Last updated on 18 February 2016

SUMMARY

SUMMARY

IDENTIFICATION

SCIENTIFIC NAME(s)

Katsuwonus pelamis

SPECIES NAME(s)

Skipjack tuna

There remains uncertainty around the stock structure of skipjack in the Atlantic but the hypothesis of separate Eastern and Western stocks is the most plausible (ICCAT, 2006; ICCAT, 2014).


ANALYSIS

Strengths

The population of skipjack tuna in the eastern Atlantic is most likely healthy and fishing mortality rates are sustainable. The International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas manages skipjack tuna in the eastern Atlantic.There are spatial closures for the surface fishery that will likely provide protection to skipjack tuna. There is required observer coverage in this fishery.

Regular stock assessments are in place for this stock through ICCAT. The Centre de Recherches Océanographiques de Dakar Thiaroye, CRODT conducts regular port sampling and collection of catch and fishing effort statistics at Dakar port.

Weaknesses

There are no formally adopted target or limit reference points and although the framework exists, no harvest control rule. Very few management recommendations have been presented by the Scientific Committee. However, recent recommendations to maintain catches at current levels have not results in any quotas being set.Additional work is needed to estimate unreported landings made into West African ports and canneries. Recent catches have exceeded the estimated maximum sustainable yield. The Scientific Committee reports problems with estimating fishing effort in the east Atlantic. Information on bycatch interactions is limited.

There is a need to adequately quantify bait fish used as well as catches of juvenile tuna and other by-catch species caught in this fishery. Catches from sport and artisanal fishing are well quantified, but there is need for improvement in data collection of by-catch and interactions with non-target species in this fishery. Currently logbook data are available for a few vessels in the Senegal industrial tuna fleet and it should be extended to all the tuna vessels to provide more reliable estimates for future stock assessments.

FISHSOURCE SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

≥ 6

Managers Compliance:

≥ 6

Fishers Compliance:

≥ 6

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

≥ 8

Future Health:

≥ 8


RECOMMENDATIONS

CATCHERS & REGULATORS

1. Support the improvement of bycatch reporting.

1. Ensure member countries comply with all conservation and management measures (CMMs) of the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (ICCAT), including measures aimed at both target and bycatch species, and all other mandated obligations. Member countries must make information on monitoring and compliance with all ICCAT obligations publicly available, including actions being taken to address any identified non-compliance with ICCAT CMM’s.
2. Promote the adoption by the ICCAT and member countries of precautionary management measures, including target and limit biological reference points, harvest control rules, increased observer coverage for all fisheries, national management measures and monitoring efforts adequate to ensure harvest strategy objectives are being met.
3. Improve data collection and reporting to ensure complete data sets (i.e. catches, effort, size), which are needed for robust stock assessments. The Scientific Committee specifically noted that countries should improve logbook and sampling forms. Countries should maintain current catch levels, as suggested by the Scientific Committee.
4. Conduct studies, increase monitoring and publish information to assess purse seine interactions with protected, endangered and threatened (PET) and other bycatch species. Conduct studies on the ecosystem impacts of fish aggregating devices (FADs). Identify and mandate best practices bycatch mitigation techniques. Demand compliance with ICCAT management measures prohibiting the retention of oceanic whitetip, silky, thresher and hammerhead sharks.

RETAILERS & SUPPLY CHAIN

1. Encourage the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (ICCAT) and individual member countries to adopt precautionary and ecosystem-based management measures. Demand that member countries comply with all ICCATs Conservation and Management Measures.
2. Explore implementation of control documents to ensure supplier compliance with ICCAT conservation and management measures (CMMs) (e.g. around bycatch). Source from vessels registered on the International Seafood Sustainability Foundation (ISSF) Proactive Vessel Register (PVR). Encourage ISSF to fully implement PVR resolutions, and to expand the PVR list to include all relevant gear types.
3. Encourage the ICCAT and member countries to conduct studies, increase monitoring and publish information to assess purse seine interactions with protected, endangered and threatened (PET) and other bycatch species. Explore opportunities to support studies and data gathering.
4. Contact SFP to learn more about fishery improvement projects (FIPs) and SFP’s Supplier Roundtables.


