries (MMAF), the authority responsible for managing the fisheries resources formed a National Commission for the Assessment of Fisheries Resources (Komnas Kajiskan). This commission is responsible to provide support and give recommendations to the Minister in setting the potential yield and total allowable catch, as inputs for the policy materials in responsible fisheries management within the Fisheries Management Areas (FMAs) of the Republic of Indonesia.

Weaknesses

There is no nation-wide available stock assessment and no official set TACs either. Population biological parameters have never been set. For many years harvest level have been exceeding MSY, showing that the stock is being overfished or fully utilized. The Minister Decree issued in 2011 (KEP 45/MEN/2011) about the status and potential estimates of fish resources in each FMAs, which was intended to be used as a basis for managing fisheries resources, has considered the shrimps to be be over exploited in most of FMAs.

FISHSOURCE SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

< 6

Managers Compliance:

< 6

Fishers Compliance:

< 6

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

< 6

Future Health:

< 6


RECOMMENDATIONS

CATCHERS & REGULATORS

1. Encourage and support research to define the stock status of Indonesian shrimp. Initial steps should be taken to work with researchers to study the shrimp population and to develop a conservation strategy.
2. Urge Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries to force fishing vessels to activate vessel monitoring systems (VMS) and report catch data. This initiative should be continued and intensified to reduce illegal fishing practices and at the same time can be used to start collecting some initial data for stock assessment.
3. Encourage the use of more environmentally friendly fishing gears (e.g., larger minimum mesh sizes and development of a more appropriate bycatch reduction device); stricter enforcement of bans on trawling in inshore areas; increased use of mother ships for bycatch collection at sea; and reduced fishing effort.

RETAILERS & SUPPLY CHAIN

1. Buyers to ask their suppliers to confirm that the source is a wild shrimp fishery, and to provide more information on the location of the fishing grounds (e.g. industrial fishery which operates in Arafura and Timor Seas, or artisanal fisheries from elsewhere in Indonesia).
2. Ensure the product is from a legal fishery and verify with supporting documentation such as the catch certificate that is already required for import into the European Union.
3. Ask suppliers to initiate discussions on fishery improvements with SFP.


FIPS

No related FIPs

CERTIFICATIONS

No related MSC fisheries

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
Indonesia Indonesia Beach seines
Bottom trawls
Danish seines
Stow nets
Surrounding nets without purse lines
Trammel nets

Analysis

OVERVIEW

Last updated on 1 August 2013

Strengths
Indonesia
Indonesia

Last updated on 1 August 2013

Indonesia has had a set of laws, regulations and policies aiming to support fisheries management in the form of Ministerial Regulations (Permen), and Minister Decrees (Kepmen). In addition to regulations and policies, the Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries (MMAF), the authority responsible for managing the fisheries resources formed a National Commission for the Assessment of Fisheries Resources (Komnas Kajiskan). This commission is responsible to provide support and give recommendations to the Minister in setting the potential yield and total allowable catch, as inputs for the policy materials in responsible fisheries management within the Fisheries Management Areas (FMAs) of the Republic of Indonesia.

Weaknesses
Indonesia
Indonesia

Last updated on 1 August 2013

There is no nation-wide available stock assessment and no official set TACs either. Population biological parameters have never been set. For many years harvest level have been exceeding MSY, showing that the stock is being overfished or fully utilized. The Minister Decree issued in 2011 (KEP 45/MEN/2011) about the status and potential estimates of fish resources in each FMAs, which was intended to be used as a basis for managing fisheries resources, has considered the shrimps to be be over exploited in most of FMAs.

RECOMMENDATIONS

Last updated on 28 June 2016

Improvement Recommendations to Catchers & Regulators

1. Encourage and support research to define the stock status of Indonesian shrimp. Initial steps should be taken to work with researchers to study the shrimp population and to develop a conservation strategy.
2. Urge Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries to force fishing vessels to activate vessel monitoring systems (VMS) and report catch data. This initiative should be continued and intensified to reduce illegal fishing practices and at the same time can be used to start collecting some initial data for stock assessment.
3. Encourage the use of more environmentally friendly fishing gears (e.g., larger minimum mesh sizes and development of a more appropriate bycatch reduction device); stricter enforcement of bans on trawling in inshore areas; increased use of mother ships for bycatch collection at sea; and reduced fishing effort.

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain

1. Buyers to ask their suppliers to confirm that the source is a wild shrimp fishery, and to provide more information on the location of the fishing grounds (e.g. industrial fishery which operates in Arafura and Timor Seas, or artisanal fisheries from elsewhere in Indonesia).
2. Ensure the product is from a legal fishery and verify with supporting documentation such as the catch certificate that is already required for import into the European Union.
3. Ask suppliers to initiate discussions on fishery improvements with SFP.

