Last updated on 8 September 2017

SUMMARY

SUMMARY

IDENTIFICATION

SCIENTIFIC NAME(s)

Thunnus albacares

SPECIES NAME(s)

Yellowfin tuna

Despite the identification of distinct spawning grounds within the Atlantic Ocean, observed transatlantic movements and catch data suggest the existence of a unique stock which is used for stock assessment purposes (ICCAT, 2011). A new research study about the genetic variation in the region is being developed (Antoni et al., 2014).


ANALYSIS

Strengths

Managers have adhered to scientific advice. The stock assessment (2011) indicated that maintaining catches at current levels (110,000 t) would allow the population to remain healthy through 2024. The International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (ICCAT) set a total allowable catch (TAC) at this level starting in 2013. Yellowfin tuna are included in a multi-year conservation and management plan for bigeye tuna.

Weaknesses

There are no formally adopted target or limit reference points. There is no harvest control rule in place, although the framework for one has been adopted. The population has been decreasing for over two decades and under target levels since 2009, but fishing mortality rates appear to be sustainable (although some model runs indicated it was not).  It has also been recommended that if measures which are effective at reducing FAD related mortality for small yellowfin tuna were implemented, the long-term yield would be improved. No measures have yet been adopted by ICCAT. An observer program is in place, but required coverage rates (all fleets) (5%) are very low. Catch and catch at size data needs to be reported at a smaller scale, data on present samples of size frequency data needs to be recovered and identifying ways of improving catch estimates from logbook data are all needed.

The population has been decreasing for over two decades and under target levels since 2009, but fishing mortality rates appear to be sustainable (although some model runs indicated it was not). However, if catches are maintained at the set TAC level the population should recover, thus catches during the next several years should be monitored against to ensure compliance.If catches exceed this TAC and reach 140,000 t or more, the probability of meeting Convention Objectives will fall below 50%. Catch monitoring needs improvement in both artisanal and industrial fisheries. A mandatory logbook scheme should be implemented for all industrial purse seine and longline fleets operating from Panama ports. Regular checks for reported catches should be in place for artisanal fisheries, where bulk of the catches are landed along the coastline. The sport fishing sector is not regulated and there is absence of fisheries statistics for this sector, with the exception of some major landing points along the Atlantic coast. Although, Panama has landing and transshipment facilities for fishing vessels operating in Caribbean and Atlantic waters, most of the foreign fishing fleet lands their tuna catch in ports of other countries (EU, Suriname, Gambia) (ICCAT 2011b). Managers should establish fishing regulations and identify major fishing areas to establish closed areas at least for certain months in a year especially, in the high seas areas.

FISHSOURCE SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

≥ 6

Managers Compliance:

10

Fishers Compliance:

10

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

7.8

Future Health:

8.9


RECOMMENDATIONS

CATCHERS & REGULATORS

1.Ensure member countries comply with all conservation and management measures (CMMs) of the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (ICCAT), including measures aimed at both target and bycatch species, and all other mandated obligations. Member countries must make information on monitoring and compliance with all ICCAT obligations publicly available, including actions being taken to address any identified non-compliance with ICCAT CMM’s. Ensure compliance with the current total allowable catch (TAC) for yellowfin tuna.
2.Promote the adoption by the ICCAT and member countries of precautionary management measures, including target and limit biological reference points, harvest control rules, increased observer coverage for all fisheries, national management measures and monitoring efforts adequate to ensure harvest strategy objectives are being met. Promote the adoption of management measures aimed at reducing mortality rates of juvenile yellowfin tuna caught in purse seine sets made on fish aggregating devices (FADs).
3.Improve data collection and reporting to ensure complete data sets (i.e. catches, effort, size), which are needed for robust stock assessments. For example, catch and catch at size data needs to be reported at a smaller scale, data on present samples of size frequency data needs to be recovered and identifying ways of improving catch estimates from logbook data are all needed.
4.Conduct studies, increase monitoring and publish information to assess longline interactions with protected, endangered and threatened (PET) and other bycatch species. Identify and mandate best practices bycatch mitigation techniques. Demand compliance with ICCAT management measures prohibiting the retention of oceanic whitetip, silky, thresher and hammerhead sharks.