FIPS

No related FIPs

CERTIFICATIONS

No related MSC fisheries

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

ASSESSMENT UNIT MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
Eastern Atlantic Ocean Cameroon Cameroon Associated purse seining
Unassociated purse seining
ICCAT Côte D'ivoire Handlines hand operated
Curaçao Associated purse seining
Unassociated purse seining
Cyprus Associated purse seining
Unassociated purse seining
Equatorial Guinea Associated purse seining
Unassociated purse seining
France Pole-lines hand operated
Purse seines
Unassociated purse seining
Gabon Associated purse seining
Unassociated purse seining
Ghana Pole-lines hand operated
Purse seines
Unassociated purse seining
Guatemala Purse seines
Liberia Associated purse seining
Unassociated purse seining
Panama Associated purse seining
Senegal Pole-lines hand operated
Spain Longlines
Mechanized lines
Pole-lines hand operated
Purse seines
Unassociated purse seining
Saint Helena Saint Helena Hooks and lines

Analysis

OVERVIEW

Last updated on 6 November 2012

Strengths

The population of skipjack tuna in the eastern Atlantic is most likely healthy and fishing mortality rates are sustainable. The International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas manages skipjack tuna in the eastern Atlantic.There are spatial closures for the surface fishery that will likely provide protection to skipjack tuna. There is required observer coverage in this fishery.

ICCAT
Senegal
Pole-lines hand operated

Last updated on 6 November 2012

Regular stock assessments are in place for this stock through ICCAT. The Centre de Recherches Océanographiques de Dakar Thiaroye, CRODT conducts regular port sampling and collection of catch and fishing effort statistics at Dakar port.

Weaknesses

There are no formally adopted target or limit reference points and although the framework exists, no harvest control rule. Very few management recommendations have been presented by the Scientific Committee. However, recent recommendations to maintain catches at current levels have not results in any quotas being set.Additional work is needed to estimate unreported landings made into West African ports and canneries. Recent catches have exceeded the estimated maximum sustainable yield. The Scientific Committee reports problems with estimating fishing effort in the east Atlantic. Information on bycatch interactions is limited.

ICCAT
Senegal
Pole-lines hand operated

Last updated on 6 November 2012

There is a need to adequately quantify bait fish used as well as catches of juvenile tuna and other by-catch species caught in this fishery. Catches from sport and artisanal fishing are well quantified, but there is need for improvement in data collection of by-catch and interactions with non-target species in this fishery. Currently logbook data are available for a few vessels in the Senegal industrial tuna fleet and it should be extended to all the tuna vessels to provide more reliable estimates for future stock assessments.

RECOMMENDATIONS

Last updated on 28 June 2016

Improvement Recommendations to Catchers & Regulators

1. Ensure member countries comply with all conservation and management measures (CMMs) of the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (ICCAT), including measures aimed at both target and bycatch species, and all other mandated obligations. Member countries must make information on monitoring and compliance with all ICCAT obligations publicly available, including actions being taken to address any identified non-compliance with ICCAT CMM’s.
2. Promote the adoption by the ICCAT and member countries of precautionary management measures, including target and limit biological reference points, harvest control rules, increased observer coverage for all fisheries, national management measures and monitoring efforts adequate to ensure harvest strategy objectives are being met.
3. Improve data collection and reporting to ensure complete data sets (i.e. catches, effort, size), which are needed for robust stock assessments. The Scientific Committee specifically noted that countries should improve logbook and sampling forms. Countries should maintain current catch levels, as suggested by the Scientific Committee.
4. Conduct studies, increase monitoring and publish information to assess purse seine interactions with protected, endangered and threatened (PET) and other bycatch species. Conduct studies on the ecosystem impacts of fish aggregating devices (FADs). Identify and mandate best practices bycatch mitigation techniques. Demand compliance with ICCAT management measures prohibiting the retention of oceanic whitetip, silky, thresher and hammerhead sharks.

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain

1. Encourage the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (ICCAT) and individual member countries to adopt precautionary and ecosystem-based management measures. Demand that member countries comply with all ICCATs Conservation and Management Measures.
2. Explore implementation of control documents to ensure supplier compliance with ICCAT conservation and management measures (CMMs) (e.g. around bycatch). Source from vessels registered on the International Seafood Sustainability Foundation (ISSF) Proactive Vessel Register (PVR). Encourage ISSF to fully implement PVR resolutions, and to expand the PVR list to include all relevant gear types.
3. Encourage the ICCAT and member countries to conduct studies, increase monitoring and publish information to assess purse seine interactions with protected, endangered and threatened (PET) and other bycatch species. Explore opportunities to support studies and data gathering.
4. Contact SFP to learn more about fishery improvement projects (FIPs) and SFP’s Supplier Roundtables.

