SUMMARY

SUMMARY

IDENTIFICATION

SCIENTIFIC NAME(s)

Oncorhynchus gorbuscha

SPECIES NAME(s)

Pink salmon

COMMON NAMES

pink salmon


ANALYSIS

Strengths

1. The Kamchatka Peninsula is the world’s only large-volume source of exclusively wild pink salmon. Stock status is fairly robust there. 2. Russian salmon fishery management has transitioned over the last 5 years from quota-based management to escapement-based management informed by pre-season forecasts. This change may result in more flexible, responsive, in-season management of the resource. 3. Beginning in 2008, fishing companies have been awarded long-term leases to fishing plots, reducing incentives to misreport harvest in order to receive a larger allocation in the subsequent season.

Weaknesses

1. Illegal, unregulated and unreported fishing is a serious problem in almost all Russian pink salmon fisheries, particularly on Kamchatka. 2. On Sakhalin Island, large contributions of hatchery fish to harvest in some areas (Southeast Sakhalin, Aniva Bay, Iturup Island) may result in unsustainably high harvest rates on wild stocks, as the hatchery fish are generally not temporally or spatially separate from wild fish. 3. Inadequate information is made publicly available, including information on in-season management decisions, escapement goals and the models upon which they are based, and mark-and-recapture results associated with the recent resurgence of hatchery marking programs.

FISHSOURCE SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

≥ 8

Managers Compliance:

≥ 8

Fishers Compliance:

≥ 8

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

≥ 8

Future Health:

≥ 8


RECOMMENDATIONS

RETAILERS & SUPPLY CHAIN

FIPS

No related FIPs

CERTIFICATIONS

No related MSC fisheries

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

DISTRICT MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
Chukhotka Russia Russian Federation Beach seines
Fixed gillnets (on stakes)
Traps
East Kamchatka Russia Russian Federation Beach seines
Fixed gillnets (on stakes)
Traps
Iturup Island Sakhalin Russia Russian Federation Purse seines
Traps
Khabarovsk Krai and Amur Russia Russian Federation Beach seines
Traps
Magadan Russia Russian Federation Beach seines
Traps
Northeast Sakhalin Russia Russian Federation Beach seines
Traps
Primoriya Russia Russian Federation Beach seines
Traps
Sakhalin and Kuril Islands Russia Russian Federation Beach seines
Traps
West Kamchatka Russia Russian Federation Beach seines
Fixed gillnets (on stakes)
Traps

Analysis

OVERVIEW

Last updated on 1 July 2008

Strengths

1. The Kamchatka Peninsula is the world’s only large-volume source of exclusively wild pink salmon. Stock status is fairly robust there. 2. Russian salmon fishery management has transitioned over the last 5 years from quota-based management to escapement-based management informed by pre-season forecasts. This change may result in more flexible, responsive, in-season management of the resource. 3. Beginning in 2008, fishing companies have been awarded long-term leases to fishing plots, reducing incentives to misreport harvest in order to receive a larger allocation in the subsequent season.

Weaknesses

1. Illegal, unregulated and unreported fishing is a serious problem in almost all Russian pink salmon fisheries, particularly on Kamchatka. 2. On Sakhalin Island, large contributions of hatchery fish to harvest in some areas (Southeast Sakhalin, Aniva Bay, Iturup Island) may result in unsustainably high harvest rates on wild stocks, as the hatchery fish are generally not temporally or spatially separate from wild fish. 3. Inadequate information is made publicly available, including information on in-season management decisions, escapement goals and the models upon which they are based, and mark-and-recapture results associated with the recent resurgence of hatchery marking programs.

RECOMMENDATIONS
Chukhotka

Last updated on 26 December 2018

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain

1.STOCK STATUS

STOCK ASSESSMENT

Last updated on 1 July 2008

Assessments of stocks are conducted by measurements of fry emigration (hatchery releases plus fry net sampling near mouths of index rivers), adult escapements monitored at trap nets and from aerial and ground surveys of spawning areas, and commercial catch records. Assessment effort and thoroughness varies by region in the Far East.

Prior to each fishing season, regional branches of the Federal Fisheries Agency forecast the total return of pink salmon to each region based on parent spawning escapements (two years earlier), hatchery releases, and spawner-recruit relationships. The target escapement is based on the proportion of spawning grounds occupied by spawners (see below for description). By subtracting target escapement from total returns, a pre-season Recommended Catch (RC) is calculated.

Since 2009, when the Total Allowable Catch (TAC) limit management system was eliminated and replaced with the RC, the RC is being used for planning purposes only rather than in-season management.

Estimates of total catch in trap nets and gill nets can be uncertain, with evidence of both under- and over-reporting.

SCIENTIFIC ADVICE

Last updated on 1 July 2008

Review of data and methods of assessment go through a series of steps. Review of the Recommended Catch (RC) occurs first at the regional scale. Forecasts and the RC are then presented to the Federal Fisheries Agency main branch (Rosrybolovstvo), and the information is subject to final approval by the Prime Minister’s office.