RETAILERS & SUPPLY CHAIN

1.Encourage the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (ICCAT) and individual member countries to adopt precautionary and ecosystem-based management measures. Demand that member countries comply with all ICCATs Conservation and Management Measures.
2.Explore implementation of control documents to ensure supplier compliance with ICCAT conservation and management measures (CMM’s) (e.g. around bycatch) such as: recording and reporting interactions, use of dehooking devices and line cutters for sea turtles, sea bird mitigation measures and prohibition on retaining silky, oceanic whitetip, hammerhead and thresher sharks. Source from vessels registered on the International Seafood Sustainability Foundation (ISSF) Proactive Vessel Register (PVR).
3.Encourage the ICCAT and member countries to conduct studies, increase monitoring and publish information to assess longline interactions with protected, endangered and threatened (PET) and other bycatch species. Explore opportunities to support studies and data gathering.
4.Contact SFP to learn more about fishery improvement projects (FIPs) and SFP’s Supplier Roundtables.


FIPS

No related FIPs

CERTIFICATIONS

No related MSC fisheries

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

ASSESSMENT UNIT MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
Atlantic Cameroon Cameroon Associated purse seining
Unassociated purse seining
Grenada Grenada Drifting longlines
ICCAT Brazil Drifting longlines
Canada Drifting longlines
Cape Verde Associated purse seining
Unassociated purse seining
Curaçao Associated purse seining
Equatorial Guinea Associated purse seining
Unassociated purse seining
France Associated purse seining
Longlines
Unassociated purse seining
Gabon Associated purse seining
Longlines
Unassociated purse seining
Ghana Associated purse seining
Longlines
Unassociated purse seining
Guatemala Associated purse seining
Unassociated purse seining
Panama Associated purse seining
Longlines
Senegal Associated purse seining
Longlines
Unassociated purse seining
South Africa Drifting longlines
Spain Hooks and lines
Longlines
Purse seines
Unassociated purse seining
Suriname Drifting longlines
Hooks and lines
Trinidad and Tobago Drifting longlines
Gear not known
United States Longlines
Set gillnets (anchored)
Saint Helena Saint Helena Mechanized lines
Pole-lines hand operated

Analysis

OVERVIEW

Last updated on 10 December 2013

Strengths

Managers have adhered to scientific advice. The stock assessment (2011) indicated that maintaining catches at current levels (110,000 t) would allow the population to remain healthy through 2024. The International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (ICCAT) set a total allowable catch (TAC) at this level starting in 2013. Yellowfin tuna are included in a multi-year conservation and management plan for bigeye tuna.

Weaknesses

There are no formally adopted target or limit reference points. There is no harvest control rule in place, although the framework for one has been adopted. The population has been decreasing for over two decades and under target levels since 2009, but fishing mortality rates appear to be sustainable (although some model runs indicated it was not).  It has also been recommended that if measures which are effective at reducing FAD related mortality for small yellowfin tuna were implemented, the long-term yield would be improved. No measures have yet been adopted by ICCAT. An observer program is in place, but required coverage rates (all fleets) (5%) are very low. Catch and catch at size data needs to be reported at a smaller scale, data on present samples of size frequency data needs to be recovered and identifying ways of improving catch estimates from logbook data are all needed.

