SUMMARY

SUMMARY

IDENTIFICATION

SCIENTIFIC NAME(s)

Thunnus albacares

SPECIES NAME(s)

Yellowfin tuna

An assessment unit is considered to exist in the Indian Ocean by the Indian Ocean Tuna Commission (IOTC, 2014).


ANALYSIS

Strengths

The stock assessment has been carried out regularly using a range of assessment methods.  The IOTC has recently adopted precautionary management, which includes the use of interim target and limit reference points and calls for the use of harvest control rules and management strategy evaluation. 

  • National level management regulations for Archipelagic and territorial waters (MKDPRI PER 30/MEN/2012) and the EEZ PER.12/MEN/2012 are the tools covering application of shark, turtle, sea mammals and bird measures.
  • Indonesia completed its Shark National Plan of Action and Sea Turtle National Plan of Action in 2016, and there is a moratorium on the export the hammerhead and oceanic white tip shark and fins (Decree 59/PERMEN-KP/2014).
Weaknesses

Yellowfin tuna in the Indian Ocean are overfished and undergoing overfishing.  Catches have been over recommended level since 2011.  Recent advice calls for a 20% reduction but only a 5-15% reduction (depending on the fleet) has been adopted by the Commission (2016). IUU fishing and piracy has been a major issue in the Indian Ocean and there are compliance issues with regard to the quality of reported data {IOTC 2013b}.  The Commission has taken recent action to continue addressing these issues but the success of these measures is not yet known. A number of bycatch species, including sharks, sea turtles and sea birds are incidentally captured in fisheries targeting yellowfin tuna.  Observer coverage rates are low in fisheries targeting yellowfin tuna.

  • Yellowfin tuna in the Indian Ocean are overfished and undergoing overfishing. Currently, there is no catch limit for yellowfin tuna in Indian Ocean.  Catches have been over recommended level since 2011.  Recent advice calls for a 20% reduction in catches but this has yet to be adopted. IUU fishing and piracy has been a major issue in the Indian Ocean and there are compliance issues with regard to the quality of reported data {IOTC 2013b}.
  • A number of bycatch species, including sharks, sea turtles and sea birds are incidentally captured in longline fisheries targeting yellowfin and bigeye tuna. Observation and reporting of ETP bycatch in Indonesian longline gear in the Indian Ocean is inconsistent and does not appear to meet requirements of IOTC resolutions. Raw bycatch numbers are available for ETP species, but estimates of total impacts are not possible.

  

FISHSOURCE SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

≥ 6

Managers Compliance:

≥ 6

Fishers Compliance:

< 6

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

7.6

Future Health:

7.6


RECOMMENDATIONS

CATCHERS & REGULATORS

1. Ensure Indonesia complies with all Indian Ocean Tuna Commission’s (IOTC’s) conservation and management measures (CMMs), including measures aimed at both target and incidental market and non-market species, and all other obligations. Through your delegation to IOTC, encourage the compliance committee to make information on non-compliance by Indonesia publicly available in order to increase the incentive for compliance by all IOTC members and cooperating non-members.
2. Promote the adoption by the Indian Ocean Tuna Commission (IOTC) of precautionary and ecosystem-based management measures, including formal biological reference points (interim currently in place), harvest control rules, increased observer coverage for longline fleets, national management measures and monitoring efforts adequate to ensure harvest strategy objectives are being met. Adopt domestic laws and regulation to implement IOTC measures and provide monitoring and surveillance adequate for compliance.
3. Encourage IOTC to adopt management measures that will reduce catches of yellowfin tuna to be a minimum of 80% of current levels (2014).. Improve data collection and reporting to ensure complete data sets (i.e. catches, effort, size), which are needed for robust stock assessments. Conduct studies, increase monitoring and publish information to assess purse seine and longline interactions with protected, endangered and threatened (PET) and other bycatch species. Identify and mandate best practices bycatch mitigation techniques. Comply with recently implemented IOTC management measures prohibiting the retention of oceanic whitetip and thresher sharks.
4. Source from vessels operating within the FIP and support the FIP’s work plan implementation.

1. Ensure Indonesia complies with all Indian Ocean Tuna Commission’s (IOTC’s) conservation and management measures (CMMs), including measures aimed at both target and incidental market and non-market species, and all other obligations. Through your delegation to IOTC, encourage the compliance committee to make information on non-compliance by Indonesia publicly available in order to increase the incentive for compliance by all IOTC members and cooperating non-members.
2. Promote the adoption by the Indian Ocean Tuna Commission (IOTC) of precautionary and ecosystem-based management measures, including formal biological reference points (interim currently in place), harvest control rules, increased observer coverage for longline fleets, national management measures and monitoring efforts adequate to ensure harvest strategy objectives are being met. Adopt domestic laws and regulation to implement IOTC measures and provide monitoring and surveillance adequate for compliance.
3. Encourage IOTC to adopt management measures that will reduce catches of yellowfin tuna to be a minimum of 80% of current levels (2014). Improve data collection and reporting to ensure complete data sets (i.e. catches, effort, size), which are needed for robust stock assessments. Conduct studies, increase monitoring and publish information to assess purse seine and longline interactions with protected, endangered and threatened (PET) and other bycatch species. Identify and mandate best practices bycatch mitigation techniques. Comply with recently implemented IOTC management measures prohibiting the retention of oceanic whitetip and thresher sharks.

RETAILERS & SUPPLY CHAIN
  • Work with IOTC Members and Cooperating Non-Contracting Parties to:
    • Ensure full compliance with Resolution 17/01, the interim rebuilding plan for yellowfin tuna.
    • Improve data collection (i.e. catches, effort, size) for all gear types, for both target and bycatch species, and reporting through measures such as electronic logbooks.
    • Develop and implement comprehensive, precautionary harvest strategies with specific timelines for all tuna stocks, including the adoption and implementation of limit and target reference points, harvest control rules, monitoring strategies, operational objectives, performance indicators, and management strategy evaluation.
    • Strengthen compliance processes and make information on non-compliance public and continue to provide evidence of compliance with all IOTC Conservation and Management Measures in a timely manner.
    • Implement a 100% observer coverage requirement for at-sea transshipment activities, as well as other measures that ensure transshipment activity is transparent and well-managed, and that all required data are collected and transmitted to the appropriate bodies in a timely manner.
    • Increase compliance with the mandatory minimum 5% longline observer coverage rates by identifying and correcting non-compliance.
    • Implement a 100% observer coverage requirement – human and/or electronic – within five years for longline fisheries.  Adopt a 100% observer coverage requirement for purse seine vessels where it is not already required and require the use of the best-available observer safety equipment, communications and procedures.
    • Adopt effective measures for the use of non-entangling FAD designs as a precautionary measure to minimize the entanglement of sharks and other non-target species, and support research on biodegradable materials and transition to their use to mitigate marine debris.
    • More effectively implement, and ensure compliance with, existing RFMO bycatch requirements and take additional mitigation action, such as improving monitoring at sea, collecting and sharing operational-level, species-specific data, and adopting stronger compliance measures, including consequences for non-compliance for all gear types.
  • Ensure all products are traceable back to legal sources. Verify source information and full chain traceability through traceability desk audits or third party traceability certification. For fisheries without robust traceability systems in place, invest in meaningful improvements to bring the fisheries and supply chain in compliance with best practices.

