Summary

IDENTIFICATION

SCIENTIFIC NAME

Xiphias gladius

SPECIES NAME(S)

Swordfish

Genetic studies have been inconclusive on the population structure of swordfish in the Indian Ocean. They are assessed at the regional level with a sub-assessment conducted for the SW Indian Ocean population (IOTC 2013).

This profile covers the fishery improvement project (fip) large pelagic species including swordfish caught by longline and handline in Indonesian EEZ waters of the Indian Ocean. The fip is currently run by PT Intimas Surya (http://fisheriesimprovementindonesia.org/tuna-fip/).


ANALYSIS

Strengths

Stock assessments have been carried out regularly using a range of assessment methods. The reliability of the estimates of total catch has continued to improve over the past few years and the aggregate population is considered healthy and fishing mortality rates are sustainable{IOTC 2014}. The IOTC adopted a measure to implement the precautionary approach in 2012, which includes the use of stock-specific reference points, associated harvest control rules, the ability to enact emergency measures in the face of natural phenomena having a negative impact on resources, and to evaluate the performance of reference points and potential harvest control rules through management strategy evaluation {IOTC 2013c}. The IOTC recently adopted additional measures (i.e. countries are to provide a record of vessels authorized to operate in the IOTC area) to aid in controlling IUU fishing {IOTC 2013c}.

Weaknesses

Although important progress in the quality and quantity of analyses have been conducted, the stock structure of swordfish in the Indian Ocean is still uncertain – potentially allowing for localized depletion in regions such as the southwest Indian Ocean {IOTC 2013}. Currently, there are no catch limits for Swordfish stock in the southwest Indian Ocean despite scientific advice {IOTC 2013}. IUU fishing and piracy has been a major issue in the Indian Ocean and there are compliance issues with regard to the quality of reported data {IOTC 2013b}. Observer coverage rates in this fishery are low and there is a lack of information on bycatch of ETP species including sharks, sea turtles, sea birds and marine mammals. Few bycatch mitigation methods have been adopted by the IOTC.

SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

≥ 8

Managers Compliance:

≥ 6

Fishers Compliance:

< 6

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

10

Future Health:

10


RECOMMENDATIONS

CATCHERS & REGULATORS
  1. Ensure member countries comply with all Indian Ocean Tuna Commission’s (IOTC’s) conservation and management measures (CMMs), including measures aimed at both target and incidental market and non-market species, and all other obligations. Through your delegation to IOTC, encourage the compliance committee to make information on non-compliance by individual members and cooperating non-members publicly available in order to increase the incentive for compliance by all IOTC members and cooperating non-members.
  2. Promote the adoption by the Indian Ocean Tuna Commission (IOTC)  of precautionary and ecosystem-based management measures, including formal biological reference points (interim currently in place), harvest control rules, increased observer coverage for longline fleets, and monitoring efforts adequate to ensure harvest strategy objectives are being met.  Adopt domestic laws and regulation to implement IOTC measures and provide monitoring and surveillance adequate for compliance. Encourage IOTC and parties to comply with current required onboard observer coverage rates.
  3. Encourage member countries to improve data collection, reporting and analysis to reduce uncertainty in stock assessments. Catches of swordfish in the southwest Indian Ocean catches should be limited to below 6,000 t to allow the population to rebuild.
  4. Encourage IOTC to conduct studies, increase monitoring where needed to meet scientific recommendations and make resulting datasets available for assessments of longline interactions with endangered, threatened and protected (ETP) species and other bycatch species.  Call upon IOTC to identify and mandate best practices bycatch mitigation techniques and to adopt other management measures such as size and catch limits for species such as sharks.  Comply with recently adopted IOTC management measures prohibiting the retention of oceanic whitetip and thresher sharks.