ICCAT
Panama
Longlines

Last updated on 7 December 2013

The population has been decreasing for over two decades and under target levels since 2009, but fishing mortality rates appear to be sustainable (although some model runs indicated it was not). However, if catches are maintained at the set TAC level the population should recover, thus catches during the next several years should be monitored against to ensure compliance.If catches exceed this TAC and reach 140,000 t or more, the probability of meeting Convention Objectives will fall below 50%. Catch monitoring needs improvement in both artisanal and industrial fisheries. A mandatory logbook scheme should be implemented for all industrial purse seine and longline fleets operating from Panama ports. Regular checks for reported catches should be in place for artisanal fisheries, where bulk of the catches are landed along the coastline. The sport fishing sector is not regulated and there is absence of fisheries statistics for this sector, with the exception of some major landing points along the Atlantic coast. Although, Panama has landing and transshipment facilities for fishing vessels operating in Caribbean and Atlantic waters, most of the foreign fishing fleet lands their tuna catch in ports of other countries (EU, Suriname, Gambia) (ICCAT 2011b). Managers should establish fishing regulations and identify major fishing areas to establish closed areas at least for certain months in a year especially, in the high seas areas.

RECOMMENDATIONS

Last updated on 28 June 2016

Improvement Recommendations to Catchers & Regulators

1.Ensure member countries comply with all conservation and management measures (CMMs) of the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (ICCAT), including measures aimed at both target and bycatch species, and all other mandated obligations. Member countries must make information on monitoring and compliance with all ICCAT obligations publicly available, including actions being taken to address any identified non-compliance with ICCAT CMM’s. Ensure compliance with the current total allowable catch (TAC) for yellowfin tuna.
2.Promote the adoption by the ICCAT and member countries of precautionary management measures, including target and limit biological reference points, harvest control rules, increased observer coverage for all fisheries, national management measures and monitoring efforts adequate to ensure harvest strategy objectives are being met. Promote the adoption of management measures aimed at reducing mortality rates of juvenile yellowfin tuna caught in purse seine sets made on fish aggregating devices (FADs).
3.Improve data collection and reporting to ensure complete data sets (i.e. catches, effort, size), which are needed for robust stock assessments. For example, catch and catch at size data needs to be reported at a smaller scale, data on present samples of size frequency data needs to be recovered and identifying ways of improving catch estimates from logbook data are all needed.
4.Conduct studies, increase monitoring and publish information to assess longline interactions with protected, endangered and threatened (PET) and other bycatch species. Identify and mandate best practices bycatch mitigation techniques. Demand compliance with ICCAT management measures prohibiting the retention of oceanic whitetip, silky, thresher and hammerhead sharks.

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain

1.Encourage the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (ICCAT) and individual member countries to adopt precautionary and ecosystem-based management measures. Demand that member countries comply with all ICCATs Conservation and Management Measures.
2.Explore implementation of control documents to ensure supplier compliance with ICCAT conservation and management measures (CMM’s) (e.g. around bycatch) such as: recording and reporting interactions, use of dehooking devices and line cutters for sea turtles, sea bird mitigation measures and prohibition on retaining silky, oceanic whitetip, hammerhead and thresher sharks. Source from vessels registered on the International Seafood Sustainability Foundation (ISSF) Proactive Vessel Register (PVR).
3.Encourage the ICCAT and member countries to conduct studies, increase monitoring and publish information to assess longline interactions with protected, endangered and threatened (PET) and other bycatch species. Explore opportunities to support studies and data gathering.
4.Contact SFP to learn more about fishery improvement projects (FIPs) and SFP’s Supplier Roundtables.

1.STOCK STATUS

STOCK ASSESSMENT

Last updated on 10 June 2014

The latest stock assessment was conducted in 2016, and used catch and effort data up to 2014.  Three age-structured models and non-equilibrium production models were used to determine the status of the population. Information on the biology of yellowfin tuna and catch and effort data through 2014 were included in this assessment. Management advice was developed through the use of joint distribution of the models. Sensitivity analysis were used to evaluate uncertainties surrounding growth, age-slicing, mortality, index selection and data weighting {ICCAT 2016}.

SCIENTIFIC ADVICE

Last updated on 10 June 2014

The yellowfin tuna working group of the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (ICCAT) made several recommendations to the Commission based on the results of the last assessment. According to the working group, maintaining yellowfin tuna catches at current total allowable catch (TAC) levels (110,000 t) should allow the biomass to remain healthy through 2024. It was also advised that any increased fishing on fish aggregating devices (FADs) could negatively impact yellowfin and other tuna (i.e. bigeye) and bycatch species. Therefore if the Commission wanted to increase the long term yield of yellowfin tuna, FAD and other fishing related mortality of juvenile yellowfin tuna are needed {ICCAT 2016}.