FIPS

  • Indonesia Indian Ocean tuna - longline:

    Stage 4, Progress Rating B

  • Longline tuna and large pelagics:

    Stage 4, Progress Rating D

CERTIFICATIONS

No related MSC fisheries

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

ASSESSMENT UNIT MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
Indian Ocean IOTC France Associated purse seining
FAD-free
India Hooks and lines
Longlines
Indonesia FAD-free
Gillnets and entangling nets
Handlines hand operated
Hooks and lines
Longlines
Mechanized lines
Pole-lines hand operated
Purse seines
Seine nets
Italy Associated purse seining
FAD-free
Korea, Republic of Longlines
Malaysia Handlines hand operated
Longlines
Maldives Pole-lines hand operated
Mauritius FAD-free
Hooks and lines
Longlines
Purse seines
Mozambique Longlines
Oman Handlines hand operated
Seychelles Associated purse seining
FAD-free
Spain FAD-free
Longlines
Purse seines
Sri Lanka Drifting longlines
Thailand Handlines hand operated
Longlines
Mechanized lines

Analysis

OVERVIEW

Last updated on 2 July 2019

Strengths

The stock assessment has been carried out regularly using a range of assessment methods.  The IOTC has recently adopted precautionary management, which includes the use of interim target and limit reference points and calls for the use of harvest control rules and management strategy evaluation. 

IOTC
Indonesia
Longlines

Last updated on 2 July 2019

  • National level management regulations for Archipelagic and territorial waters (MKDPRI PER 30/MEN/2012) and the EEZ PER.12/MEN/2012 are the tools covering application of shark, turtle, sea mammals and bird measures.
  • Indonesia completed its Shark National Plan of Action and Sea Turtle National Plan of Action in 2016, and there is a moratorium on the export the hammerhead and oceanic white tip shark and fins (Decree 59/PERMEN-KP/2014).
Weaknesses

Yellowfin tuna in the Indian Ocean are overfished and undergoing overfishing.  Catches have been over recommended level since 2011.  Recent advice calls for a 20% reduction but only a 5-15% reduction (depending on the fleet) has been adopted by the Commission (2016). IUU fishing and piracy has been a major issue in the Indian Ocean and there are compliance issues with regard to the quality of reported data {IOTC 2013b}.  The Commission has taken recent action to continue addressing these issues but the success of these measures is not yet known. A number of bycatch species, including sharks, sea turtles and sea birds are incidentally captured in fisheries targeting yellowfin tuna.  Observer coverage rates are low in fisheries targeting yellowfin tuna.

IOTC
Indonesia
Longlines

Last updated on 2 July 2019

  • Yellowfin tuna in the Indian Ocean are overfished and undergoing overfishing. Currently, there is no catch limit for yellowfin tuna in Indian Ocean.  Catches have been over recommended level since 2011.  Recent advice calls for a 20% reduction in catches but this has yet to be adopted. IUU fishing and piracy has been a major issue in the Indian Ocean and there are compliance issues with regard to the quality of reported data {IOTC 2013b}.
  • A number of bycatch species, including sharks, sea turtles and sea birds are incidentally captured in longline fisheries targeting yellowfin and bigeye tuna. Observation and reporting of ETP bycatch in Indonesian longline gear in the Indian Ocean is inconsistent and does not appear to meet requirements of IOTC resolutions. Raw bycatch numbers are available for ETP species, but estimates of total impacts are not possible.

  

RECOMMENDATIONS

Last updated on 7 August 2018

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain
  • Work with IOTC Members and Cooperating Non-Contracting Parties to:
    • Ensure full compliance with Resolution 17/01, the interim rebuilding plan for yellowfin tuna.
    • Improve data collection (i.e. catches, effort, size) for all gear types, for both target and bycatch species, and reporting through measures such as electronic logbooks.
    • Develop and implement comprehensive, precautionary harvest strategies with specific timelines for all tuna stocks, including the adoption and implementation of limit and target reference points, harvest control rules, monitoring strategies, operational objectives, performance indicators, and management strategy evaluation.
    • Strengthen compliance processes and make information on non-compliance public and continue to provide evidence of compliance with all IOTC Conservation and Management Measures in a timely manner.
    • Implement a 100% observer coverage requirement for at-sea transshipment activities, as well as other measures that ensure transshipment activity is transparent and well-managed, and that all required data are collected and transmitted to the appropriate bodies in a timely manner.
    • Increase compliance with the mandatory minimum 5% longline observer coverage rates by identifying and correcting non-compliance.
    • Implement a 100% observer coverage requirement – human and/or electronic – within five years for longline fisheries.  Adopt a 100% observer coverage requirement for purse seine vessels where it is not already required and require the use of the best-available observer safety equipment, communications and procedures.
    • Adopt effective measures for the use of non-entangling FAD designs as a precautionary measure to minimize the entanglement of sharks and other non-target species, and support research on biodegradable materials and transition to their use to mitigate marine debris.
    • More effectively implement, and ensure compliance with, existing RFMO bycatch requirements and take additional mitigation action, such as improving monitoring at sea, collecting and sharing operational-level, species-specific data, and adopting stronger compliance measures, including consequences for non-compliance for all gear types.
  • Ensure all products are traceable back to legal sources. Verify source information and full chain traceability through traceability desk audits or third party traceability certification. For fisheries without robust traceability systems in place, invest in meaningful improvements to bring the fisheries and supply chain in compliance with best practices.
IOTC
Indonesia
Longlines

Last updated on 28 June 2016

Improvement Recommendations to Catchers & Regulators

1. Ensure Indonesia complies with all Indian Ocean Tuna Commission’s (IOTC’s) conservation and management measures (CMMs), including measures aimed at both target and incidental market and non-market species, and all other obligations. Through your delegation to IOTC, encourage the compliance committee to make information on non-compliance by Indonesia publicly available in order to increase the incentive for compliance by all IOTC members and cooperating non-members.
2. Promote the adoption by the Indian Ocean Tuna Commission (IOTC) of precautionary and ecosystem-based management measures, including formal biological reference points (interim currently in place), harvest control rules, increased observer coverage for longline fleets, national management measures and monitoring efforts adequate to ensure harvest strategy objectives are being met. Adopt domestic laws and regulation to implement IOTC measures and provide monitoring and surveillance adequate for compliance.
3. Encourage IOTC to adopt management measures that will reduce catches of yellowfin tuna to be a minimum of 80% of current levels (2014).. Improve data collection and reporting to ensure complete data sets (i.e. catches, effort, size), which are needed for robust stock assessments. Conduct studies, increase monitoring and publish information to assess purse seine and longline interactions with protected, endangered and threatened (PET) and other bycatch species. Identify and mandate best practices bycatch mitigation techniques. Comply with recently implemented IOTC management measures prohibiting the retention of oceanic whitetip and thresher sharks.
4. Source from vessels operating within the FIP and support the FIP’s work plan implementation.

1. Ensure Indonesia complies with all Indian Ocean Tuna Commission’s (IOTC’s) conservation and management measures (CMMs), including measures aimed at both target and incidental market and non-market species, and all other obligations. Through your delegation to IOTC, encourage the compliance committee to make information on non-compliance by Indonesia publicly available in order to increase the incentive for compliance by all IOTC members and cooperating non-members.
2. Promote the adoption by the Indian Ocean Tuna Commission (IOTC) of precautionary and ecosystem-based management measures, including formal biological reference points (interim currently in place), harvest control rules, increased observer coverage for longline fleets, national management measures and monitoring efforts adequate to ensure harvest strategy objectives are being met. Adopt domestic laws and regulation to implement IOTC measures and provide monitoring and surveillance adequate for compliance.
3. Encourage IOTC to adopt management measures that will reduce catches of yellowfin tuna to be a minimum of 80% of current levels (2014). Improve data collection and reporting to ensure complete data sets (i.e. catches, effort, size), which are needed for robust stock assessments. Conduct studies, increase monitoring and publish information to assess purse seine and longline interactions with protected, endangered and threatened (PET) and other bycatch species. Identify and mandate best practices bycatch mitigation techniques. Comply with recently implemented IOTC management measures prohibiting the retention of oceanic whitetip and thresher sharks.