After federal approval, the RC is implemented by regional Commissions for Anadromous Fish Fisheries (CAFFs). In the pre-season, CAFFs allocate the RC first by fishing zone, and then by individual fishing plot. Any in-season RC adjustment recommended by scientists is subject to approval by Federal Fishery Agency regional branches and CAFFs.

During the season, CAFFs can make changes to allocations on the basis of ongoing spawning migration surveys. Fishing pressure is managed with the objective of achieving escapement goals established for main spawning rivers of Sakhalin (Trumble and Lajus 2008; Portley and Geiger 2014). Independent research has indicated that many official escapement goals do not reflect the actual freshwater habitat capacity (i.e. there is greater spawning area in the rivers than that which is reflected by the figures used in fishery management) (Makeev 2011).

Reference Points

Last updated on 01 Jul 2008

Escapement performance against goals is generally strong over the last 15 years (1998-2012) in the main salmon regions of Kamchatka and Sakhalin. See nested fishery profiles for data and references.

However, in Khabarovsk, meanwhile, average escapements throughout the region (excluding the Amur River basin) were at only 18% of reference points in 2010 and 17% in 2009 (Zolotukhin 2009; 2010). Meanwhile, according to Augerot and Foley, pink salmon stocks in Primoriya were at high risk of extinction as of 2005 (2005). Low pink productivity in this region is generally attributed to changes in ocean conditions and Primoriya’s vulnerable southernmost position in the pink salmon habitat range rather than to poor management decisions (Markovtsev 2006; Semenchenko 2010).

CURRENT STATUS

Last updated on 1 July 2008

Stock status for salmon is reflected by multi-year escapement trends and performance against various escapement targets (see synopsis under reference point section and more detailed information under district profiles). 

While catch and escapement are generally exhibiting increasing trends over the last 15 years (1998-2012) on Sakhalin and Kamchatka, there are particular stocks in the mainland regions of Primoriya and Kamchatka, as well as the Sea of Japan stock of Southwest Sakhalin, that are in a depleted state. See also "Trends" section.

Trends

Last updated on 01 Jul 2008

Russian pink salmon stock productivity is generally healthy, and catches have been increasing since the ocean current regime change of 1989 (Irvine et al. 2009). Sakhalin Island has been the leading region for harvest of pink salmon in the recent past, closely followed by Kamchatka.

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

MANAGEMENT

Last updated on 1 July 2008

The primary means of managing harvest in the fishery are by setting the length of the season, mandating the size and location of trap nets (no closer than 1 km from the river mouth), and making in-season adjustments to fishing pressure and location through decisions of the CAFFs.

However, there is not publicly available evidence that spatial or temporal closures are being actively enacted by all regional Russian pink salmon fisheries when management objectives are not being met. Inadequate management responsiveness may be partly responsible for declines in the Sakhalin Sea of Japan pink salmon stock (Trumble and Lajus 2008), although these declines are ongoing for two decades. Meanwhile, the West Kamchatka pink salmon fishery had a banner year for catch in 2012, but missed the presumed regional escapement goal of 70% of spawning capacity (Klovach et al. 2013).

Particularly on Sakhalin but elsewhere in the Far East as well, on an annual basis through decisions of the CAFF, in-river weirs are put into place at river mouths to block upriver salmon migration and perceived “over-escapement” that would lead to elevated enroute or pre-spawning mortality or redd superimposition. Questions remain as to whether this over-escapement clause is misused by managers and fishermen to increase harvests (when the weirs are in place, all returning fish are harvested at the river mouth by the owner of the adjacent coastal fishing plot). Independent monitoring has indicated cases where in-river weirs are permitted by the CAFF but escapement for the particular rivers is below 100% of spawning capacity (Sakhalin Environment Watch 2011).

Recovery Plans

Last updated on 01 Jul 2008

Russia’s salmon fishery regulations do not include a stock of regulatory concern listing system nor requirements to develop recovery plans for at-risk stocks.

There is precedence for year-to-year management measures to reduce pressure on at-risk stocks (e.g., Sea of Japan pink), which have been implemented through regional Commissions for Anadromous Fish Fisheries (CAFF). For example, the Sakhalin CAFF closed the Southwest Sakhalin salmon fishery in 2013.

COMPLIANCE

Last updated on 1 July 2008

One of the key problems in Russia’s salmon fisheries is lack of compliance of laws and regulations, specifically illegal, unregulated and unreported (IUU) fishing. One may distinguish two types of illegal fishing for salmon in Russia: 1) exceeding of quota by companies that have a fishing permit (unreported); and 2) poaching, which is performed by persons and teams who have no permit at all (illegal).

Poaching for Pacific salmon is common in all regions of the Russian Far East. Predominantly poachers’ activities include fishing for females on spawning grounds or adjacent parts of rivers to obtain roe (salmon eggs). Once the roe is removed from females, carcasses of fish (both females and males) are often buried in deep pits or just left where they were harvested to decompose. Such poaching was most common in the 1990s because of severe socio-economic conditions, weak enforcement by government, and corruption. There seems to be a correlation between the amount of poaching and deteriorating economic conditions. Anecdotal evidence suggests the scale of poaching may have decreased slightly in recent years as socio-economic conditions of people have improved and because the government has provided more effective protection.