ICCAT
Senegal

Last updated on 28 June 2016

Improvement Recommendations to Catchers & Regulators

1. Support the improvement of bycatch reporting.

1.STOCK STATUS

STOCK ASSESSMENT

Last updated on 8 January 2015

The last stock assessment completed for Eastern Atlantic Skipjack tuna was completed in 2014, and used catch data up to 2013 (ICCAT 2014b). Methods used in recent skipjack tuna stock assessments included a Catch-only model, and Bayesian Surplus Production Model (ICCAT 20014b).

ICCAT
Senegal
Pole-lines hand operated

Last updated on 5 November 2012

The last stock assessment completed for Eastern Atlantic Skipjack tuna was completed in 2011, and used catch data up to 2010 (ICCAT 2009b, 2012b). The recent stock assessment report reveals that the skipjack tuna – Eastern Atlantic stock is healthy and current F2008/Fmsy is <1 and B2008/Bmsy is >1(ICCAT 2012). Methods used in recent skipjack tuna stock assessments include Multifan-CL model, Catch-only model, and Bayesian Surplus Production Model methods (ICCAT 2009b).

“Complete data on fishery statistics of the artisanal fishery are estimated by extrapolation from landings sampled from harbours of each region (Ferraris, 1994). Observer’s record catches are directly reported at sea for foreign vessels and landings for national industrial vessels are recorded at Dakar harbour. Direction of Oceanography and Maritime Fisheries (DOPM) is responsible for collection and analysis of marine fisheries statistics in Senegal” (Pramod and Pitcher 2006).

SCIENTIFIC ADVICE

Last updated on 8 January 2015

The Scientific Committee has suggested keeping catches of skipjack tuna below recent levels {ICCAT 2014}.

Reference Points

Last updated on 08 Jan 2015

Source: ICCAT (2014).
MSY: 143,000 – 170,000 tonnes
Current Replacement Yield: 203,500 tonnes
B2008/Bmsy: likely >1
F2008/Fmsy: likely <1

ICCAT
Senegal
Pole-lines hand operated

Last updated on 5 November 2012

There is a need to adequately quantify tuna catches from artisanal fleets along the Eastern Atlantic countries to provide more reliable stock assessment estimates.

Reference Points

Last updated on 05 Nov 2012

Source: ICCAT (2009, 2012).
MSY: 143,000 – 170,000 tonnes
Current Replacement Yield: >164,000 tonnes
B2008/Bmsy: likely >1
F2008/Fmsy: likely <1

CURRENT STATUS

Last updated on 8 January 2015

The most recent stock assessment suggests that Skipjack tuna stock in Eastern Atlantic is not overfished and overfishing is not occurring (ICCAT 2014).

Trends

Last updated on 08 Jan 2015

Skipjack tuna catches in the eastern Atlantic have been increasing over time. In recent years, catches have exceeded 200,000 t {ICCAT 2014}.

ICCAT
Senegal
Pole-lines hand operated

Last updated on 5 November 2012

The most recent stock assessment suggests that Skipjack tuna stock in Eastern Atlantic is not overfished and overfishing is not occurring (ICCAT 2009b, 2012).

Trends

Last updated on 05 Nov 2012

Skipjack tuna catches for East and West Atlantic combined were about 142,200 tonnes in 2006 (115,700 tonnes from East Atlantic and 26,500 tonnes from West Atlantic) ICCAT (2009b). Skipjack tuna catches have been increasing progressively from 1950-1990, with catches increasing from 45,000 tonnes in 1970 to 98,000 tonnes in 1980, and then peaking at 186,000 tonnes in 1991, and declining to 119,000 tonnes in 2000, with catches in range of 115 -126,000 tonnes in the last decade (ICCAT 2009b, 2012).

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

MANAGEMENT

Last updated on 8 January 2015

The International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (ICCAT) has not established any management measures specific to skipjack tuna. However, the establishment of a time area closure in the surface fishery to protect juvenile bigeye tuna also provides some protection to skipjack. In addition, area closures to FAD fishing during January and February (2013) will likely have an impact on skipjack tuna {ICCAT 2012a}.

Recovery Plans

Last updated on 08 Jan 2015

Skipjack tuna populations are currently healthy and there is no recovery plan in place {ICCAT 2014b}.

ICCAT
Senegal
Pole-lines hand operated

Last updated on 5 November 2012

All Senegalese vessels have satellite based Argos receivers on fishing vessels that allows for VMS monitoring of the fleet. Boarding tag is mandatory prior to obtaining and holding a fishing authorization governed by a ministerial decree on the organization and operation of the positioning and location of the vessels. All domestic and foreign landings are monitored and inspected by the inspection device set in place at the port of Dakar.