1.STOCK STATUS

STOCK ASSESSMENT
Indonesia
Indonesia

Last updated on 19 July 2009

A comprehensive nation-wide biological stock assessment is not available for shrimp, but there are a few on a regional scale that is limited in geographic scope, and therefore not representative of the country situation. These stock assessments are mainly based on yield, mainly based on research vessels or historical harvest data of large commercial fishing vessels. In addition to that, some stock density estimates also have been made for a few Fisheries Management Areas (FMAs). These studies have raised concerns about indications of overfishing.

SCIENTIFIC ADVICE
Indonesia
Indonesia

Last updated on 18 July 2009

In 2005, the National Commission for Fish Stocks was formed. Previously there has been no such commission, and there was no outlet for systematically offering advice to the government. The current Commission is made of government officials, academics, industry representatives and others, and has released several recommendations for the government. In general, scientific advice for TAC is set at level of 80% of MSY, estimated to be 95 thousand t for all penaeid shrimps nationally.

Reference Points

Last updated on 18 Jul 2009

In general, wild penaeid shrimps have a short life span. By 6 months they reach maturity, reaching the peak for commercial harvesting at age one. At 24 months, if they have not been harvested, they die. Population biological parameters are not available for all shrimp fisheries. At the sub-national level, some estimates of biomass were made, for example for the Arafura Sea, using harvest data from 1991 to 1998 provided by the association of shrimp trawlers (FAO, 2001).

CURRENT STATUS
Indonesia
Indonesia

Last updated on 26 October 2011

Since there are no set biological reference points, the status of Indonesian penaeid shrimp population cannot be determined against the reference points.However, some approaches to estimate population status can be done using some other available parameters, such as utilization level.Based on utilization level, it is noted that many of Indonesia’s penaeid shrimps stocks status is overfished or fully utilized. Shrimp harvests are fished beyond the maximum sustainable yield. Harvest level in 2001 was almost three-fold the MSY level.

Trends

Last updated on 26 Oct 2011

The main shrimp species harvested commercially in Indonesia are from the penaeidae family, the main ones of which are endeavor shrimps, Metapenaeus ensis and M. monoceros; banana shrimps, Penaeus merguiensis and P. indicus; and jumbo/tiger shrimps, P. monodon, P. semisulcatus, and P. esculentus. In recent years, additional categories have been included in national statistics, i.e. tiger cat/rainbow shrimp (Parapenaeopsis sculptitis) and king/blue legged prawn (Penaeus latisulcatus). Some other species are also harvested, but reported under the ‘Others’ category, which make up the largest grouping of shrimp harvest. In the latest report released in 2007, the MMAF indicate that there has been a reduction in the production of shrimp to 260 thousand tonnes, compared to the 2001 of 274 tonnes. In terms of the harvest composition, there are some changes, however nothing conclusive can be drawn about the pattern without further investigation.

Between 1992 and 2000, the number of shrimp trawlers doubled and the number of fish trawlers more than tripled, however, during that period, total recorded annual landings from the Arafura Sea only rose by little more than a third for shrimp (from around 18,000 to 25,000 tonnes) and by slightly more than half for fish (from 170,000 to 262,000 tonnes). The fact that the annual recorded landings for shrimp and fish did not increase in line with the increase in number of licensed vessels provides evidence of overfishing.

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

MANAGEMENT
Indonesia
Indonesia

Last updated on 19 July 2009

There is no officially set TACs. Management of the shrimp fisheries, as in other fisheries in Indonesia, is mainly by input controls through licensing, implementation of log book system, installment of a vessel monitoring system, and institutional strengthening. Given that many of Indonesia’s fish stock status is overfished or fully utilized, including shrimp stocks, the central government has reduced the number of vessel licenses it has issued. On the other hand, given new autonomy over natural resource management, provincial and local governments have expanded the granting of fishing licenses.

Recovery Plans

Last updated on 19 Jul 2009

There is no recovery plan in place apart from input controls in the form of re-licensing and enhanced monitoring of harvesting. Previously, MMAF had very poor licensing system where even the license holder’s office location was unknown. Improvements are made to the licensing system (Fegan, 2005), but as mentioned above, efforts by the central government to reduce fishing effort are reversed by provincial and local governments who are in favor of expanding the fishing effort through the granting of new vessel licenses.