The product of poaching is usually salted roe which is then sold to dealers and sold in local and national markets. Little evidence suggests that illegally harvested roe is shipped overseas. Roe is an important source of income for many local people especially in more remote parts of the Sakhalin Island where the transport system is less developed, control over poaching is weaker and socio-economic conditions are more severe. Poachers use gillnets and seines on the main rivers, blocking portions of, or entire salmon runs, with wire mesh. Under the current fisheries management system that manages the fishery via spawning escapement goals, poaching can result in a decrease of legal catch, but may not affect reproductive capacity of the population assuming the monitoring of spawning grounds indicates that sufficient density of spawning occurs. However, this presumes effective “real time” management. In some areas of Russia, poaching has caused serious depletion of salmon spawning escapement, while in other areas monitoring shows that the escapement regularly reaches escapement goals.

The scale of poaching has not been accurately estimated, and assessments vary by region. A 2008 UNDP document estimated poaching of pink salmon in the Bolshaya River on Kamchatka in 2002-2006 at 22% of the legal catch (UNDP 2008). Meanwhile, the 2008 MSC pre-assessment of the Sakhalin island salmon fishery estimated poaching at 20-25% of the legal catch.

In 2009, salmon fishing plots in the main salmon regions (Kamchatka and Sakhalin) were allocated for the first time to commercial fishermen by long-term (20 year) lease. It was considered that this could reduce illegal fishing volumes by fostering a sense of long-term stewardship among fishermen. The new system has now been in place for four years and, therefore, it is too early for final evaluation of whether or not it has resulted in reduced illegal fishing. No comprehensive studies of illegal fishing volumes have been undertaken in 2010-2013, and government regulatory entities have also not attempted to generate formal estimates. Anecdotal reports do indicate that illegal fishing is still continuing at considerable levels, at least on Kamchatka:

1. http://www.fishkamchatka.ru/?cont=long&id=41581&year=2013&today=04&month=02;

2. http://www.fishkamchatka.ru/?cont=long&id=42743&year=2013&today=02&month=04).

HATCHERY IMPACTS

Large-scale pink salmon hatchery production in Russia is restricted to the Sakhalin-Kuril Islands region (227.1 million releases in 2012). Hatcheries in Magadan release smaller quantities (5-23 million juveniles) annually (Zaporozhets and Zaporozhets 2011). There is currently no hatchery production of pink salmon on Kamchatka, in Khabarovsk, or in Primoriya.

In the Sakhalin-Kurils region, large contributions of hatchery fish to harvest in some areas may result in unsustainably high harvest rates on wild stocks, as the hatchery fish are not temporally or spatially separate from wild fish. Government hatcheries recently re-initiated a thermal marking program, indicating potential for increased commitment to management for wild stock conservation (Trumble and Lajus 2008). However, recapture survey results have not been made public for all years and districts in the fishery (notably, the Iturup MSC client Gidrostroy has established a website to make various reports available for its district fishery, but a similar endeavor has not been realized for the southern portion of the mainland).

Relative total hatchery and wild run sizes have been estimated based on hatchery release numbers and wild production inferred from natural escapements and juvenile monitoring (Kaev et al. 2007). Based on this we can approximate contribution to total catch and escapement of pink salmon in recent years as approaching 50% in the southern Sakhalin. Evidence exists that hatcheries are not necessarily augmenting total production. Kaev et al. (2008) has indicated that above approximately 200 million emigrating fry in southern Sakhalin, returns are primarily a function of ocean conditions. Therefore, increasing production beyond this threshold does not increase the likelihood of stronger returns. Evidence of density dependent effects in hatchery dominant systems suggest numerically more fish but of smaller size.

Additional risks associated with hatcheries include competitive and reproductive interactions between wild and hatchery fry. Reduction of hatchery releases may, in fact, result in a compensatory increase in wild salmon survival. There is currently work underway to develop a more robust estimate of the true contribution of hatchery operations through a marking program in a number of hatcheries. This program is an important step forward in assessing impact of hatchery production on wild salmon in the region. There is active debate among scientist and resource managers around the Pacific Rim about the overall role of hatcheries and whether they serve a net benefit for conservation and long-term sustainability of salmon fisheries.

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

FishSource Scores

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

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As calculated for 2012 data.

The score is ≥ 8.

Generally in Russia, target reference points for escapement into major spawning rivers are established with the input of index river studies, which establish “spawning ground area” measurements for entire basins. The reference points are derived from the spawning ground area measurements according to the following formula: one pink salmon per square meter, and two chum salmon per 3m2 (Makeev 2010). While the accuracy of several index river studies on Sakhalin was brought into question by a recent survey, the MSC assessment of the Iturup Island pink and chum fisheries found that the Russian escapement goals generally meet MSC standards, although in regions with hatchery production they need to incorporate straying data (i.e. conditions were attached to the Iturup Island certification) (SCS 2009; Makeev 2011). On the basis of this assessment, Russian fisheries without significant hatchery production generally rate “≥8” for FishSource criterion #2, and fisheries with hatchery production rate “≥6.”