1. Ensure member countries comply with all Indian Ocean Tuna Commission’s (IOTC’s) conservation and management measures (CMMs), including measures aimed at both target and incidental market and non-market species, and all other obligations. Through your delegation to IOTC, encourage the compliance committee to make information on non-compliance by individual members and cooperating non-members publicly available in order to increase the incentive for compliance by all IOTC members and cooperating non-members.
2. Promote the adoption by the Indian Ocean Tuna Commission (IOTC) of precautionary and ecosystem-based management measures, including formal biological reference points (interim currently in place), harvest control rules, increased observer coverage for longline fleets, and monitoring efforts adequate to ensure harvest strategy objectives are being met. Adopt domestic laws and regulation to implement IOTC measures and provide monitoring and surveillance adequate for compliance. Encourage IOTC and parties to comply with current required onboard observer coverage rates.
3. Encourage member countries to improve data collection, reporting and analysis to reduce uncertainty in stock assessments. Catches of swordfish in the southwest Indian Ocean catches should be limited to below 6,000 t to allow the population to rebuild.
4. Encourage IOTC to conduct studies, increase monitoring where needed to meet scientific recommendations and make resulting datasets available for assessments of longline interactions with endangered, threatened and protected (ETP) species and other bycatch species. Call upon IOTC to identify and mandate best practices bycatch mitigation techniques and to adopt other management measures such as size and catch limits for species such as sharks. Comply with recently adopted IOTC management measures prohibiting the retention of oceanic whitetip and thresher sharks.

RETAILERS & SUPPLY CHAIN
  1. Ask the Indian Ocean Tuna Commission (IOTC) and individual member countries to adopt precautionary and ecosystem-based management measures including effective harvest strategies and to increase observer coverage in fisheries where this is needed to meet scientific recommendations.
  2. Require your suppliers to source only from fisheries that comply with all IOTC Conservation and Management Measures, and request that IOTC make information on compliance by members and cooperating non-members publicly available. An example of how this might be achieved is a control document that ensures recording and reporting interactions, and prohibition on retaining thresher and oceanic whitetip sharks.
  3. Ensure all products are traceable back to legal sources. Verify source information and full chain traceability through traceability desk audits or third party traceability certification. For fisheries without robust traceability systems in place, invest in meaningful improvements to bring the fisheries and supply chain in compliance with best practices. .
  4. Contact SFP to learn more about fishery improvement projects (FIPs) and SFP’s Supplier Roundtables.

FIPS

  • Indonesia/Indian Ocean tuna and large pelagics - longline:

    Stage 4, Progress Rating B

  • Longline tuna and large pelagics:

    Stage 4, Progress Rating B

CERTIFICATIONS

No related MSC fisheries

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

ASSESSMENT UNIT MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
Indian Ocean IOTC Indonesia Drifting longlines
Handlines hand operated
Korea, Republic of Longlines
Maldives Hooks and lines
South Africa Longlines
Spain Longlines
Sri Lanka Drift gillnets
Drifting longlines

Analysis

OVERVIEW

Last updated on 23 June 2015

Strengths

Stock assessments have been carried out regularly using a range of assessment methods. The reliability of the estimates of total catch has continued to improve over the past few years and the aggregate population is considered healthy and fishing mortality rates are sustainable{IOTC 2014}. The IOTC adopted a measure to implement the precautionary approach in 2012, which includes the use of stock-specific reference points, associated harvest control rules, the ability to enact emergency measures in the face of natural phenomena having a negative impact on resources, and to evaluate the performance of reference points and potential harvest control rules through management strategy evaluation {IOTC 2013c}. The IOTC recently adopted additional measures (i.e. countries are to provide a record of vessels authorized to operate in the IOTC area) to aid in controlling IUU fishing {IOTC 2013c}.

Weaknesses

Although important progress in the quality and quantity of analyses have been conducted, the stock structure of swordfish in the Indian Ocean is still uncertain – potentially allowing for localized depletion in regions such as the southwest Indian Ocean {IOTC 2013}. Currently, there are no catch limits for Swordfish stock in the southwest Indian Ocean despite scientific advice {IOTC 2013}. IUU fishing and piracy has been a major issue in the Indian Ocean and there are compliance issues with regard to the quality of reported data {IOTC 2013b}. Observer coverage rates in this fishery are low and there is a lack of information on bycatch of ETP species including sharks, sea turtles, sea birds and marine mammals. Few bycatch mitigation methods have been adopted by the IOTC.