Reference Points

Last updated on 10 Jun 2014

ParameterValue
Fcurrent/FMSY0.77 (0.53-1.05)
Bcurrent/BMSY0.95 (0.71-1.36)
MSY126,304 tons (119,100 – 151,255)
CURRENT STATUS

Last updated on 21 November 2013

According to the 2016 assessment, the population of yellowfin tuna is estimated to be about 5% below Convention objectives (B2014/Bmsy = 0.95). The current fishing mortality rate is estimated to be 23% below sustainable levels (Fmsy) ((Fcurrent/Fmsy=0.77). There is a  45.5% chance the stock was healthy in 2014, a 41.2% probability the stock was overfished and a 13.3% chance the stock was both overfished and undergoing overfishing {ICCAT 2016}.

Trends

Last updated on 21 Nov 2013

Yellowfin tuna are targeted by longline, baitboat and purse seine fisheries operating in the Atlantic Ocean. Catches of yellowfin tuna in the Atlantic have declined from peak levels (193,600 t) in 1990 to just under 109,000 t in 2015. Purse seine catches in the eastern Atlantic showed a large decline between 1990 and 2007 but have since increased. There has been a 70% decrease in baitboat catches since 1990 and longline catches have declined from 10,300 t in 1990 to 4,330 t in 2015. Purse seine and baitboat catches in the western Atlantic have declined about 90% since the mid 1980's and 1974 respectively. However, longline catches have mostly fluctuated between 10,000 and 20,000 t. Abundance indices show conflicting trends in abundance. One cluster indicates an initial decline into 1990, followed by a more constant abundance since. The second cluster shows an increase in abundance during the 1990's, followed by a decline in abundance {ICCAT 2016}. 

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

MANAGEMENT

Last updated on 4 December 2013

Yellowfin tuna are managed by the International Commission for the Conservationn of Atlantic Tunas (ICCAT) through several measures. These measures include: time-area closure for fish aggregating device (FAD) fishing, a total allowable catch (TAC) of 110,000 t, limits on the number of longline/purse seine boats for some fleets, authorization to fish for vessels larger than 20 m and limits on FADs and the required use of non-entangling FADs {ICCAT 2016}.

Recovery Plans

Last updated on 04 Dec 2013

Yellowfin tuna are included under a multi-year conservation and management program for bigeye tuna in the Atlantic Ocean (ICCAT 2012a).

ICCAT
Panama
Longlines

Last updated on 15 August 2012

Executive Order No. 90 of July 17, 2002 prohibits the use of gill nets and / or drift nets for all national and international fishing vessels using the Panama flag.

Law No. 75 of November 10, 1998 through which Panama ratified the International Dolphin Conservation Program.

La Autoridad de los Recursos Acuáticos de Panamá (ARAP) is responsible for catch verification, maintaining data on landings, exports and sampling programmes at major ports for different species. Panama complies with ICCAT requirement of Vessel monitoring system (Law No. 74 of November 10, 1998) for all industrial tuna vessels as a requirement for fishing license, and has adopted ICCAT scheme for port inspections (ICCAT 2011b). For industrial fishing vessels, the Vessel monitoring device must be kept on and transmit signals from the port of departure until its arrival in port under Executive Decree No. 83 of 5 April 2005, Executive Decree No. 17 of June 30, 2008.

COMPLIANCE

Last updated on 10 June 2014

The ICCAT has adhered to scientific advice and set a TAC of 110,000 t for yellowfin tuna in 2012. Catches have been below this level since 2012 {ICCAT 2016}.