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Management Responsiveness Subscores

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Adequacy of Data Subscores

STOCK HEALTH:

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Stock Status Subscores

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Hatchery Impacts Subscores

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DATA NOTES

Scores appearing at the region level reflect the range of scores for the district profiles in the region for each of the five FishSource scoring criteria.  District profiles are scored according to the complete FishSource salmon scoring method, which can be downloaded here. A summary of the method’s scoring criteria for district profiles follows below.

The FishSource sustainability criteria as applied to salmon: Criterion 1. Management Responsiveness (Is the management strategy precautionary?) 1.1 Over the last decade, has fisheries management exhibited in-season responsiveness to stock status? 1.2 Has fisheries management responded appropriately over the last 15 years when/if the stock has failed to meet management objectives and/or maintain yields? 1.3 Has management exhibited responsiveness to concerns regarding the conservation and restoration of the stock’s essential freshwater, estuarine and coastal habitats during the last ten years? Criterion 2. Management Guidelines (Do the managers follow scientific advice?) Have appropriate escapement goals or operational equivalents been developed and implemented for the fishery’s wild stocks? Criterion 3. Adequacy of Data (Do fishers comply?) 3.1 Is a portion of harvest attributable to illegal, unreported, or unregulated fishing, resulting in official harvest data that is lower than the actual catch? 3.2 Is the fishery’s harvest adequately and accurately measured and reported? 3.3 Has escapement been adequately and accurately measured and publicly reported? Criterion 4. Stock Status (Is the fish stock healthy?) 4.1 Have escapement measures for the fishery’s wild stocks been maintained above escapement goals or thresholds, or have harvest rates been below the target harvest rates? 4.2 Has the catch trend been level or increasing over a 15-year period? Criterion 5. Are hatcheries or other enhancement activities negatively affecting wild stocks? (Will the fish stock be healthy in the future?) 5.0 Do hatcheries account for 10% or less of the fishery’s total production, or are hatchery-produced fish not in substantial contact with wild salmon? If “no,” then the following sub-criteria are analyzed: 5.1 Are managers able to manage for the (wild) stocks in a fishery that also contains hatchery stocks of salmon? 5.2 Is there a low quantity of hatchery strays in the escapement throughout the freshwater habitat of the wild stock, and is hatchery straying quantified by means of a technically sound data collection and analysis? 5.3 Over the past 10 years, have hatchery strays, hatchery out-plants, or any returning hatchery-produced fish been intentionally allowed to mix with the wild stock during spawning? 5.4 Are there active and effective policies that (1) establish objectives for the conservation of wild salmon, (2) put into place operational systems that limit hatchery impacts on wild stocks, (3) grant sufficient oversight and authority over individual hatchery programs to management agencies, and (4) establish a hatchery evaluation system that monitors the performance of individual hatcheries against wild salmon conservation objectives?

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Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

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Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

