Last updated on 20 July 2016

SUMMARY

SUMMARY

IDENTIFICATION

SCIENTIFIC NAME(s)

Sepia aculeata

SPECIES NAME(s)

Needle cuttlefish

COMMON NAMES

Needle cuttlefish

Needle cuttlefish (Sepia aculeata) is found from the Arabian Sea to Southern Japan (Barratt and Allcock 2012) and the map below regards the distribution only in Indian waters. The stock structure is not known, however there are some indications of a single population off Indian waters (Rao et al 1993; Abdussamad et al 2004). This species represents 60% of total  cuttlefish catches and 88% provided from trawl nets as by catch, with peak landings in October and November. It is one of the commercially important marine fishery resources of Indian waters by virtue of its export demand, and is optimally exploited from east coast and under-exploited from west coast.

Needle cuttlefish is a demersal, neritic species that occurs to 60 m depth. Along the Indian coasts maturing and mature animals are present throughout the year, which indicates a prolonged spawning and breeding season; activity peaks occur from January to April and in the second half of the year in the eastern waters, and in April, July and December in the southwestern waters, off Cochin (Jereb et al 2010).

This species is also the thirdmost important commercial cuttlefish around Hong Kong where it is caught with setnets and seines during the spawning season. The species is fished commercially in southern China, Taiwan Province of China, Sri Lanka and Thailand, where it is caught by otter trawl, pair trawl, squid light-lures, traps and push nets. Captures by traps in Thai waters are most abundant in January and February, when most animals are fully mature and females are predominantly caught.


ANALYSIS

Weaknesses

Knowledge on several crucial aspects on the biology of many species remains limited.

FISHSOURCE SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

NOT YET SCORED

Managers Compliance:

NOT YET SCORED

Fishers Compliance:

NOT YET SCORED

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

NOT YET SCORED

Future Health:

NOT YET SCORED


FIPS

No related FIPs

CERTIFICATIONS

No related MSC fisheries

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
India India Midwater trawls

Analysis

OVERVIEW

Last updated on 20 July 2016

Weaknesses

Knowledge on several crucial aspects on the biology of many species remains limited.

1.STOCK STATUS

STOCK ASSESSMENT

Last updated on 30 August 2016

Meiyappan et al (2000) indicated that this resource is optimally exploited from east coast and under-exploited from west coast. Successful exploitation and management of the resource requires sound knowledge on distribution pattern and factors controlling their abundance.

As reliable estimates of natural mortality could not be made, a range of M/K values were assumed. The use of a range of M/K values gives the freedom of analysis amounting to fixing 'confidence limits' to 'M' resulting in a range of management options. The MSY estimates and F-factor analysis indicate that along the east coast catches are almost at optimal level and any increase in effort will result only in small increases in the catches (Rao et al 1993).

But along the west coast there is considerable scope for increasing the production as shown by the yield and biomass observations.

SCIENTIFIC ADVICE

Last updated on 30 August 2016

The only alternative is regulating effort to reduce fishing pressure in coastal waters especially during peak period of juvenile abundance. Fishing pressure on the stock can also be reduced by divening large trawlers to deeper waters, for exploitation of other under-exploited resources. Such measures will improve catch and also the stock by way of enhanced survival and recruitment (Abdussamad et al 2004).

Since the trawl net is targeted towards a group of multi-species assemblage, any recommendation to increase the effort to obtain the MSY of a particular target fish (Sepia aculeata) will not hold good unless the gear is studied in its totality. The management measures taken for a single species, which is one of the components of a mixed fishery, may conflict with those taken for the other components. What is to be attempted, therefore, is to make mixed fishery assessments with due consideration to all individual components occurring in the fishery (Rao et al 1993).

CURRENT STATUS

Last updated on 30 August 2016

The present level of exploitation though low may have some adverse effect on the recruitment and stock as evident from continuous and sharp decline in the catch and stock of this species (Abdussamad et al 2004).

This species presents a Data Deficient Status by IUCN Red List Status.

Trends

Last updated on 30 Aug 2016

Catch and catch rate of cuttlefishes shown declining trend with wide annual fluctuation during 1995-99. Stock of major species also shown such fluctuation with declining trend. However, present level of exploitation of the species is low compared to Emax. This suggested operation of some fishery independent factors in the fishing ground unfavourable for the stock. These have to be traced out through constant and close monitoring of the fishery, fishery environment, behaviour of the stock and their response to fishing (Abdussamad et al 2004).

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

FishSource Scores

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

STOCK HEALTH:

No data available
No data available
No data available
No data available
No data available
No data available
No data available
No data available
No data available
No data available
No data available
No data available

Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

No related FIPs

Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

No related MSC certifications

Sources

Credits
  1. Abdussamad, E.M., Meiyappan, M.M. and Somayajulu, K.R., 2004. Fishery, population characteristics and stock assessment of cuttlefishes, Sepia aculeata and Sepia pharaonis at Kakinada along the East coast of India.Bangladesh Journal of Fisheries Research, 8(2), pp.143-150.

  2. Rao, K.S., Srinath, M., Meiyappan, M.M., Nair, K.P., Sarvesan, R., Rao, G.S., Natarajan, P., Vidyasagar, K., Sundaram, K.S., Lipton, A.P. and Radhakrishnan, G., 1993. Stock assessment of the needle cuttlefish Sepia aculeata Orbigny. Indian Journal of Fisheries, 40(1&2), pp.95-103.

  3. Jereb, P., Roper, C.F.E. and Vecchione, M., 2010. FAO Species Catalogue for Fishery Purposes No. 4. Vol. 2. Cephalopods of the World. An Annotated and Illustrated Catalogue of Cephalopod Species Known to Date. FAO Fish. Synop, 3, p.277pp. ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/009/a0150e/a0150e06.pdf

  4. Meiyappan, M.M., K.S. Mohamed, K. Vidyasagar, K.P. Nair, N. Ramachandran, A.P. Lipton, G.S. Rao, V. Kripa, K.K. Joshi, E.M. Abdussamad, R. Sreenivasan and G.P.K. Achari, 2000. A review of cephalopod resources, biology and stock assessment in Indian waters. In: Marine Fisheries Research and Management (eds. V.N. PiHai and N.G. Menon). Central Marine Fisheries Research Instimte, Cochin. 546-562 p.

References

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