RECOMMENDATIONS

Last updated on 1 July 2016

Improvement Recommendations to Catchers & Regulators

1. Ensure member countries comply with all Indian Ocean Tuna Commission’s (IOTC’s) conservation and management measures (CMMs), including measures aimed at both target and incidental market and non-market species, and all other obligations. Through your delegation to IOTC, encourage the compliance committee to make information on non-compliance by individual members and cooperating non-members publicly available in order to increase the incentive for compliance by all IOTC members and cooperating non-members.
2. Promote the adoption by the Indian Ocean Tuna Commission (IOTC) of precautionary and ecosystem-based management measures, including formal biological reference points (interim currently in place), harvest control rules, increased observer coverage for longline fleets, and monitoring efforts adequate to ensure harvest strategy objectives are being met. Adopt domestic laws and regulation to implement IOTC measures and provide monitoring and surveillance adequate for compliance. Encourage IOTC and parties to comply with current required onboard observer coverage rates.
3. Encourage member countries to improve data collection, reporting and analysis to reduce uncertainty in stock assessments. Catches of swordfish in the southwest Indian Ocean catches should be limited to below 6,000 t to allow the population to rebuild.
4. Encourage IOTC to conduct studies, increase monitoring where needed to meet scientific recommendations and make resulting datasets available for assessments of longline interactions with endangered, threatened and protected (ETP) species and other bycatch species. Call upon IOTC to identify and mandate best practices bycatch mitigation techniques and to adopt other management measures such as size and catch limits for species such as sharks. Comply with recently adopted IOTC management measures prohibiting the retention of oceanic whitetip and thresher sharks.

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain
  1. Ask the Indian Ocean Tuna Commission (IOTC) and individual member countries to adopt precautionary and ecosystem-based management measures including effective harvest strategies and to increase observer coverage in fisheries where this is needed to meet scientific recommendations.
  2. Require your suppliers to source only from fisheries that comply with all IOTC Conservation and Management Measures, and request that IOTC make information on compliance by members and cooperating non-members publicly available. An example of how this might be achieved is a control document that ensures recording and reporting interactions, and prohibition on retaining thresher and oceanic whitetip sharks.
  3. Ensure all products are traceable back to legal sources. Verify source information and full chain traceability through traceability desk audits or third party traceability certification. For fisheries without robust traceability systems in place, invest in meaningful improvements to bring the fisheries and supply chain in compliance with best practices. .
  4. Contact SFP to learn more about fishery improvement projects (FIPs) and SFP’s Supplier Roundtables.
IOTC
Indonesia

Last updated on 1 July 2016

Improvement Recommendations to Catchers & Regulators
  1. Ensure member countries comply with all Indian Ocean Tuna Commission’s (IOTC’s) conservation and management measures (CMMs), including measures aimed at both target and incidental market and non-market species, and all other obligations. Through your delegation to IOTC, encourage the compliance committee to make information on non-compliance by individual members and cooperating non-members publicly available in order to increase the incentive for compliance by all IOTC members and cooperating non-members.
  2. Promote the adoption by the Indian Ocean Tuna Commission (IOTC)  of precautionary and ecosystem-based management measures, including formal biological reference points (interim currently in place), harvest control rules, increased observer coverage for longline fleets, and monitoring efforts adequate to ensure harvest strategy objectives are being met.  Adopt domestic laws and regulation to implement IOTC measures and provide monitoring and surveillance adequate for compliance. Encourage IOTC and parties to comply with current required onboard observer coverage rates.
  3. Encourage member countries to improve data collection, reporting and analysis to reduce uncertainty in stock assessments. Catches of swordfish in the southwest Indian Ocean catches should be limited to below 6,000 t to allow the population to rebuild.
  4. Encourage IOTC to conduct studies, increase monitoring where needed to meet scientific recommendations and make resulting datasets available for assessments of longline interactions with endangered, threatened and protected (ETP) species and other bycatch species.  Call upon IOTC to identify and mandate best practices bycatch mitigation techniques and to adopt other management measures such as size and catch limits for species such as sharks.  Comply with recently adopted IOTC management measures prohibiting the retention of oceanic whitetip and thresher sharks.