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Sources

Credits
  1. Augerot, X. 2005. Atlas of Pacific salmon; the first map-based status assessment of salmon in the North Pacific. University of California Press, Berkeley, California, USA. http://www.stateofthesalmon.org/atlas/
  2. Chereshnev, I.A. 2008. Freshwater Fish of Chukhotka. Magadan: NESC FEB RAS: 324 pp.http://vuzer.info/load/shkola_licej_vuz/presnovodnye_ryby_chukotki_chereshnev_i_a/24-1-0-7972
  3. Golub, E.V. and Golub, A.P. 2010a. Materials regarding the Abundance and Biology of Chukhotka Pink Salmon. Tinro Center: Vladivostok, Primorski Krai.http://www.tinro-center.ru/attachments/237_140-146.pdf
  4. Golub, E.V. and Golub, A.P. 2010b. Results of a Ranking of Chukhotka Watersheds Most Important for Salmon Conservation. In Pavlov, D.S., Glubokovskiy, M.K. "Salmon Protected Areas in the Far East." VNIRO. Moscow, pp. 28-41. http://www.wildsalmoncenter.org/pdf/Salmon%20RFE%20Pavlov.pdf
  5. Golub, E.V. and Golub. A.P. 2011. 2011 Season Harvest and Monitoring Summary for Chukhotka. Chukhotka TINRO: Anadyr, Chukhotka. http://www.tinro-center.ru//attachments/article/676/33-40.pdf
  6. Makeev, S.S. 2010. Regulating the escapement of Adult Salmon.Sakhalin Salmon Initiative: Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk.http://rudocs.exdat.com/docs/index-206646.html?page=2
  7. Makeev, S.S. 2011. New Approaches to Assessing Habitat Capacity of Sakhalin Rivers. Vladimir Ya. Levanidov's Biennial Memorial Meetings. 5: pp. 329-345.http://www.biosoil.ru/levanidov/articles/a0542.pdf
  8. North Pacific Anadromous Fish Commission Statistical Yearbook. 1993-2009.http://www.npafc.org/new/pub_statistics.html
  9. Pacific Fisheries Research Center (TINRO Centre) and Russian Federal Research Institute of Fisheries and Oceanography (VNIRO). 2011. Biostatistical Information on Salmon Catches, Escapement and Enhancement Production in Russia in 2010. NPAFC Doc No. 1329.http://www.npafc.org/new/publications/Documents/PDF%202011/1329(Russia).pdf
  10. Scientific Certification Systems (SCS), 2009. MSC Assessment Iturup Island (Russia) Pink and Chum Salmon Fisheries Public Certification Report. Certificate Code: SCS-MFCP-F-0011.http://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/certified/pacific/iturup-island-pink-and-chum-salmon/assessment-downloads-1/10.09.2009-iturup-salmon-pcr.pdf
  1. Augerot, X. 2009. A Review of IUU Salmon Fishing and Potential Conservation Strategies in the Russian Far East. The Wild Salmon Center.http://www.wildsalmoncenter.org/pdf/WSC_IUU_paper_v3.pdf
  2. Dronova N.A., Spiridonov V.A. 2008. IUU fishing of Pacific salmon in Kamchatka. Moscow, WWF Russia/TRAFFIC Europe. http://www.wwf.ru/resources/publ/book/eng/313
  3. East Kamchatka pink salmon FishSource scorecard.East_Kamchatka_pink_scorecard.jpg
  4. East Kamchatka pink scorecardEast_Kamchatka_pink_scorecard.jpg
  5. FishSource. 2014. FishSource salmon profiles.http://www.fishsource.com
  6. Klovach N.V., Temnykh O.S., Shevlyakov V.A., Bugaev A.V., Kaev A.M., and Volobuev V.,V. Biostatistical Information on Salmon Catches, Escapement and Enhancement Production in Russia in 2012. NPAFC Doc. #1487.http://www.npafc.org/new/publications/Documents/PDF%202013/1487%28Russia%29.pdf
  7. Makeev, S.S. 2010. Regulating the Escapement of Adult Salmon.Sakhalin Salmon Initiative: Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk.http://rudocs.exdat.com/docs/index-206646.html?page=2
  8. NPAFC. North Pacific Anadromous Fish Commission Statistical Yearbook. 1993-2009.http://www.npafc.org/new/pub_statistics.html
  9. Pacific Fisheries Research Center (TINRO Centre) and Russian Federal Research Institute of Fisheries and Oceanography (VNIRO). 2012. Biostatistical Information on Salmon Catches, Escapement and Enhancement Production in Russia in 2011. NPAFC Doc No. 1430.http://www.npafc.org/new/publications/Documents/PDF%202012/1430%28Russia%29.pdf
  10. Ruggerone, G.T. et al. 2010. Magnitude and Trends in Abundance of Hatchery and Wild Pink Salmon, Chum Salmon and Sockeye Salmon in the North Pacific Ocean. Marine and Coastal Fisheries: Dynamics, Management, and Ecosystem Science. 2:306-328.http://www.bioone.org/doi/pdf/10.1577/C09-054.1
  11. Shevlyakov, E.A., and Maslov, A.V. 2011. The rivers determining reproduction of pacific salmons in Kamchatka as indicators of spawning grounds filling. Izv. TINRO. 164:114-139.________-______.pdf
  12. TINRO Center. 2012. Salmon 2012.http://www.tinro-center.ru/
  13. TINRO Center. 2013. Salmon 2013.http://www.tinro-center.ru/