COMPLIANCE
Indonesia
Indonesia

Last updated on 17 June 2013

Although no TACs have been set by the fishery managers so far, scientific advice for TAC is set at 80% of MSY, estimated to be 95 thousands t for all penaeid shrimps nationally. In reality, for many years production has been in excess of MSY, therefore researchers have called for a reduction in fishing effort in the fishery.In addition to that, violation of fishery regulation is rampant, including in the shrimp fishery. The most conspicuous is poaching (fishing without an entitlement or license to fish), the use of falsified or forged documents, and underreporting or misreporting of catch.

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

BYCATCH
ETP Species
Indonesia
Indonesia

Last updated on 19 July 2009

The main endangered species caught by the trawl shrimp fishery in Indonesia are turtles. Since 1982, the Indonesian government have obligated shrimp trawls to install bycatch reduction devices (including turtle excluder devices); however, serious implementation of this policy did not come into fruition until the U.S. stipulation, in 1996, that shrimp capture in exporting countries should inflict no harm on marine turtles, and further, that incidental capture rate must be comparable to rates in the U.S. Nationally, the rate of turtle capture is unknown, however data from select vessels have shown that it is much less than the rate of capture in the tuna fisher. In 2004, one vessel in the Arafura Sea caught 2 turtles in 17 hauls in (Purbayanto et al., 2004), 7 turtles in over 450 hauls in 1990-1992 (FAO, 2001), 2 turtles in 20 hauls in 1997 (Chokesanguan, 1997).It is unclear as to the turtle species being caught.

Other Species
Indonesia
Indonesia

Last updated on 19 July 2009

Although there are methods to avoid bycatch such as equipping nets with Turtle Exclusion Device (TED), in general it is an unavoidable consequence of trawls, and precisely its effectiveness makes it an attractive gear to use. Alverson et al., (1996) placed the Indonesian shrimp fishery as second in the world in terms of bycatch, citing for every 1 kg of shrimp landed there is 12.01 kg of bycatch. The problem with large volumes of bycatch in Indonesia is expected to escalate in the future, since the MMAF have indicated expansion is still possible since the current number of shrimp trawls is only 80% of the allocated number of vessel. In 2005, a large program to reduce bycatch in the shrimp fisheries was initiated, funded the FAO, UNEP and GEF (the REBYC program, i.e. Reduction of Environmental Impact form Tropical Shrimp Trawling, through the Introduction of Bycatch Reduction Technologies and Change of Management).

HABITAT
Indonesia
Indonesia

Last updated on 19 July 2009

Since 1983 trawl nets have been banned in Indonesia except east of longitude 130° E (essentially east of Tanimbar Islands, and only for single vessel trawls as pair trawls are still banned). Given the main target of the fishery and the accommodating regulation, trawls (shrimp and fish trawls) have become the vessel type of choice in the main shrimp fishing ground of Arafura Sea, comprising 38% (1,004 vessels) of all centrally-licensed vessels (2,629 vessels) in 2003. This gear is more indiscriminate than others because the net scoops up everything in the trawl’s path. The main negative environmental externality from the use of trawls is the large amount of bycatch it generates; for bottom trawls (trawls targeting shrimp and demersal fishes), an additional negative impact is the dredging of the ocean floor.

Marine Reserves

Last updated on 19 Jul 2009

There are 35 marine conservation areas (protected areas) in Indonesia by 2002, totaling 47 thousands km2 (De Fretes, 2008). Compared to Indonesia’s total marine territory of 7.9 million km2 (including the Exclusive Economic Zone), this is far from sufficient.Many of these protected areas include mangrove forests, the spawning grounds for shrimp and other marine biotas. In mid 2000s, parts of Bintuni Bay, which holds the largest mangrove area in Indonesia (and second largest in Asia), was given protected status (nature reserve). The Bay is an important spawning ground for shrimp (TNC, undated).Apart from these reserves, there are no plans for specifically protecting spawning ground and other shrimp habitats.

FishSource Scores

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

As calculated for 2012 data.

The score is < 6.

Scientific advice for TAC is set at level of 80% of MSY available but this fishery is considered Fully exploited (FAO, 2011).

As calculated for 2012 data.

The score is < 6.

There is no officially set TACs. Management is mainly by input controls through licensing, implementation of log book system, installment of a vessel monitoring system, and institutional strengthening.

As calculated for 2012 data.

The score is < 6.

There are no official set TAC but catches are well above advised TAC.

STOCK HEALTH:

As calculated for 2012 data.

The score is < 6.

There is no Biomass estimates available but this fishery is considered Fully exploited (FAO, 2011).

As calculated for 2012 data.

The score is < 6.

For many years production has been in excess of MSY, therefore researchers have called for a reduction in fishing effort in the fishery.