1.STOCK STATUS

STOCK ASSESSMENT

Last updated on 16 January 2018

Yellowfin tuna is assumed to be a single stock across Indian Ocean. This is supported by the tag recoveries that provide evidence of large movements of yellowfin tuna. The latest full stock assessment was conducted in 2015 and an updated assessment was conducted in 2016. Three assessment models were used in the 2015 assessment were the, BBPm, SCAA and Stock Synthesis III . This stock assessment included catch data from 1950 through 2014 {IOTC 2015}. The udated 2016 assessment utilized the Biomass Dynamic MOdel (BDM) and Stock Synthesis III and included catch and effort data through 2015 (IOTC 2016).

IOTC
Indonesia
Longlines

Last updated on 13 April 2010

Yellowfin tuna is assumed to be a single stock across Indian Ocean. This is supported by the tag recoveries that provide evidence of large movements of yellowfin tuna. However, some more detailed analysis of fisheries data suggests that the stock structure may be more complex. A study of stock structure using DNA was unable to detect whether there were subpopulations of yellowfin tuna in the Indian Ocean (IOTC 2008a).

At regional level (Indian Ocean), a range of assessments were presented in the Meeting of the Working Party on Tropical Tunas (WPTT) in Bangkok, 23 to 31 November, 2008, which included Multifan-CL, a Stock Synthesis 2 (SS2) model and an Age-structured Production Model (ASPM). Multifan – CL is a size-based, age- and spatially-structured population model that has the functionality to integrate the tagging data obtained from the Indian Ocean Tagging Programme. Stock Synthesis 2 (SS2) model used catch-at-length data, growth and a CPUE series to model the stock dynamics while ASPM used catch-at-age data and a CPUE series to estimate biomass trends and management-related parameters. Most of the models appear to provide similar perspectives on the status of the stocks despite their different levels of complexity and the uncertainties. In overall, all assessment results indicated that the biomass is below the MSY-based level and that the catch and harvest rates are slightly above MSY levels (IOTC 2008b).

At Indonesia level, several workshops have been conducted as attempts to assess the stock size of tuna in Indonesian waters. However, up until now, due to lack of accurate statistical data (that meet data requirements for scientific stock assessments), there is no scientific stock assessments relating to tunas and tuna-like species in Indonesia. Therefore tuna experts then came into agreement that until this point, there is no one that can estimate the reasonable stock size of Indonesian tuna. The tuna experts then agreed that the most important thing to assess the stock size of Indonesian tuna fisheries is by studying indicators to predict the condition and status of Indonesian tuna fisheries rather than trying to estimate the Indonesian tuna stock size.

SCIENTIFIC ADVICE

Last updated on 16 January 2018

In 2015, it was advised that catches of yellowfin tuna should be reduced to a minimum of 80% of current (2014) catch levels to rebuild by 2024 {IOTC 2015}. An intermin rebuilding plan was adopted in 2016, but the success of this plan has yet to be evaluated. No new advice was provided in 2016 as a result of the updated assessment but did indicate there is a risk of continuing to exceed the biomass reference point if catches increase or remain at 2015 levels until 2018 (IOTC 2016).

Reference Points

Last updated on 16 Jan 2018

Reference points for yellowfin tuna in the Indian Ocean Tuna commission Area: Source: IOTC (2016)
2015 catch estimate: 4307,575 tonnes
Average Catches (2011-2015): 390,185 tonnes
MSY: 422,000 tonnes
SB2015/SBMSY = 0.89 (0.79—0.99)
F2015/FMSY = 1.11 (0.86-1.36)
SB2015/SB0 = 0.29 

CURRENT STATUS

Last updated on 16 January 2018

The stock is currently overfished ((B2015<BMSY) and undergoing occurring(F2015>FMSY) (IOTC, 2016).

Trends

Last updated on 16 Jan 2018

Catch per unit effort trends have been decreasing over time for yellowfin tuna in the Indian Ocean {IOTC 2016}.

IOTC
Indonesia
Longlines

Last updated on 5 March 2013

Trends

Last updated on 05 Mar 2013

According to Indonesian national statistics, the annual estimated catch of yellowfin tuna in 2011 was 38,550t. Yellowfin tuna contributes more than 29% of total tuna catch; the highest percentage is skipjack with more than 47% of the annual catch in 2011. The annual yellowfin tuna catch using longline continues to show decreases since 2005 (2005: 47,570 t; 2006: 27,090t; 2007: 15,837t; 2008: 15,133t; 2009: 13,487t; 2010:14,572t; and 2011: 8976t) (IOTC, 2012b).

Three main landing sites for the Indian Ocean tuna longline vessels are Benoa (Bali), Muara Baru (north Jakarta) and Cilacap (Central Java) fishing ports (Proctor et al., 2003). Benoa fishing port contributes more than 60% of tuna catch where the dominant catch is yellowfin tuna (IOTC., 2011). The estimated of annual catch of yellowfin tuna reported from Benoa has also shown a decrease since 2009, where the catch was 7,240t in 2009, was 5372t in 2010 and was 3008 tonnes in 2011.

The number of Indonesian registered tuna fishing vessels operated in IOTC in 2012 is 1,278 and consists of 1,256 longline, 19 purse seine, 2 gillnet, and 1 carrier boat (IOTC, 2012b).

Yellowfin biomass has been substantially declining since, at least, the mid-1980s. Since the early 1980s, there has been a continuous increase in F. The stock assessments, including independent analyses of the tagging data, indicate that recruitment has declined in recent years (IOTC, 2008b). Estimates of total and spawning stock biomass show a marked decrease over the last decade, accelerated in recent years by the high catches of 2003-2006. It appears that the stock is currently overfished or approaching an overfished state, and overfishing has probably been occurring over recent years. The effect on the standing stock of the high catches of the 2003-2006 period is still noticeable as biomass appears to be decreasing despite catches returning to pre-2003 levels (IOCT, 2010c).

In terms of the internstionl fishery, purse seiners currently take the bulk of the yellowfin catch, mostly from the western Indian Ocean around the Seychelles (IOTC, 2008b). Contrary to the situation in other oceans, the artisanal fishery component in the Indian Ocean is substantial, taking approximately 37% of the total catch in weight (IOTC, 2010c). Artisanal catches, taken by bait boat, gillnet, troll, hand line and other gears have increased steadily since the 1980s. In recent years the total artisanal yellowfin catch has been around 130,000-140,000 tonnes, with the catch by gillnets (the dominant artisanal gear) at around 80,000 tonnes to 90,000 tonnes (IOTC, 2010c).

Since 1993, mean weights in the catches in the industrial fisheries have declined. Prior to 2003, although total catch in biomass has been stable for several years, catches in numbers have continued to increase, as there has been more fishing effort directed towards smaller fish. While there is a large amount of uncertainty about likely future catches, recent events in 2008 where some vessels have left the fishery, together with fleets avoiding the historically important fishing grounds in the waters adjacent to Somalia for security reasons, may reduce catches in the short-term to below the pre-2003 levels (IOTC, 2008c, 2010c).