  14. Vakhrin, Sergey. 2011. Two Rivers, Two Fates - One Alarming, One Tragic.http://www.fishkamchatka.ru/?cont=long&id=32389&year=2011&today=07&month=10&PHPSESSID=sazonqio
  1. Akinicheva, E. 2011. Results of marking and mark sampling of chum and pink salmon produced at Gidrostroy hatcheries on Iturup Island.http://www.gidrostroymsc.com/Enhancement.html
  2. Akinicheva, E.G., et al. 2013. Estimate of the proportion of hatchery-origin fish in set net harvests on Iturup Island in 2012.http://www.gidrostroymsc.com/Enhancement.html
  3. Akinicheva, E. G., L. K. Federova, and V. P. Pogodin. 2012. Partial identification of tagged pink salmon returning to Iturup Island in the years 2010-2011.http://www.gidrostroymsc.com/Enhancement.html
  4. Beamesderfer, R., Chaffee, C., Matsak, E., Vincent, A., 2015. Iturup Pink & Chum Salmon Fisheries Re-Assessment. SCS Global Services, August 2015. 268pphttps://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/fisheries-in-the-program/certified/pacific/iturup-island-pink-and-chum-salmon/Reassessment-downloads-1/SS-F_RPT_IturupReAssess_PublicCertificationReport_082715.pdf
  5. Beamesderfer, R., Vincent, A., 2013. Iturup Island Pink & Chum Salmon Fishery. 2013 4th MSC Surveillance Visit Report. SCS Global Services, Inc., November 2013, 57pphttp://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/fisheries-in-the-program/certified/pacific/iturup-island-pink-and-chum-salmon/assessment-downloads-1/20131108_SR_SAL62.pdf
  6. Iturup pink scorecardIturup_pink_scorecard.jpg
  7. Russian Federal Government. 2006. "Federal Target Program: Socio-Economic Development Plan for the Kuril Islands (Sakhalin Oblast): 2007-2015." http://minsvyaz.ru/common/upload/prog_478_09.08.2006.pdf
  8. Scientific Certification Systems (SCS), 2011. Iturup Island Pink and Chum Salmon Fishery 2010 MSC Surveillance Visit Report. Certificate Code: SCS-MFCP-F-0011.http://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/certified/pacific/iturup-island-pink-and-chum-salmon/assessment-downloads-1/27.01.2011_Iturup_2010_Surveillance.pdf
  9. Scientific Certification Systems (SCS), 2011. Iturup Island Pink and Chum Salmon Fishery 2011 MSC Surveillance Visit Report. Certificate Code: SCS-MFCP-F-0011. http://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/certified/pacific/iturup-island-pink-and-chum-salmon/assessment-downloads-1/20120413_SR.pdf
  10. Scientific Certification Systems (SCS), 2013. Iturup Island Pink & Chum Salmon Fishery 2013 - 3rd MSC Surveillance Visit Report. January 2013. 44pphttp://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/fisheries-in-the-program/certified/pacific/iturup-island-pink-and-chum-salmon/assessment-downloads-1/20130416_SR_SAL62.pdf
  11. Zhivotovsky, Lev A. et. al. 17 June, 2011. Rapid expansion of an enhanced stock of chum salmon and its impacts on wild population components. Environmental Biology of Fishes. pp. 1-10.http://gidrostroymsc.com/uploads/Zhivotovsky_-_Rapid_Expansion-ENG.pdf
  1. Augerot, X. 2009. A Review of IUU Salmon Fishing and Potential Conservation Strategies in the Russian Far East. The Wild Salmon Center. http://www.wildsalmoncenter.org/pdf/WSC_IUU_paper_v3.pdf
  2. Augerot, X., Foley, D.N., 2005. Atlas of Pacific Salmon. University of California Press, Berkeley.http://www.stateofthesalmon.org/atlas/
  3. Kanzeparova, A.N., Podorozhnuk, E.V. and Ponomarev, S.D. С.Д. 2011. Abundance of Chum and Pink Salmon in Khabarovskiy Krai. TINRO Center: Vladivostok, Primorskiy Krai.http://www.tinro-center.ru//attachments/article/676/41-48.pdf
  4. Makeev, S.S. 2010. Regulating the escapement of Adult Salmon. Sakhalin Salmon Initiative: Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk.http://rudocs.exdat.com/docs/index-206646.html?page=2
  5. Mironova, T.N. 2006. Hatchery Production of Salmon in Khabarovskiy Krai: 2002-2006." In "Modern Problems of Salmon Hatcheries of the Far East. Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy.http://www.wwf.ru/publ/book/207
  6. Wild Salmon Center. 2010. New Protected Area Created on the Koppi River for the Protection of Tiger and Taimen Habitat.http://www.wildsalmoncenter.org/pdf/Koppi%20PR%20RUS%2010-10-10.pdf
  7. Zolotukhin, S.F. 2009. Abundance Counts of Pink and Chum Salmon in Khabarovsk Krai in 2009. Khabarovsk TINRO. http://www.tinro-center.ru//attachments/351_083-90.pdf
  8. Zolotukhin, S.F. 2010a. Approaches to the Creation of a List of Rivers for the Creation of Fishery Protected Areas in Khabarovskiy Krai. In Pavlov, D.C. and Glubokovskiy, M.K. "Salmon Protected Areas in the Far East of Russia." VNIRO: Moscow. pp. 60-65. http://www.wildsalmoncenter.org/pdf/Salmon%20RFE%20Pavlov.pdf