ICCAT
Panama
Longlines

Last updated on 14 August 2012

MCS operations are conducted in joint co-ordination with DIGEREMA and Servicio Maritimo Nacional (FAO 2001). A wide range of IUU fishing and fishing gear violations are noted in Panama’s artisanal and industrial fisheries (FAO 2001). Compliance cannot be calculated as there are no catch limits or TAC reported for this fishery in Panama waters.

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

BYCATCH
ETP Species

Last updated on 24 November 2010

Bycatch of seabirds, sea turtles, marine mammals and sharks in purse seine and pelagic longline tuna fisheries threatens some populations with extinction.Bycatch of juvenile tunas and unmarketable species and/or sizes of other fish in purse seine fisheries, and juvenile swordfish in longline fisheries, contribute to the overexploitation of some stocks, and is an allocation issue among gear types and fishing nations (Gilman and Lundin, 2010).

Other Species

Last updated on 18 October 2012

Large longline vessels generally catch older age classes of bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus) and bluefin tunas (T. maccoyii [southern], T. orientalis [Pacific] and T. thynnus [Atlantic]) for the sashimi market and some longline fleets target albacore (T. alalunga) for canning.Purse seine vessels target younger age classes of skipjack (Katsuwonus pelamis) and yellowfin (T. albacares) tuna for canning with incidental catch of bigeye tuna

Purse seine sets on anchored and drifting Fish Aggregating Devices (FADs) and natural floating objects (logs, flotsam) is widespread, with about half of tropical tuna catches coming from FAD sets (Fonteneau et al., 2000).FAD sets have high catch rates of small and juvenile bigeye and yellowfin tunas and unmarketable species and sizes of other fish species, as well as high sea turtle and shark bycatch rates, relative to unassociated sets (Fonteneau et al., 2000; Romanov, 2002; Bromhead et al., 2003; Secretariat of the Pacific Community, 2006; WCPFC, 2007; An et al., 2009; Nicol et al., 2009).Networks of thousands of artificial drifting and anchored FADs aggregate tunas from surrounding waters and possibly act as ‘ecological traps’ of pelagic species by altering their natural spatial and temporal distributions, habitat associations, migration patterns and residence times (Marsac et al., 2000; Bromhead et al., 2003; Hallier and Gaertner, 2008; WCPFC, 2009; Dagorn et al., 2010).

Smaller swordfish are often discarded in pelagic longline tuna fisheries due to minimum size requirements or low market value (Cramer, 2003; Ward et al., 2008).

There are extremely low bycatch levels in pole-and-line fisheries, where bycatch that does occur generally consists of juvenile kawakawa tuna (Euthynnus affinis), frigate mackerel (Auxis rochei), mahimahi (Coryphaena hippurus), and rainbow runner (Elagatis bupinnulata).Discards are believed to have high post release survival rates due to the use of barbless hooks and flick-off practices (FAO, 1997).However, concern over bycatch of reef fish and juvenile classes of target species in baitfish fisheries that supply live bait to pole-and-line fisheries has been raised, as have other ecological issues (ecosystem effects of removal of baitfish species, overexploitation of target baitfish species, habitat degradation) and socioeconomic issues (food security impacts with coastal communities) (FAO, 2008; Gillett, 2010)..

ICCAT
Panama
Longlines

Last updated on 17 October 2012

Worldwide there are reports of problematic bycatch of sea turtles, sea birds and marine mammals in longline fisheries targeting tunas (Lewison et al., 2004). Bycatch rates of longline vessels has been estimated to vary for fleets operating in different parts of the Atlantic Ocean (Lewison and Crowder 2007). Estimates from Lewison et al., (2004) suggest that overall for the Atlantic Ocean, 210,000 to 280,000 loggerhead turtles and 30,250 to 70,000 leatherback turtles are caught as bycatch each year. Longline fisheries are also reported to have problematic bycatch of seabirds (Gilman 2001; Gilman et al., 2005; Lewison and Crowder 2003) and sharks (Gilman et al., 2007).