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

MANAGEMENT

Last updated on 17 September 2018

The Indian Ocean Tuna Commission (IOTC) is one of five global tuna-regional fisheries management organizations. IOTC is mandated to manage tuna and tuna-like species in the Indian Ocean and adjacent seas. Its objective is to promote cooperation among its Members with a view to ensuring, through appropriate management, the conservation and optimum utilization of stocks and encouraging sustainable development of fisheries based on such stocks. Members of IOTC include Australia, Belize, China, Comoros, Eritrea, European Community, France, Guinea, India, Indonesia, Republic Islamic of Iran, Japan, Kenya, Republic of Korea, Madagascar, Malaysia, Mauritius, Sultanate of Oman, Pakistan, Philippines, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Tanzania, Thailand, United Kingdom, and Vanuatu. The Cooperating Non-Contracting Parties are Senegal, South Africa and Uruguay.

A proposal for adopting a catch limit for yellowfin tuna was introduced in 2009, along with proposed TACs for bigeye tuna and swordfish. The proposal was to introduce catch restrictions on yellowfin tuna (to the levels recommended by the Scientific Committee), including catch allocations for Members (on the basis of the catch figures indicated in the IOTC Scientific Committee report 2008). These proposals were submitted in response to the advice from the Scientific Committee that yellowfin tuna stocks were evaluated to be at levels near or below MSY; and recognizing the importance of applying the precautionary approach for the management of the stock in the Indian Ocean.  However, after considerable debate, no consensus was reached on a formula to distribute the allowable catches between Members, and the proposals for catch limits were dropped from further consideration at the 2009 IOTC meeting. The advice from the 2015 stock assessment called for a reduction in catches of around 20%. The Commission adopted a reduction of 10% for gillnet and longline vessels, 15% for purse seine vessels (with catches higher than 5,000 mt during 2014) and 5% for other gears {IOTC 2016b}. Discarding yellowfin tuna caught by purse seine's is prohibited (IOTC 2017).

Other management measures in place include: required reporting and recording of catches and effort, providing a record of active fishing vessels, limiting fishing capacity to levels from 2007.   Artificial lights and the use of aircraft and/or unmanned aerial vehicles is prohibited in the purse seine fishery {IOTC 2016b}. There are interim limit and target reference points in place for yellowfin tuna in the Indian Ocean (IOTC 2015).


 

Recovery Plans

Yellowfin tuna are currently managed by an interim rebuilding plan (IOTC 2016).

IOTC
Indonesia
Longlines

Last updated on 30 March 2015

Indonesian seas are divided into eleven Fisheries Managament Areas (FMAs), of which two FMAs, covering the seas on the west of Sumatera, south of Java until south of east Nusa Tenggara are located within the Indian Ocean Tuna Commission area. Indonesia has a total of 5,8 million km2 of marine waters; the Exclusive Economic Zone (12 – 200 miles) covers an area of 2,7 million km2 and 2,7 million km2 is territorial waters (<12 miles).

The Indonesian tuna fisheries are comprised of artisanal/traditional and small-scale fisheries. The artisanal/traditional fisheries are characterized by the use of small non-motorized and motorized boats with small outboard or inboard engines. The sizes of the boats range from 10 to 15 meters in length. The vessels’ capacity is roughly between less than 10 GT and up to 30 GT. The small scale fisheries comprise vessels greater than 30 GT of greater than 24 meters length. The main tuna species caught are yellowfin, bigeye, albacore and skipjack.

Indonesia has created a National Plan of Action for the management of tuna and there is a draft National Tuna Management Plan. The plan includes ways to improve monitoring, identifying catch limits, and aiding in enforcement and compliance measures {MMAF 2012}{MMAF 2014a}. Indonesia also has a National Plan of Action, tuna skipjack and neritic tuna in place {MMAF 2014b}. Indonesia is also a member of the Indian Ocean Tuna Commission.

No catch limits are in place for yellowfin tuna in the Indian Ocean. A proposal for adopting a catch limit for yellowfin tuna was introduced in 2009, along with proposed TACs for bigeye tuna and swordfish. The proposal was to introduce catch restrictions on yellowfin tuna (to the levels recommended by the Scientific Committee), including catch allocations for Members (on the basis of the catch figures indicated in the IOTC Scientific Committee report 2008). These proposals were submitted in response to the advice from the Scientific Committee that yellowfin tuna stocks were evaluated to be at levels near or below MSY; and recognizing the importance of applying the precautionary approach for the management of the stock in the Indian Ocean. However, after considerable debate, no consensus was reached on a formula to distribute the allowable catches between Members, and the proposals for catch limits were dropped from further consideration at the 2009 IOTC meeting.

The Indian Ocean Tuna Commission (IOTC) is one of five global tuna-regional fisheries management organizations. IOTC is mandated to manage tuna and tuna-like species in the Indian Ocean and adjacent seas. Its objective is to promote cooperation among its Members with a view to ensuring, through appropriate management, the conservation and optimum utilization of stocks and encouraging sustainable development of fisheries based on such stocks. Members of IOTC are Australia, Belize, China, Comoros, Eritrea, European Community, France, Guinea, India, Indonesia, Republic Islamic of Iran, Japan, Kenya, Republic of Korea, Madagascar, Malaysia, Mauritius, Sultanate of Oman, Pakistan, Philippines, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Tanzania, Thailand, United Kingdom, and Vanuatu. The Cooperating Non-Contracting Parties are Senegal, South Africa and Uruguay.

COMPLIANCE

Last updated on 22 January 2015

There is no TAC or other output controls for yellowfin tuna in the Indian Ocean. Therefore, compliance cannot be measured. However, the IOTC Scientific Committee has repeatedly pointed out that fishing levels of yellowfin tuna stock have exceeded recommended amounts (IOTC 2013). In addition, the Compliance Committee indicated that reporting of mandatory statistics is generally poor, due to incomplete and/or poorly documented data, although an improvement was noted in 2012 {IOTC 2013b}. The lack of quality data can negatively impact stock assessments.

IUU fishing in the Indian Ocean and piracy have been major issues, which includes a range of illicit activities: fishing without permission or out of season; harvesting prohibited species; using outlawed types of fishing gear; disregarding catch quotas; or non-reporting or underreporting catch weights. Of particular concern are the western Indian Ocean and the maritime areas along the coast of eastern Africa. There, fishing vessels of various flags have taken advantage of the absence in coastal countries of strong enforcement mechanisms (FAO 2007). The Commission has regularly established a list of vessels presumed to have carried out illegal, unregulated and unreported fishing in the IOTC area. In 2013, the IOTC adopted a new resolution to make a record of vessels authorized to operation in the IOTC area of competence (IOTC 2013c). In 2016, the Commission took further steps to address IUU fishing and compliance with catch reporting and other Conservation and Management Measure requirements {IOTC 2016}.

IOTC
Indonesia
Longlines

Last updated on 5 March 2013

There is no TAC or other output controls for yellowfin tuna in the Indian Ocean. Therefore, compliance cannot be measured. However, the IOTC Scientific Committee has repeatedly pointed out that fishing levels of yellowfin tuna stock have exceeded MSY in recent years. Average annual catch over 2003-2007 was 369,912 tonnes, while the MSY was 330,000 tonnes.

In addition to that, IUU fishing in the Indian Ocean has been a major issue, which includes a range of illicit activities: fishing without permission or out of season; harvesting prohibited species; using outlawed types of fishing gear; disregarding catch quotas; or non-reporting or underreporting catch weights. Of particular concern are the western Indian Ocean and the maritime areas along the coast of eastern Africa. There, fishing vessels of various flags have taken advantage of the absence in coastal countries of strong enforcement mechanisms (FAO 2007). The Commission has regularly been also establishing a list of vessels presumed to have carried out illegal, unregulated and unreported fishing in the IOTC area.

The Scientific Committee also noted the increase in unreported catches from gillnet fisheries. A large number of vessels from Iran (42%), Sri Lanka (19%) and Pakistan (7%) are reported as operating on the high seas, but that the Secretariat has not received complete data sets from the countries involved.