  9. Zolotukhin, S.F. 2010b. Abundance Counts of Pink and Chum Salmon in Khabarovsk Krai in 2010. Khabarovsk TINRO. http://www.tinro-center.ru//attachments/article/543/126-132.pdf
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  1. fishery scorecardNE_Sakh_pink_scorecard.jpg
  2. Kaev, A. August 2, 2011. Wild and hatchery reproduction of pink and chum salmon and their catches in the Sakhalin-Kuril region, Russia. Environmental Biology of Fishes. pp. 1-12. http://www.springerlink.com/content/j458604436379l35/
  3. Kaev A.M. and Geraschenko, G.V. 2008. Reproduction indices of the north-eastern Sakhalin pink salmon. NPAFC Doc. 1124 (Rev. 1). 11 pp. Sakhalin Research Institute of Fisheries & Oceanography (SakhNIRO).1124_NE_Sakhalin_pinks.pdf
  4. Kaev, A.M., Antonov, A.A., Chupakhin, V.M. and Rudnev, V.A. 2007. Possible causes and effects of shifts in trends of abundance in pink salmon of southern Sakhalin and Iturup Islands. NPAFC Bulletin No. 4: 23-33.Kaev_et_al__2007__Possible_causes_and_effects_of_shifts_in_trends_of_abundance_in_pink_salmon_of_southern_Sakhalin_and_Iturup_Islands.pdf
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  13. Springmeyer, D., Pinsky, M.L., Portley, N.M., Bonkowski, J., and Rand, P. December, 2007. "Ranking Sakhalin River Basins for Salmonid Conservation." Transactions of the Sakhalin Research Institute of Fisheries and Oceanography. Vol. 9, pp 264-293. http://www.sakhwatersheds.org/uploads/files/ssi_russ_prioritatization.pdf
  14. Trumble, R.J. and Lajus, D. 2008. "Pre-Assessment of the Sakhalin Island Salmon Fishery." MRAG Americas. St. Petersburg, FL. http://sakhsalmoninitiative.org/doc/sertifikaziy.pdf
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  1. Fish Industry. 2012. Total 2011 fish harvest in the Russian Exclusive Economic Zone. Translated from Russian.http://www.fishindustry.net/foreign-markets/2453-itogi-vylova-ryby-v-iez-rossii-za-2011-god.html
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  4. Kaev, A.M. and Geraschenko, G.V. 2008. Reproduction indices of the north-eastern Sakhalin pink salmon. NPAFC Doc. 1124 (Rev. 1). 11 pp. Sakhalin Research Institute of Fisheries & Oceanography (SakhNIRO).http://www.npafc.org
  5. Kaev, A.M., Antonov, A.A., Chupakhin, V.M. and Rudnev, V.A. . 2007. Possible causes and effects of shifts in trends of abundance in pink salmon of southern Sakhalin and Iturup Islands. NPAFC Bulletin No. 4: 23-33.http://www.npafc.org
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  7. Portley, N. and H.J. Geiger. 2014. Limit reference points for Pacific salmon fisheries. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 34(2): 401-410.http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/02755947.2014.882453#.U4-exMeXogs
  8. Russia pink scorecardRussia_pink_scorecard.jpg
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  11. Semenchenko, Anatoly. Expert Analysis of the Fishery Significance of Salmon Basins in Primorskiy Krai. 2010. In Pavlov, D.C. and Glubokovskiy, M.K. "Salmon Protected Areas in the Far East of Russia." VNIRO: Moscow. pp. 60-65. http://www.wildsalmoncenter.org/pdf/Salmon%20RFE%20Pavlov.pdf
  12. Semenchenko, A.Y. and Gorianov, A.A. 2010. Expert Analysis of the Fishery Significance of Salmon Basins in Primorskiy Krai. In Pavlov, D.C. and Glubokovskiy, M.K. "Salmon Protected Areas in the Far East of Russia." VNIRO: Moscow. pp. 60-65.http://www.wildsalmoncenter.org/pdf/Salmon%20RFE%20Pavlov.pdf
  13. Trumble, R.J. and Lajus, D. 2008. Pre-Assessment of the Sakhalin Island Salmon Fishery. MRAG Americas. St. Petersburg, FL. http://sakhsalmoninitiative.org/doc/sertifikaziy.pdf
  14. Tsibikova, E.B. and Vorobev, N.A. December 1, 2011. Satellite Monitoring of the Coastal Pacific Salmon Fishery of Sakhalin Island. Presentation for the Conference "Land from Space: More Effective Decisions."http://www.ecosakh.ru/data/127_Sakhalin_nevoda_final_mal.pdf
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  16. Zaporozhets, G.V. and Zaporozhets, O.M. Salmon Hatcheries of Far East in the North Pacific Ecosystems. KamchatNIRO, Petropavlovsk Kamchatskiy: 2011.http://www.knigakamchatka.ru/nauchnye-trudy-nauchno-populyarnye-izdaniya-kamchatki/raboty-uchenyx-issledovateley-kamchatki/salmon-hatcheries.html
  17. Zolotukhin, S.F. 2009. Abundance Counts of Pink and Chum Salmon in Khabarovsk Krai in 2009. Khabarovsk TINRO.http://www.tinro-center.ru//attachments/351_083-90.pdf
  18. Zolotukhin, S.F. 2009. Abundance Counts of Pink and Chum Salmon in Khabarovsk Krai in 2009. Khabarovsk TINRO.http://www.tinro-center.ru//attachments/351_083-90.pdf