Purse seine sets on anchored and drifting Fish Aggregating Devices (FADs) and natural floating objects (logs, flotsam) is widespread, with about half of tropical tuna catches coming from FAD sets (Fonteneau et al., 2000). FAD sets have high catch rates of small and juvenile bigeye and yellowfin tunas and unmarketable species and sizes of other fish species, as well as high sea turtle and shark bycatch rates, relative to unassociated sets (Fonteneau et al., 2000; Romanov, 2002; Bromhead et al., 2003; Secretariat of the Pacific Community, 2006; Nicol et al., 2009). Networks of thousands of artificial drifting and anchored FADs aggregate tunas from surrounding waters and possibly act as ‘ecological traps’ of pelagic species by altering their natural spatial and temporal distributions, habitat associations, migration patterns and residence times (Marsac et al., 2000; Bromhead et al., 2003; Hallier and Gaertner, 2008; Dagorn et al., 2010).

HABITAT

Last updated on 27 July 2012

Primary gear used to catch yellowfin tuna, including purse seine, pelagic longline and pole-and-line gear, do not come in direct contact with the seafloor.Lost and discarded gear can damage coastal habitats.

Marine Reserves

Last updated on 27 Jul 2012

ICCAT has implemented a ban on fishing with Fish Aggregating Devices (FADs) in a small area off Gulf of Guinea to protect juvenile yellowfin tuna.

ICCAT
Panama
Longlines

Last updated on 14 August 2012

Primary gear used to catch yellowfin tuna, including purse seine, pelagic longline and pole-and-line gear, do not come in direct contact with the sea floor. Lost and discarded gear can damage coastal habitats.

Marine Reserves

Last updated on 14 Aug 2012

ICCAT has implemented a ban on fishing with Fish Aggregating Devices (FADs) in a small area off Gulf of Guinea to protect juvenile yellowfin tuna.

FishSource Scores

Last updated on 22 October 2018

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

As calculated for 2015 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

There are management objectives set for this stock, but no harvest control rule is used in TAC-setting.

As calculated for 2015 data.

The score is 10.0.

This measures the Set TAC as a percentage of the Advised TAC.

The Set TAC is 110 ('000 t). The Advised TAC is 110 ('000 t) .

The underlying Set TAC/Advised TAC for this index is 100%.

As calculated for 2015 data.

The score is 10.0.

This measures the Catch as a percentage of the Set TAC.

The Catch is 109 ('000 t). The Set TAC is 110 ('000 t) .

The underlying Catch/Set TAC for this index is 99.0%.

STOCK HEALTH:

As calculated for 2014 data.

The score is 7.8.

This measures the Ratio SSB/SSBmsy as a percentage of the SSB=SSBmsy.

The Ratio SSB/SSBmsy is 0.950 . The SSB=SSBmsy is 1.00 .

The underlying Ratio SSB/SSBmsy/SSB=SSBmsy for this index is 95.0%.

As calculated for 2014 data.

The score is 8.9.

This measures the Ratio F/Fmsy as a percentage of the F management target.

The Ratio F/Fmsy is 0.770 . The F management target is 1.00 .

The underlying Ratio F/Fmsy/F management target for this index is 77.0%.

To see data for biomass, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for catch and tac, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for fishing mortality, please view this site on a desktop.
No data available for recruitment
No data available for recruitment
To see data for management quality, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for stock status, please view this site on a desktop.

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Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

No related FIPs

Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

No related MSC certifications

Sources

Credits

An H-H, Kwon Y-J, Kim, D.N, Moon, D.Y., Hwang, S.J. 2009. Effects of set type on catch of small-sized tuna by the Korean tuna purse seine fishery in the WCPO. Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission Scientific Committee Fifth Regular Session, 10-21 August 2009, Port Vila, Vanuatu. Information Paper Number WCPFC-SC5-2009/FT-WP-02. Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission, Palikir, Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia.

Bromhead D, Foster J, Attard R, Findlay J, Kalish J. 2003.. A review of the impacts of fish aggregating devices (FADs) on tuna fisheries. Final Report to the Fisheries Resources Research Fund. Bureau of Rural Sciences, Canberra, ACT, Australia.