IOTC Resolution on a Regional Scheme on Port State Measures to Combat Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated Fishing is proposed in the Meeting in 2009 which intention to contribute to the long-term conservation and sustainable use of living marine resources, and in particular of highly migratory stocks, in the IOTC Area through strengthened, harmonized and transparent port State measures to prevent, deter and eliminate illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing.

In order to regulate and monitor the fishing activities, the Indonesian fisheries authority has issued regulations:

1) Ministerial regulation Number 05 year 2008 on the obligation for fishing vessels above 30 GT to install a Vessel Monitoring System, and to activate the transmitter.

2) Ministerial regulation Number 18 year 2010 which requires the use of logbook for vessels above 5 GT, which has to be submitted to the port authority prior to unloading the catch. The Indonesian fisheries authority has developed 3 logbook systems, one each for longline/handline, purse-seine/pole and line and other gears.

In 2011, a research institute for tuna fisheries (RITF) was established to conduct port sampling and a scientific observer program for tuna fisheries in the Indian Ocean. The number of scientific observer involved in 2012 was 7 observers. The average days at sea /trip varied from 30 d/trip to 94 d/trip, with the average total days at sea was 67 days. The Observer Program data set is currently the most comprehensive and most reliable data available from the tuna fisheries in term of catch and effort information.

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

BYCATCH
ETP Species

Last updated on 22 January 2015

Longlines incidentally capture vulnerable species including sea birds and sea turtles. Bycatch of seabirds, sea turtles, marine mammals and sharks in pelagic longline tuna fisheries threatens some populations with extinction. Purse seines can also incidentally capture sea turtles. The Indian Ocean Tuna Commission (IOTC) has implemented several management measures addressing these incidental captures.

Regarding sea birds, a 2010 resolution, superseding previous measures, requires, when south of 25oS, use of at least two seabird mitigation methods selected from two lists of nine alternatives (IOTC, 2010b).

A 2009 resolution requires member countries to report data on sea turtle interactions and for vessels to follow sea turtles handling and release guidelines and posses and use specified turtle release equipment (IOTC, 2009c). Purse seine vessels are not allowed to encircle sea turtles while setting their nets (IOTC 2013).

There are extremely low bycatch levels in pole-and-line fisheries, where bycatch that does occur generally consists of juvenile kawakawa tuna (Euthynnus affinis_), frigate mackerel (Auxis rochei_), mahimahi (Coryphaena hippurus), and rainbow runner (Elagatis bupinnulata). Discards are believed to have high post release survival rates due to the use of barbless hooks and flick-off practices (FAO, 1997). However, concern over bycatch of reef fish and juvenile classes of target species in baitfish fisheries that supply live bait to pole-and-line fisheries has been raised, as have other ecological issues (ecosystem effects of removal of baitfish species, overexploitation of target baitfish species, habitat degradation) and socioeconomic issues (food security impacts with coastal communities) (FAO, 2008; Gillett, 2010).

Required observer coverage rates and compliance with these rates are low in the Indian Ocean. In 2016, the Commission adopted a new resolution to develop a pilot program to promote the regional observer scheme of the IOTC {IOTC 2016}.

IOTC
Indonesia
Longlines

Last updated on 2 July 2019

The Indian Ocean Tuna Commission (IOTC), of which Indonesia is a member, is responsible for management and conservation measures in international waters of the Indian Ocean. IOTC resolution 10/04 requires at least 5% of the total number of operations/sets for each gear type (including longlines) fishing with vessels ≥ 24 m in the IOTC area of competence, and < 24 m if they fish outside their EEZ (IOTC 2010). However, Indonesia’s country reports to the IOTC are inconsistent with respect to the ETP species reported as well as the ranges of years during which the bycatch was observed, which varied by species ((Ruchimat et al. 2017); (Ruchimat et al. 2018)). Observer coverage increased by 6.9% of all longline vessels from 2016 to 2017, but the Indonesian country report to the IOTC was unclear about what proportion of overall fishing effort this coverage achieved ((Ruchimat et al. 2017); (Ruchimat et al. 2018)). Ministerial regulation No. 42/2015 requires all vessels above 30 GT or operating outside the EEZ to be equipped with a VMS transmitter ((Ruchimat et al. 2018)). RITF maintains a tuna catch monitoring program at Benoa Fishing Port in Bali to verify logbook reports, and has a goal of minimum 30% coverage of landings; Ruchimat et al. ((Ruchimat et al. 2018)) reported that coverage of port sampling between 2013-2017 was above 50%. These reports include sampling of some shark species (e.g., blue sharks, shortfin makos, oceanic whitetips, and bigeye thresher sharks) as well as billfish (e.g., blue marlin, black marlin, striped marlin, swordfish).

In addition, IOTC Resolution 18/08 sets limits on the total number of FADs that can be deployed, specifications of catch reporting, and development of FAD designs to reduce non-target catch, but this applies to purse seine vessels (IOTC 2013). No information was available in country reports about the number or location of FADs, an issue also highlighted by the MSC Pre-assessment (Hough 2018)

Given the current observer coverage and reporting scheme in Indonesian longline fisheries estimates of total ETP bycatch by species are not possible. This fishery overlaps with several shark, seabird, marine mammal, and sea turtle populations, some of which are currently low abundance and declining, which means that even if numerically low, bycatch interactions can still have significant population impacts (Lewison et al. 2014). Addition types of information, such as post-release mortality of ETP species ((García-Párraga et al. 2014); (Musyl et al. 2015); (Musyl and Gilman 2019)), will also be necessary to robustly estimate the impacts of bycatch in Indonesian longline tuna fisheries.

RITF observers documented 76 total interactions with seabirds between 2005 to 2017 in Indonesian longlines in the Indian Ocean, including 20 in 2017 alone, 18 of which were great-winged petrels ((Ruchimat et al. 2018). Most seabird interactions have occurred in temperate latitudes (>25S). The Indonesian longline fishery in the Indian Ocean overlaps with several proposed or confirmed Important Bird Areas designated by BirdLife International, including one confirmed for IUCN Critically Endangered Christmas frigatebirds (BirdLife International 2019). Indonesia’s Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries released Ministerial Decree (PERMEN KP) No. 12/2012 which requires use of tori lines for every longline vessel operating beyond 25S.

RITF observers documented 46 interactions with sea turtles during 2013-2017, 38 of which were with olive ridley turtles and the rest green turtles (Ruchimat et al. 2018). In a separate study that possibly used some of the same observer data, 43 interactions with sea turtles occurred during 2011-2016, 40 of which were olive ridleys as well as 1 leatherback and 2 unidentified species (WWF 2013). Bycatch assessments (observers as well as port-based interviews) conducted by WWF during 2005-2007 reported 132 sea turtles taken as bycatch (only 7 dead) in longlines and trawls, including green turtles, leatherbacks, loggerheads, and olive ridleys, though species-specific totals were not provided (Moody Marine LTD 2010). Indonesian longline fishing operations occur in a highly diverse area in terms of marine turtle regional management units (RMUs; (Wallace et al. 2010), potentially overlapping with 9 different RMUs of 6 different species, including Southeast and Northeast Indian green turtles, West Pacific/Southeast Asia and Southeast Indian hawksbills, Southeast Indian loggerheads, West Pacific and Northeast Indian leatherbacks, West Pacific olive ridleys, and possibly Southeast Indian flatbacks. 