  19. Zolotukhin, S.F. 2010. Abundance Counts of Pink and Chum Salmon in Khabarovsk Krai in 2010. Khabarovsk TINRO.http://www.tinro-center.ru
  20. Zolotukhin, S.F. 2010. Abundance Counts of Pink and Chum Salmon in Khabarovsk Krai in 2010. Khabarovsk TINRO.http://www.tinro-center.ru//attachments/article/543/126-132.pdf
  1. Akinicheva E., V. Volobuev, E. Fomin. 2012. Ma rked salmon production by the hatcheries of Russia in 2012. NPAFC Doc. 1400, Rev. 1. 6 pp. Sakhalin Research Institute of Fisheries & Oceanography; Magadan Scientific and Research Institute of Fisheries and Oceanography. http://www.npafc.org/new/publications/Documents/PDF%202012/1400%28Rev1%29%28Russia%29.pdf
  2. Geiger, H. J. and X Zhang. 2002. A simple procedure to evaluate salmon escapement trends that emphasizes biological meaning over statistical significance. Alaska Fishery Research Bulletin 9(2): 128-134.http://www.adfg.alaska.gov
  3. Kaev, A. 2012. Wild and hatchery reproduction of pink and chum salmon and their catches in the Sakhalin-Kuril region, Russia. Evolutionary Biology of Fishes, 94 (1): 207-218.http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10641-011-9900-5
  4. Kaev, A.M. and Geraschenko, G.V. 2008. Reproduction indices of the north-eastern Sakhalin pink salmon. NPAFC Doc. 1124 (Rev. 1). 11 pp.Sakhalin Research Institute of Fisheries & Oceanography (SakhNIRO). 1124_NE_Sakhalin_pinks.pdf
  5. Kaev, A.M., Antonov, A.A., Chupakhin, V.M., and Rudnev, V.A. 2004. Reproductive indices of the southern Sakhalin pink salmon. N. Pac. Anadr. Fish. Comm. Doc. 758, Rev. 1. 14 pp.http://www.npafc.org
  6. Kaev, A.M., Antonov, A.A., Chupakhin, V.M. and Rudnev, V.A. . 2007. Possible causes and effects of shifts in trends of abundance in pink salmon of southern Sakhalin and Iturup Islands. NPAFC Bulletin No. 4: 23-33. Kaev_et_al__2007__Possible_causes_and_effects_of_shifts_in_trends_of_abundance_in_pink_salmon_of_southern_Sakhalin_and_Iturup_Islands.pdf
  7. Pacific Fisheries Research Center (TINRO Centre) and Russian Federal Research Institute of Fisheries and Oceanography (VNIRO). 1994-2013. Biostatistical Information on Salmon Catches, Escapement and Enhancement Production in Russia in 1993–2012. NPAFC Doc No. ____.http://www.npafc.org/new/publications/Documents/PDF%202011/1329(Russia).pdf
  8. Sakhalin Environment Watch. September 2, 2011. "Fish Passage Blockage Left The Melkaya River Half Empty." Web Press Release. http://www.ecosakh.ru/?div=77&id=1469
  9. Sakhalin pink scorecardSakhalin_pink_scorecard.pdf
  10. Trumble, R.J. and Lajus, D. 2008. Pre-Assessment of the Sakhalin Island Salmon Fishery. MRAG Americas. St. Petersburg, FL.http://sakhsalmoninitiative.org/doc/sertifikaziy.pdf
  11. Tsibikova, E.B. and Vorobev, N.A. December 1, 2011. Satellite Monitoring of the Coastal Pacific Salmon Fishery of Sakhalin Island.Presentation for the Conference "Land from Space: More Effective Decisions."http://www.ecosakh.ru/data/127_Sakhalin_nevoda_final_mal.pdf
  1. Bugaev, V. F. 2002. On pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) abundance influence on Asian sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) abundance. North Pacific Anadromous Fish Commission, Document 628, Vancouver. http://www.npafc.org/new/publications/Documents/PDF%202002/628(Russia).pdf
  2. FishSource. 2014. FishSource salmon profiles. http://www.fishsource.com
  3. Shevlyakov, E.A. 2011. Regarding the Stock Status of Bolshaya River Pacific Salmon.http://www.fishkamchatka.ru/?cont=long&id=32399&year=2011&today=07&month=10.
  4. Shevlyakov, E.A., and Maslov, A.V. 2011. The rivers determining reproduction of pacific salmons in Kamchatka as indicators of spawning grounds filling. Izv. TINRO. 164:114-139.________-______.pdf
  5. TINRO (Pacific Ocean Science Center for Fisheries and Oceanography). 2012. Salmon 2012.http://www.tinro-center.ru/
  6. TINRO (Pacific Ocean Science Center for Fisheries and Oceanography). 2013. Salmon 2013. http://www.tinro-center.ru/
  7. Vakhrin, Sergey. 2011. Two Rivers, Two Fates - One Alarming, One Tragic.http://www.fishkamchatka.ru/?cont=long&id=32389&year=2011&today=07&month=10&PHPSESSID=sazonqio
  8. West Kamchatka pink scorecardWest_Kamchatka_pink_scorecard.jpg
  9. Zaporozhets, G.V. and Zaporozhets, O.M. Salmon Hatcheries of Far East in the North Pacific Ecosystems. KamchatNIRO, Petropavlovsk Kamchatskiy: 2011. http://www.knigakamchatka.ru/nauchnye-trudy-nauchno-populyarnye-izdaniya-kamchatki/raboty-uchenyx-issledovateley-kamchatki/salmon-hatcheries.html
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