Recovery Plans

Last updated on 05 Nov 2012

None are reported for this fishery in the current management plan for Senegal waters.

COMPLIANCE

Last updated on 8 January 2015

There is no TAC in place for skipjack tuna {ICCAT 2014}.

ICCAT
Senegal
Pole-lines hand operated

Last updated on 5 November 2012

There are no reported problems with illegal catches for pole and line vessels operating from Senegal in this fishery.

IUU catches from distant water fleets remains a problem, esp., in offshore waters and such catches remain unquantified in tuna fisheries off West Africa.

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

BYCATCH
ETP Species

Last updated on 13 January 2015

Bycatch of sea turtles can occur in purse seine and longline fisheries. In the Atlantic Ocean, green, hawksbill, leatherback, loggerhead and olive ridley sea turtles have the potential to be incidentally captured in these fisheries. Green, leatherback, and loggerhead sea turtles have been classified as Endangered by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN), hawksbill as Critically Endangered and olive Ridley as Vulnerable (Seminoff 2004)(Mortimer and Donnelly 2008)(TEWG 2007)(MTSG 2006)(Abreu-Grobis and Plotkin 2008). Purse seines are prohibited from setting around sea turtles and any incidentally captured sea turtles (purse seine or longline cpatured) must be released using safe handling techniques (ICCAT 2010a).Several species of sharks, silky, oceanic whitetip and hammerhead sharks are prohibited from being retained if incidentally captured {ICCAT 2011b}{ICCAT 2010b}{ICCAT 2010c}.

ICCAT
Senegal
Pole-lines hand operated

Last updated on 5 November 2012

There is no information on interactions with PET species in this fishery.

Other Species

Last updated on 9 December 2009

In Atlantic purse seine (associated) fisheries, billfish, bony fish, other tuna species and sharks can be incidentally captured. Bycatch in unassociated purse seine fisheries typically consists of fewer species and occurs in less amounts. Observer rerecords from French and Spanish purse seiners indicate that blue marlin, dolphinfish, rainbow runner, triggerfish, silky and oceanic whitetip sharks are bycatch species in associated fisheries(Amande et al. 2010). Blue marlin are currently fished at unsustainable levels (ICCAT 2011a). Bycatch in fisheries such as purse seine are considered to be a contributing factor to silky shark population declines (Bonfil 20009). The status of the other species is unknown in the Atlantic. In unassociated fisheries, Atlantic sailfish have been reported as a common bycatch species (Chassot et al. 2008). Atlantic sailfish populations in the eastern Atlantic are likely undergoing overfishing (ICCAT 2009).

Under the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (ICCAT), countries are required to report bycatch and discards. In addition, several species of sharks, silky, oceanic whitetip and hammerhead, are prohibited from being retained if incidentally captured {ICCAT 2011b}{ICCAT 2010b}{ICCAT 2010c}. Management measures for other bycatch species, such as dolphinfish, wahoo, rainbow runner and triggerfish are not in place.

ICCAT
Senegal
Pole-lines hand operated

Last updated on 6 November 2012

In the industrial tuna fisheries, there is reported use of Fish Aggregating Devices (FADs) to catch tuna by both purse seiners and boatboats alluding to relatively high by-catch of sensitive species in this fishery. Both fleets employ around 1500 FADS to target tuna (ICCAT 2012b).

By-catch and discards are negligible in this fishery according to 2010 Friend of the Sea Audit Report.

HABITAT

Last updated on 9 December 2009

Purse seines typically have minimal impact to bottom habitats. Unassociated purse seines do not come in contact with bottom habitats. Anchored fish aggregating devices (FADs) could result in contact with the bottom {Beverly et al. 2012).

Marine Reserves

Last updated on 09 Dec 2009

There is a time area closure for the surface fishery and area closures for fishing with fish aggregating devices (FADs) during January and February {ICCAT 2012a}.

ICCAT
Senegal
Pole-lines hand operated

Last updated on 5 November 2012

Primary gear used to catch skipjack tuna, including pelagic pole and line do not come in direct contact with the sea floor. Lost and discarded gear can damage coastal habitats.

Marine Reserves

Last updated on 05 Nov 2012

None are reported in the jurisdiction of this fishery.