Six species of billfish were also caught by Indonesian tuna longlines, but most billfish catch was comprised of swordfish, black marlin, and blue marlin (Ruchimat et al. 2018). No marine mammal or whale shark bycatch was reported during 2012-2016 by RITF observers (Ruchimat et al. 2018)

As part of a WWF-supported on-board observer program, Zainudin et al. ((Zainudin et al. 2017)) reported 26 seabirds, 17 dolphins, and 8 whales were caught between 2006-2014 across 71 tuna longline vessels operating out of Benoa Port in Bali (n=41 vessels) and Bitung Port in North Sulawesi (n=30 vessels). Three-quarters of seabird interactions were fatal, whereas between a quarter and one-third of shark, dolphin, and whale interactions were fatal. This study also reported that longlines out of Bali and out of North Sulawesi (WCPO region) caught a combined 2,095 sharks, nearly 96% of which were juveniles. Night fishing was correlated with low occurrence of seabird and shark bycatch, but higher cetacean bycatch. Overall, bycatch rates for seabirds, marine mammals, and sharks in Indonesian longlines reported in this study were lower than those reported in USA fisheries (Atlantic and Pacific). It is unclear the degree of complementarity of the observer data reported by Zainudin et al. ((Zainudin et al. 2017)) and those reported by Indonesia to the IOTC (Ruchimat et al. 2018)).

Recent ecological risk assessments for shark species caught in IOTC reported uncertain stock status determinations for oceanic whitetip, shortfin mako, scalloped hammerheads, bigeye and pelagic thresher sharks, and silky sharks, and concluded that blue sharks were not overfished (IOTC 2019).

Despite conservation measures in place, Indonesia is one of the world’s top shark producers ((Lack et al. 2006); (Blaber et al., 2009)), and most shark products come from bycatch (72%) (Zainudin 2011); cited in (Zainudin et al. 2017). Shark bycatch from tuna fleets comprised approximately 11% of shark landings in Indonesia between 2011 and 2005 (Blaber et al., 2009). In addition, shark finning on Indonesian vessels is prohibited in some parts of the longline fishery (under AP2HI, for example) but finning is unlikely to be prevented on these vessels (Poseidon Aquatic Resource Management Ltd 2016). Many shark and ray species in Indonesia are overfished and effective management strategies likely need to include gear restrictions and catch limits, as well as controls on the fin trade (Blaber et al., 2009).

Indonesia established a National Plan of Action (NPOA) for sharks and rays for 2015-2019. The Minister of Marine and Fisheries issued regulations (No. 34/PERMEN-KP/2015 and amendment No. 59/PERMEN-KP/2014) that prohibits export of oceanic whitetip sharks and hammerhead sharks and fins from Indonesian territory (Ruchimat et al. 2018). Blue sharks (mostly retained) and crocodile sharks (typically discarded dead) comprised the majority of shark bycatch during 2013-2017 according to Research Institute for Tuna Fisheries (RITF) observer data (Ruchimat et al. 2018).

IOTC has established several conservation measures targeting ETP species, including cetaceans (IOTC 2013), multiple shark species ((IOTC 2017)), billfish (IOTC 2015), seabirds (IOTC 2012), marine turtles (IOTC 2012).

The Indonesian fisheries authority issued the Minsiterial decree number 12 year 2012 to regulate the management and conservation of bycatch and ecologically related species on tuna fisheries, which includes sharks, turtles, seabirds and mammals (Ruchimat et al. 2018).

Indonesia has a Ministerial Decree (PERMEN KP) No. 12/2012 which requires the use of tori lines on vessels operating beyond 250 south and Indonesia has a National Plan of Action for Seabirds in place since 2016 (Ruchimat et al. 2018).

Indonesia has a National Plan of Action for Marine Turtles for 2015-2020 (Ruchimat et al. 2018).

Other Species

Last updated on 17 December 2018

Large longline vessels generally catch older age classes of bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus) and bluefin tunas (T. maccoyii [southern], T. orientalis [Pacific] and T. thynnus [Atlantic]) for the sashimi market and some longline fleets target albacore (T. alalunga) for canning. Purse seine vessels target younger age classes of skipjack (Katsuwonus pelamis) and yellowfin (T. albacares) tuna for canning with incidental catch of bigeye tuna

Purse seine sets on anchored and drifting Fish Aggregating Devices (FADs) and natural floating objects (logs, flotsam) is widespread, with about half of tropical tuna catches coming from FAD sets (Fonteneau et al., 2000). FAD sets have high catch rates of small and juvenile bigeye and yellowfin tunas and unmarketable species and sizes of other fish species, as well as high sea turtle and shark bycatch rates, relative to unassociated sets (Fonteneau et al., 2000; IOTC, 2002; Romanov, 2002; Bromhead et al., 2003; Secretariat of the Pacific Community, 2006; WCPFC, 2007; An et al., 2009; Nicol et al., 2009). Networks of thousands of artificial drifting and anchored FADs aggregate tunas from surrounding waters and possibly act as ‘ecological traps’ of pelagic species by altering their natural spatial and temporal distributions, habitat associations, migration patterns and residence times (Marsac et al., 2000; Bromhead et al., 2003; Hallier and Gaertner, 2008; WCPFC, 2009; Dagorn et al., 2010).

Smaller swordfish are often discarded in pelagic longline tuna fisheries due to minimum size requirements or low market value (Cramer, 2003; Ward et al., 2008).

There are extremely low bycatch levels in pole-and-line fisheries, where bycatch that does occur generally consists of juvenile kawakawa tuna (Euthynnus affinis), frigate mackerel (Auxis rochei), mahimahi (Coryphaena hippurus), and rainbow runner (Elagatis bupinnulata). Discards are believed to have high post release survival rates due to the use of barbless hooks and flick-off practices (FAO, 1997). However, concern over bycatch of reef fish and juvenile classes of target species in baitfish fisheries that supply live bait to pole-and-line fisheries has been raised, as have other ecological issues (ecosystem effects of removal of baitfish species, overexploitation of target baitfish species, habitat degradation) and socioeconomic issues (food security impacts with coastal communities) (FAO, 2008; Gillett, 2010).

Between 1995 and 2003, the FAD component of the purse seine fishery represented 48-66% of the sets undertaken (60-80% of the positive sets) and took 36-63 % of the yellowfin catch by weight (59-76% of the total catch).

Preliminary quantitative estimates of the main bycatch species and species groups (billfishes, sharks, rays and fin fishes) were made for the whole purse seine fishery since 2003. Data are from the French and Spanish observer programs from 2003 to 2007, representing a total of 1958 observed sets (4% of the total number of sets during this period). Annual raising factors by fishing mode based on tuna production (tonnes per 1000 tonnes of tuna landed) were estimated for each species group from logbooks and observer information stratified by quarter, fishing area and fishing mode. According to these estimations, total bycatch was estimated at 9,585 tonnes, corresponding to 35.5 tonnes bycatch per 1000 tonnes of tuna landed. Tuna discards represents 54% of the total amount, followed by other fin fish (34%), sharks (10%), billfishes (1.5%) and rays (0.7%) (IOTC, 2009).