1.STOCK STATUS

Stock Assessment

Last updated on 23 June 2015

Swordfish in the Indian Ocean were last assessed in 2014.A variety of models were used, including the stock synthesis 3 model.A number of models were used due to uncertainty with regard to swordfish biology, issues with fitting long time series and issues with representing recruitment variability. An additional assessment for swordfish in the southwest Indian Ocean was also conducted. While this is not recognized as a genetically distinct population, there are concerns with localized depletion {IOTC 2014}.

Scientific Advice

Last updated on 23 June 2015

It has been advised the improved monitoring, data collection, reporting and analysis is needed. In addition, catches in the southwest Indian Ocean should not be increased and the population may benefit from a 20% reduction in catches from 2013 levels (IOTC 2014).

Reference Points

Last updated on 23 June 2015

Reference points for Swordfish in the Indian Ocean Tuna commission Area: Source: IOTC (2014)
2013 catch estimate: 31,804 tonnes
Average Catches (2009-2013): 26,510 tonnes
MSY: 33,200 – 45,600 tonnes
SB2013/SBMSY = 2.44-3.75
F2013/FMSY = 0.28-.40
SB2013/SB0 = 0.58-0.89

Current Status

Last updated on 23 June 2015

Swordfish in the Indian Ocean are not overfished and overfishing is not occurring. However, the population in the southwest Indian Ocean is overfished {IOTC 2014}.

Trends

Last updated on 23 June 2015

The current biomass of swordfish has been reduced to around 58-89% of virgin levels and is well above levels needed to produce the maximum sustainable yield. The biomass is above the current provisional biomass based limit reference point (0.4*B~|MSY|~) and therefore swordfish are not considered overfished.There is a very low risk of the population becoming overfished in the future, even if catches are increased.In the southwest Indian Ocean, although this is not a genetically distinct population, swordfish have been subjected to localized depletion.The biomass in this area is slightly below levels needed for the maximum sustainable yield and is therefore overfished. Fishing mortality rates for swordfish in the Indian Ocean are well below levels needed to produce the maximum sustainable yield.Fishing levels are also below the provisional limit reference point (1.4*F~|MSY|~) and therefore overfishing is not occurring.In addition, recent catches of swordfish have been below the maximum sustainable yield {IOTC 2014}.

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

Managers' Decisions

Last updated on 23 January 2012

There is one overarching species specific management measure for swordfish in the Indian Ocean, which limits the fishing capacity to 2007 levels. Other measures which also apply to swordfish include: recording of catch and effort information, recording of licensed and authorized foreign fishing vessels, regional observer program and maintaining a record of active fishing vessels (IOTC 2014).

IOTC
Indonesia
Drifting longlines

Last updated on 24 June 2015

Indonesia is a cooperating member of the Indian Ocean Tuna Commission. National management measures specific to the tuna fishery (which apply to swordfish)include the following. There is a logbook program in place, but there are issues with the coverage and quality of submissions. Vessels larger than 30 GT must have a vessel monitoring system in place.There is an observer program and port sampling programs – per IOTC mandate – in place for tuna fisheries {Satria et al. 2013}. In addition, Indonesia has a Database Sharing Systems for Fisheries Management in place to deal with illegal, unreported and unregulated(IUU) fishing {Irianto et al. 2014}.

One of the goals of the fishery improvement project included in this profile is to work with other institutions to improve management and policy of Indonesia towards sustainable fishing.

Recovery Plans

Last updated on 23 June 2015

There is no recovery plan in place but swordfish populations are healthy, except in the southwest Indian Ocean {IOTC 2014}.

Compliance

Last updated on 23 January 2012

The Compliance Committee indicated that reporting of mandatory statistics is generally poor, due to incomplete and/or poorly documented data, although an improvement was noted in 2012 {IOTC 2013b}.There is no TAC in place but fishing effort has been reduced since effort limitations were put into place {IOTC 2013}.