FishSource Scores

Last updated on 22 October 2018

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

As calculated for 2013 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

There are no specific management plans in place but Score 2 AND Score 4 have been equal to or above 6 in recent years. The stock is NOT managed through

As calculated for 2013 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

Some but not all of the key recommendations made by the scientific organization responsible for the stock assessments are being taken into account by the management bodies via tangibly implemented conservation measures

As calculated for 2013 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

There is no TAC in place but catches have been above MSY levels in recent years.

STOCK HEALTH:

As calculated for 2013 data.

The score is ≥ 8.

The ratio of the current biomass to that needed to produce the maximum sustainable yield is likely above 1

As calculated for 2013 data.

The score is ≥ 8.

The ratio of the current fishing mortality rate to that needed to produce the maximum sustainable yield is likely less than 1.

To see data for biomass, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for catch and tac, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for fishing mortality, please view this site on a desktop.
No data available for recruitment
No data available for recruitment
To see data for management quality, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for stock status, please view this site on a desktop.
DATA NOTES

1) There is no Blrp in place thus score 1 cannot be computed. Qualitative scores have been computed for 1,2 and 3. 2) F and SSB values are not available so qualitative scores have been set for 4 and 5 *4) catches have been updated through 2013 {ICCAT 2014}.

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Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

No related FIPs

Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

No related MSC certifications

Sources

Credits

Abreu-Grobois, A & Plotkin, P. (IUCN SSC Marine Turtle Specialist Group) 2008. Lepidochelys olivacea. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2.

Amande, M.J., Ariz, J., Chassot, E., de Molina, A.D., Gaerner, D., Murua, H., Pianet, R., Ruiz, J. and Chavance, P. 2010. Bycatch of the European purse seine tuna fishery in the Atlantic Ocean from 2003-2007 period. Aquatic Living Resources 23:353-362.

Bonfil, R., Amorim, A., Anderson, C., Arauz, R., Baum, J., Clarke, S.C., Graham, R.T., Gonzalez, M., Jolón, M., Kyne, P.M., Mancini, P., Márquez, F., Ruíz, C. & Smith, W. 2009. Carcharhinus falciformis. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.1.

Chassot, E., Amande, M.J., Chavance, P. Pianet, R. and Dedo, R.G. 2008. A preliminary attempt to estimate tuna discards and bycatch in the French purse seine fishery of the eastern Atlantic Ocean. SCRS/2008/117.

International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tuna (ICCAT). 2009a. Report of the 2009 sailfish stock assessment. Reciefe, Brazil, 1-5 June 2009.

International Commission for Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (ICCAT). 2009b. Report of the 2008 ICCAT yellowfin and skipjack stock assessments meeting. Collective Volume of Scientific Papers ICCAT 64:669-927.

International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tuna (ICCAT). 2010a. Recommendation by ICCAT on the by-catch of sea turtles in ICCAT fisheries. Recommendation 10-09.

International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tuna (ICCAT). 2010b. Recommendation by ICCAT on hammerhead sharks (family Sphyrnidae) caught in association with fisheries managed by ICCAT. Recommendation 10-08.

International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tuna (ICCAT). 2010c. Recommendation by ICCAT on the conservation of oceanic whitetip shark caught in association with fisheries in the ICCAT convention area. Recommendation 10-07.

International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tuna (ICCAT). 2011a. Report of the 2011 blue marlin stock assessment and white marlin data preparatory meeting. Madrid, Spain, 25-29 April 2011.

International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tuna (ICCAT). 2011b. Recommendation by ICCAT on the conservation of silky sharks caught in association with ICCAT fisheries. Recommendation 11-08.

International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (ICCAT). 2012a. Report of the standing committee on research and statistics (SCRS). PLE-104/2012, Madrid, Spain, 1-5 October 2012.

International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (ICCAT). 2014. Report of the standing committee on research and statistics (SCRS). Madrid, Spain 29 September to 3 October 2014.

International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (ICCAT). 2014b. Report of the 2014 ICCAT east and west Atlantic skipjack stock assessment meeting. Dakar, Senegal June 23 to July 1, 2014.

Marine Turtle Specialist Group 1996. Caretta caretta. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2.

Mortimer, J.A & Donnelly, M. (IUCN SSC Marine Turtle Specialist Group). 2008. Eretmochelys imbricata. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2.

Seminoff, J.A. (Southwest Fisheries Science Center, U.S.) 2004. Chelonia mydas. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2.

Turtle Expert Working Group (TEWG). 2007. An assessment of the leatherback turtle population in the Atlantic Ocean. NOAA Technical memorandum NMFS-SEFSC-555.

References

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