No data available for biomass
No data available for biomass
To see data for catch and tac, please view this site on a desktop.
No data available for fishing mortality
No data available for fishing mortality
No data available for recruitment
No data available for recruitment
To see data for management quality, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for stock status, please view this site on a desktop.
DATA NOTES
Indonesia
Indonesia

Last updated on 17 June 2013

There are no biological reference points defined for this stock, biomass estimates neither officially set TACs, so all scores were qualitatively determined (mouse-over for details).

Download Source Data

Registered users can download the original data file for calculating the scores after logging in. If you wish, you can Register now.

Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

No related FIPs

Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

No related MSC certifications

Sources

Credits
  1. Agoes E.R. (2005). “Adequacy of Indonesian Laws and Regulations to Combat IUU Fishing: An Evaluation of the New Law on Fisheries”- paper presented to the National Workshop on IUU Fishing in Indonesia-Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries (Indonesia) and Centre for Maritime Policy (University of Wollongong)- Jakarta 28 April.http://www.illegal-fishing.info/uploads/Indonesia-law-on-fisheries-evaluation.pdf
  2. Alverson, D., M. Freeberg, S. Murawski, and J. Pope. 1996. A Global Assessment of Fisheries bycatch and discards. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). Online http://www.fao.org/DOCREP/003/T4890E/T4890E00.HTM
  3. Charoenpo, A. (2002), “Illegal Thai Fishing Robbed Indonesia of Billions of Catches and Cash”, Southeast Asian Press Alliancehttp://www.seapabkk.org/fellowships/2002/anucha.html
  4. Chokesanguan, B. 1999. “Review of the Implementation and Use of TEDs and Current Research in Southeast Asia”. Paper presented at the Second ASEAN Symposium and Workshop on Sea Turtle Biology and Conservation, 15-17 July 1999 in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia. Onlinehttp://www.arbec.com.my/sea-turtles/art33julysept01.htm
  5. Dwiponggo, A., T. Hariati, S. Banon, M. Palomares, D. Pauly. 1986. Growth, Mortality and Recruitment of Commercially Important Fishes and Penaeid Shrimps in Indonesian Waters. ICLARM Technical Reports 17. Manila: ICLARMCommercially_important_fish_and_shrimp_in_Indo_waters.pdf
  6. FAO. 2011. Review of the state of world marine Fishery resources. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Technical Paper No. 569. Rome, FAO. 2011. 334 pp.http://www.fao.org/docrep/015/i2389e/i2389e.pdf
  7. FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization). 2001. Tropical shrimp fisheries and their impact on living resources. Shrimp fisheries in Asia: Bangladesh, Indonesia and the Philippines; in the Near East: Bahrain and Iran; in Africa: Cameroon, Nigeria and the United Republic of Tanzania; in Latin America: Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela. FAO Fisheries Circular. No. 974. Rome: FAO. 2001. 378p. http://www.fao.org/docrep/007/y2859e/y2859e00.HTM
  8. Gillet, R. 2000. “Assistance in Marine Fisheries Legislation: Indonesia”. Report of the Fisheries Management Specialist to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). TCP/INS/8922.http://www.coraltrianglecenter.org/downloads/Gillet2000.pdf
  9. Holthuis, L.B. (1980), Shrimps and Prawns of the World, Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Species Catalogue Vol. 1, Rome. http://www.fao.org/docrep/009/ac477e/ac477e00.htm
  10. MMAF (Directorate General of Marine and Fisheries Surveillance, Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries Indonesia). 2006b. “Jumlah Alokasi Unit dan GT Izin Usaha Berdasarkan Alat Tangkat dan Wilayan Pengelolaan Perikanan” (Vessel Allocation and Licensing based on Gear Type and Fishery Management Area). http://dkp.go.id
  11. Nédélec, C and J. Prado. 1999. Definition and Classification of Fishing Gear Categories. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper 222 Rev. 1. Rome: FAO. Online http://www.fao.org/docrep/008/t0367t/t0367t00.htm
  12. TNC (The Nature Conservancy). Undated. Protecting the World’s Third Largest Mangrove Area. Factsheet. Online http://www.nature.org/wherewework/asiapacific/indonesia/work/art13456.html
  13. Trust Economic and Business Magazine. 2008. “Kita tahu Ikan Dicuri, Kalau Ada yang Ketangkap” (We Only know that Fish are Illegally Caught when We Apprehend the Thief)Interview with the Director General of Marine and Fisheries Resources Monitoring.http://www.majalahtrust.com/bisnis/interview/1592.php
References

    Comments

    This tab will disappear in 5 seconds.

    Comments on:

    Banana prawn - Indonesia, Indonesia, Indonesia, Bottom trawls

    comments powered by Disqus