These mean ratios were applied to the whole purse seine fishery annual catches from 2003 to 2008 to compute total bycatches by species groups, and then distributed within the groups according to the proportion in weight of the main species or families. The bulk of the bycatch consisted of tuna discards (average annual catch 6,700 tonnes; range 5,100-8,300 tonnes). The annual bycatch of all other groups averaged some 4,000 tonnes (range 2,750-4,400 tonnes). Of this the majority was made up of “fin fishes”, with an annual mean catch close to 2,500 tonnes (range 1550-2,800 tonnes). The main species was rainbow runner (Elagatis bipinnulatus, 37% of the total), followed by triggerfishes (Balistidae, 24%), dolphinfishes (Coryphaena spp., 11%) and carangids (Carangidae, 7%), with the balance (21%) being made up of some 50 other species. Most were caught under FADs (95%). Fin fish species composition between FAD and log schools was rather similar, although there were more dolphinfishes on FADs, and the greatest diversity was from free schools. The next most important bycatch group was “sharks”, with a total average annual catch close to 1,300 tonnes (range 1,000-1,650 tonnes). Shark bycatch was dominated by carcharhinids, the most important being the silky shark (Carcharhinus falciformis, 79%) followed by the oceanic whitetip shark (C. longimanus, 11%). 97% of sharks were caught on FADs. Shark species composition was quite similar between FAD and free schools sets. “Billfish” bycatch was relatively low, with an average annual catch of 180 tonnes (range 140-210 tonnes). The most important species were marlins (70%, mainly M. indica and T. audax) and sailfishes (27%). Most billfishes (72%) were caught on FADs. Billfish species composition was quite similar between FAD and log sets. “Rays” were caught in smaller quantities, with an average annual catch of 50 tonnes (range 40-70 tonnes). 65% of rays were caught on FADs. The most important species group was the Mobulidae (42%), followed by the giant manta (Manta birostris, 37%) and other and unidentified rays (20%). Ray species composition is rather similar between FAD and free schools, but with a larger diversity on free schools. Overall, discards by the purse seine fishery (excluding tuna discards) remains relatively low when compared to many other fisheries, with the large majority coming from FAD sets (IOTC, 2009).

IOTC
Indonesia
Longlines

Last updated on 21 December 2018

Indonesian longliners also capture species such as sharks, billfish and other tunas. The scientific observer program in Indonesia began in 2005 through a collaborative project with Australia. The program became fully funded through Indonesia in 2011. The IOTC requires 5% observer coverage on longline vessels operating within the Convention Area.

Observer records from 2013 indicate that 121 individual sharks, representing nine species, were observed caught. The two most commonly caught shark species were the crocodile shark (Pseudocarcharias kamoharai_) and blue shark (Prionace glauca_). Indonesia has made progress on their National Plan of Action for sharks and is working towards adopting nation wide shark quotas for some species. Two species of manta rays (Manta birostris and Manta alfredi) have been given protection in Indonesian waters. Billfish made up 6.3% of the observed longline catch during 2013. The most commonly caught species were swordfish (~50%). Black, blue and striped marlin along with shortbill spearfish were also represented in the catch (Iritano et al. 2014). Observer records from 2013-2017 indicate blue and crocodile sharks dominated the catch. Crocodile sharks are typically discarded dead, while blue sharks are retained. Between 2005 and 2017, billfish made up about 5% of the total catch. Swordfish are the most common billfish species, followed by black marlin, blue marlin and sailfish. Pomfret, sickle pomfret, escolar and lancet fish are also incidentally captured in this fishery (Ruchimat et al. 2018).

Sharks: A 2005 *(updated in 2017) resolution requires: (i) annual reporting of data on shark catches; (ii) keep all parts of retained sharks, excluding head, guts and skins, to the point of first landing; (iii) have onboard fins that total < 5% of the weight of sharks onboard, up to the first point of landing, or otherwise ensure compliance with the 5% rule through certification, observer monitoring or other method. IOTC prohibits the retention, transshipment or landing of all species of thresher sharks, intended to address concerns over the status of the bigeye thresher shark (Aliopias superciliosus), but applicable to all thresher species due to the difficulty in differentiating between bigeye and other thresher species (IOTC 2017) (IOTC 2013).

In October 2010, Indonesia produced a National Plan of Action for Sharks (NPOA-Shark), which addresses key issues and actions for shark and ray management in Indonesia. The key actions suggested in the NPOA include: 1) Review of the status of shark- and ray fisheries in Indonesia. 2) Compilation of methods and data collection process. 3) Development of shark and ray research. 4) Improvement of management measures 5) Raising of concerns and awareness concerning the shark and ray fisheries in Indonesia. 6) Institutional Strengthening. As a member of the Indian Ocean Tuna Commission (IOTC) since 2007, Indonesia is required to comply with the Commission’s resolution 10/12, concerning the protection of thresher sharks. Minister of Marine Affairs No. 59/PERMEN-KP/2014 relates to the prohibition of retaining oceanic whitetip sharks and hammerhead sharks. A National Plan of Action for rays (2015-2019) has also been established by Indonesia (Ruchimat et al. 2018).

HABITAT

Last updated on 5 July 2011

In general, primary gear used to catch yellowfin tuna, including purse seine, pelagic longline and pole-and-line gear, do not come in direct contact with the seafloor.Lost and discarded gillnet gear can damage coastal habitats.

IOTC
Indonesia
Longlines

Last updated on 2 July 2019

The Indonesian tuna longline fishery is a pelagic fishery, which operates in deep oceanic waters and do not interact with the seabed. Negligible habitats impacts would therefore be anticipated (Moody Marine LTD 2010). The extent to which this fishery contributes chemical pollution or derelict fishing gear into oceanic pelagic habitats operates is unknown but warrants review.

 
ECOSYSTEM
IOTC
Indonesia
Longlines

Last updated on 2 July 2019

Fisheries that target high-level predators such as tunas will have some impact on marine ecosystems. Some research has suggested that exploitation by tuna fisheries can alter both target populations and a diversity of other species in the affected ecosystems (Hinke et al. 2004; see Schindler et al., 2002, for review); however, there is little empirical evidence for top-down control in oceanic ecosystems such as the Indian Ocean (Baum and Myers 2009)

In general, if a tuna fishery maintains target catch at or below MSY, it is not expected to have top-down ecosystem impacts. Both bigeye and yellowfin tuna are current at or below MSY (Collinson and Gascoigne 2015). Although some studies have included the North Central Pacific, Central Pacific, and Eastern Tropical Pacific ((Schindler et al. 2002); (Baum and Myers 2009)) and have suggested mesopredator and prey releases when predatory tuna species are overexploited, no studies – either empirically derived or model-based – have examined potential ecosystem effects in the Indian Ocean longline tuna fisheries.

Large quantities of baitfish are needed to support productive hook and line tuna fisheries; depending on the type and source of these baitfish, required quantities might not be possible or sustainable (Gillett 2011). Thus, baitfish harvest for longline tuna fishing operations could affect pelagic ecosystems as well.

Although some studies have included the North Central Pacific, Central Pacific, and Eastern Tropical Pacific ((Schindler et al. 2002); (Baum and Myers 2009)) and have suggested mesopredator and prey releases when predatory tuna species are overexploited, no studies – either empirically derived or model-based – have examined potential ecosystem effects specifically in the Indian Ocean.

FishSource Scores

Last updated on 17 September 2018

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

As calculated for 2017 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

There are interim target and limit reference points in place. The IOTC adopted a precautionary management approach in 2012 that will utilize reference points, harvest control rules and management strategy evaluation.

As calculated for 2017 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

Managers have adopted measures to reduce catches of yellowfin by 5-15% (depending on the fleet) but this is below the scientifically requested 20%.

As calculated for 2017 data.

The score is < 6.

Yellowfin tuna catches have been increasing since 2012 to unsustainable levels. In addition, there are significant issues with the quality of data reported by some countries to the Commission.

STOCK HEALTH:

As calculated for 2015 data.

The score is 7.6.

This measures the Ratio SSB/SSBmsy as a percentage of the SSB=SSBmsy.

The Ratio SSB/SSBmsy is 0.890 . The SSB=SSBmsy is 1.00 .

The underlying Ratio SSB/SSBmsy/SSB=SSBmsy for this index is 89.0%.

As calculated for 2015 data.

The score is 7.6.

This measures the Harvest rate as a percentage of the F management target.