Cramer, J. 2003. Distribution of juvenile swordfish (Xiphias gladius) caught by pelagic longline in the Atlantic Ocean. Col. Vol. Sci. Pap. ICCAT 55(4): 1587-1596.

Dagorn, L., Holland, K.N., Filmalter, J. 2010. Are drifting FADs essential for testing the ecological trap hypothesis? Fisheries Research,doi:10.1016/j.fishres.2010.07.002.

Fonteneau A, Pallares P, Pianet R. 2000. A worldwide review of purse seine fisheries on FADs. In: Le Gall JY, Cayré P, Taquet M (eds) Pêche thonière et dispositifs de concentration de poissons. Actes Colloques‐IFREMER 28:15–35.

Gilman, E., Lundin, C. 2010. Minimizing Bycatch of Sensitive Species Groups in Marine Capture Fisheries: Lessons from Commercial Tuna Fisheries. pp. 150-164 IN: Grafton, Q., Hillborn, R., Squires, D., Tait, M., Williams, M. (Eds.). Handbook of Marine Fisheries Conservation and Management. Oxford University Press.

Hallier, J.P., Gaertner, D., 2008. Drifting fish aggregation devices could act as an ecological trap for tropical tuna species. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 353, 255-264.

ICCAT. 2008. 2008 ICCAT Joint Stock Assessment of Atlantic Skipjack and Yellowfin Tuna (SCRS/2008/016). International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas, Madrid.

ICCAT. 2010. Report on the Standing Committee on Research and Statistics (SCRS). ICCAT, Madrid, Spain October 4-8, 2010.

ICCAT. 2011. Report of the 2011 ICCAT Yellowfin Tuna Stock Assessment Session, San Sebastián, Spain – September 5 to 12, 2011, ICCAT, 113 pages.

ICCAT. 2016. Report of the 2016 ICCAT yellowfin tuna stock assessment meeting. San Sebastian, Spain, June 27-July 1, 2016.

International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (ICCAT). 2012a. Report of the standing committee on research and statistics (SCRS). PLE-104/2012, Madrid, Spain, 1-5 October 2012.

Marsac, F., Fonteneau A., Ménard, F., 2000. Drifting FADs used in tuna fisheries: and ecological trap? In: Le Gall, J.Y., Cayré, P., Taquet, M. (Eds.), Pêche thonière et dispositifs de concentration de poisons. Actes Colloques-IFREMER. 28, 537-552.

Nicol S., Lawson T., Briand K., Kirby D., Molony B., Bromhead D., Williams P., Schneiter E., Kumoru L., Hampton J. 2009. Characterisation of the tuna purse seine fishery in Papua New Guinea. Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, Canberra, Australia. ISBN 978 1 921531 77 4.

Romanov, E. 2002. Bycatch in the tuna purse-seine fisheries of the western Indian Ocean. Fish. Bull. 100(1): 90-105.

Secretariat of the Pacific Community. 2006. Preliminary Review of the Western and Central Pacific Ocean Purse Seine Fishery. Prepared for the Internal Meeting of Pacific Island Parties to the South Pacific Regional U.S. Multilateral Treaty, March 6-8, Honolulu, Hawaii. Oceanic Fisheries Programme, Secretariat of the Pacific Community, Noumea, New Caledonia. 18 pp.

Ward, P., Porter, J., Elscot, S. 2008. Broadbill swordfish: status of established fisheries and lessons for developing fisheries. Fish and Fisheries 1(4): 317-336.

WCPFC. 2007. Conservation and Management Measure to Mitigate the Impact of Fishing for Highly Migratory Fish Stocks on Seabirds. CMM 2007-04. Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission, Palikir, Federated States of Micronesia.

WCPFC. 2009. Conservation and Management Measure for Sharks. Conservation and Management Measure 2009-04. Sixth Regular Session, 7-11 December 2009, Papeete, Tahiti, French Polynesia. Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission, Palikir, Federated States of Micronesia.

References

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