The Harvest rate is 1.11 (Y/TSB). The F management target is 1.00 .

The underlying Harvest rate/F management target for this index is 111%.

ECOSYSTEM IMPACTS

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×

Bycatch Subscores

  • Some raw bycatch information available from government observers (RITF), as well as a published study (Zainudin et al. 2017).
  • Bycatch information reported by Indonesia to the IOTC is for all longlines combined (including handlines, pole and line); not possible to allocate reported bycatch to specific gears.

  • Indonesian YFT longlines in the Indian Ocean overlap and interact with several ETP species including sharks, seabirds, marine mammals, and sea turtles, some of which are currently low abundance and declining, which means that numerically low bycatch interactions can still have significant population impacts (Lewison et al. 2014).
  • Lack of systematic collection and reporting of ETP bycatch information makes assessment of outcome impossible.

Existing IOTC and national conservation measures to protect ETP species apply to this fishery, but compliance uncertain.

×

Habitat Subscores

  • The Indonesia tuna longline fishery in the Indian Ocean is a pelagic fishery, which operate in deep oceanic waters and do not interact with the seabed. Negligible habitats impacts would therefore be anticipated (Moody Marine LTD 2010)
  • The extent to which this fishery contributes chemical pollution or derelict fishing gear into oceanic pelagic habitats operates is unknown but warrants review.

General map of fishing area for Indonesian longlines (and other tuna fisheries) available (Ruchimat et al. 2018).

  • The Indonesia tuna longline fishery in the Indian Ocean is a pelagic fishery, which operate in deep oceanic waters and do not interact with the seabed. Negligible habitats impacts would therefore be anticipated (Moody Marine LTD 2010)
  • The extent to which this fishery contributes chemical pollution or derelict fishing gear into oceanic pelagic habitats operates is unknown but warrants review.

Fishery operates in pelagic waters, no impacts on seafloor from the handline gear itself. No habitat measures in place.

×

Ecosystem Subscores

Insufficient information available to assess ecosystem effects of this particular fishery, but fisheries that target high-level predators such as tuna that also catch overexploited stocks (e.g., baitfish) and ETP species will have some impact on marine ecosystems.

General map of fishing area for Indonesian longlines (and other tuna fisheries) available (Ruchimat et al. 2018)

Insufficient information available to assess ecosystem effects of this particular fishery, but fisheries that target high-level predators such as tuna that also catch overexploited stocks (e.g., baitfish) and ETP species will have some impact on marine ecosystems.

No ecosystem-specific regulations. Management of tuna populations, baitfish populations, and ETP species should be required.

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No data available for recruitment
No data available for recruitment
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DATA NOTES

F and SSB are provided relative to MSY (F/FMSY, B/BMSY) and reference points have been set accordingly. F to be adopted at low biomass is not defined and there is no set TAC. Therefore, Scores 1, 2 and 3 have been determined qualitatively (please mouse-over for explanation).

 

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Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

SELECT FIP

Access FIP Public Report

Progress Rating: B
Evaluation Start Date: 11 Jul 2014
Type: Basic

Comments:

FIP rating remains B. Last stage 4 progress within 12 months.

 

1.
FIP Development
Sep 18
2.
FIP Launch
Jan 12
May 19
3.
FIP Implementation
Nov 18
4.
Improvements in Fishing Practices and Fishery Management
Jan 19
5.
Improvements on the Water
Verifiable improvement on the water
6.
MSC certification (optional)
MSC certificate made public

Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

No related MSC certifications

Sources

Credits

An H-H, Kwon Y-J, Kim DN, Moon DY, Hwang SJ. 2009. Effects of set type on catch of small-sized tuna by the Korean tuna purse seine fishery in the WCPO. Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission Scientific Committee Fifth Regular Session, 10-21 August 2009, Port Vila, Vanuatu. Information Paper Number WCPFC-SC5-2009/FT-WP-02. Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission, Palikir, Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia.

Bromhead D, Foster J, Attard R, Findlay J, Kalish J. 2003.. A review of the impacts of fish aggregating devices (FADs) on tuna fisheries. Final Report to the Fisheries Resources Research Fund. Bureau of Rural Sciences, Canberra, ACT, Australia.

Cramer, J. 2003. Distribution of juvenile swordfish (Xiphias gladius) caught by pelagic longline in the Atlantic Ocean. Col. Vol. Sci. Pap. ICCAT 55(4): 1587-1596.

Dagorn, L., Holland, K.N., Filmalter, J., Are drifting FADs essential for testing the ecological trap hypothesis? Fisheries Research (2010),
doi:10.1016/j.fishres.2010.07.002.

FAO. 2008. Fishing Gear Types. Lift nets. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Fisheries and Aquaculture Department, Rome.

Fonteneau A, Pallares P, Pianet R. 2000. A worldwide review of purse seine fisheries on FADs. In: Le Gall JY, Cayré P, Taquet M (eds) Pêche thonière et dispositifs de concentration de poissons. Actes Colloques‐IFREMER 28:15–35.

Gillett, R. 2010. Replacing Purse Seining with Pole-and-Line Fishing in the Western Pacific: Some Aspects of the Baitfish Requirements. International Seafood Sustainability Foundation, Washington, D.C., USA.

Gilman, E. 2011. Bycatch governance and best practice mitigation technology in global tuna fisheries. Marine Policy 35: 590-609.

Hallier, J.P., Gaertner, D., 2008. Drifting fish aggregation devices could act as an ecological trap for tropical tuna species. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 353, 255-264.

IOTC. 2011a. Report of the Thirteenth Session of the IOTC Working Party on Tropical Tunas, Indian Ocean Tuna Commission, Maldives, 16-23 October 2011, 94 pp.

IOTC. 2010a. Report of the Fourteenth Session of the Indian Ocean Tuna Commission. Indian Ocean Tuna Commission, Mahé, Seychelles.

IOTC. 2010b. Report of the Twelfth Session of the IOTC Working Party on Tropical Tunas. Victoria, Seychelles, 18-25 October 2010.

IOTC. 2010c. Report of the Thirteenth Session of the Scientific Committee. Victoria, Seychelles, 6-10 December 2010. Indian Ocean Tuna Commission, Seychelles.

IOTC. 2009d. Report of the Twelfth Session of the Science Committee, Victoria, Seychelles, 30 November – 4 December 2009. Indian Ocean Tuna Commission, Mahé, Seychelles.

IOTC. 2002. Resolution 02/08 on the Conservation of Bigeye and Yellowfin Tuna in the Indian Ocean. Indian Ocean Tuna Commission, Mahé, Seychelles.

IOTC. 2015. Status of the Indian Ocean yellowfin tuna (YFT: Thunnus albacares) resource. IOTC-2015-SC18-ES04[E].

IOTC. 2013b. Summary report on the level of compliance. IOTC-2013-CoC10-03. Available at: http://www.iotc.org/files/proceedings/2013/coc/IOTC-2013-CoC10-03%5BE%5D.pdf

IOTC. 2013c. Compendium of active and pending conservation and management measures for the Indian Ocean Tuna Commission. September 15, 2013. Available at: http://www.iotc.org/files/CMM/IOTC%20-%20Compendium%20of%20ACTIVE%20CMMs%2015%20September%202013.pdf

IOTC. 2016. Status of the Indian Ocean yellowfin tuna (YFT: Thunnus albacares) resource. IOTC-2016-SC19-ES04


IOTC. 2016b. Conservation and Management Measures adopted by the IOTC at its 20th Session. IOTC Circular 2016-054.

Langley, A. 2010. Stock assessment of Yellowfin Tuna in the Indian Ocean using MULTIFAN-CL. IUTC-2010-WPTT-23.

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References

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