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

ETP Species

Last updated on 27 February 2014

Bycatch of seabirds and sea turtles in pelagic longline fisheries threatens some populations with extinction (Gilman, 2011). Bycatch of several vulnerable species groups has been documented in gillnet fisheries (e.g., Gilman et al., 2009). There are sea bird mitigation measures being used by some longline fleets in the Indian Ocean, which appear to have been successful at reducing interactions. The Indian Ocean Tuna Commission has implemented management measures for sea bird and sea turtles{IOTC 2013}.However, additional research on mitigation measures is warranted and continued monitoring of current mitigation measures and their effectiveness is needed.

IOTC
Indonesia
Drifting longlines

Last updated on 24 June 2015

Observers aboard Indonesian longline vessels operating in the Indian Ocean during 2012 (targeting all tuna species not just albacore) reported the incidental capture of 8 seabirds, two of which were dead. Between 2012 and 2013 a total of 25 sea turtles were incidentally captured, with 11 moralities recorded. The most commonly caught species was the olive ridley, with leatherback, green and loggerhead turtles also being reported (Iritano et al. 2014).

Other Target and Bycatch Species

Last updated on 23 January 2012

Sharks and other fish species are also captured in longline fisheries. Total bycatch levels for the Indian Ocean longline fishery have been estimated to be 6%. Interactions with sharks continue to be problematic in this region because several large fleets use wire instead of monofilament leaders (making it difficult for sharks to escape capture).Blue and shortfin mako sharks are the two most commonly captured shark species {Adrill et al. 2013}.The Indian Ocean Tuna Commission has implemented some shark specific regulations {IOTC 2013}.However, additional research on mitigation measures is warranted as are additional management measures, such as bycatch limits.

IOTC
Indonesia
Drifting longlines

Last updated on 24 June 2015

Indoneisan longliners also capture species such as sharks, billfish and other tunas. Observer records from 2013 indicate that 121 individual sharks, representing nine species, were observed caught. The two most commonly caught shark species were the crocodile shark (Pseudocarcharias kamoharai_) and blue shark (Prionace glauca_). Indonesia has made progress on their National Plan of Action for sharks and is working towards adopting nation wide shark quotas for some species. Two species of manta rays (Manta birostris and Manta alfredi) have been given protection in Indonesian waters. Billfish made up 6.3% of the observed longline catch during 2013. The most commonly caught species were swordfish (~50%). Black, blue and striped marlin along with shortbill spearfish were also represented in the catch (Iritano et al. 2014).

Habitat
IOTC
Indonesia
Drifting longlines

Last updated on 15 November 2013

Pelagic longlines do not typically come in contact with bottom habitats.

FishSource Scores

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

As calculated for 2013 data.

The score is ≥ 8.

There are provisional target and limit reference points in place. There is one species specific management measure in place. The IOTC adopted a precautionary management approach in 2012 that will utilize reference points, harvest control rules and management strategy evaluation.

As calculated for 2013 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

Managers do not limit catches through TACs, but the aggregate biomass is healthy at current fishing levels. Recent advice was to continue monitoring and improvement of data collection but data collection continues to be of poor quality. In addition, it was advised that the Commission limit catches of swordfish in the southwest Indian Ocean to 2009 levels, which has not been followed.

As calculated for 2013 data.

The score is < 6.

There are significant issues with the quality of data reported by individual countries to the Commission (IOTC 2013b).

STOCK HEALTH:

As calculated for 2013 data.

This measures the Ratio SSB/SSBmsy as a percentage of the SSB=SSBmsy.

The Ratio SSB/SSBmsy is 3.10 . The SSB=SSBmsy is 1.00 .

The underlying Ratio SSB/SSBmsy/SSB=SSBmsy for this index is 310%.

As calculated for 2013 data.

This measures the Ratio F/Fmsy as a percentage of the F management target.

The Ratio F/Fmsy is 0.340 . The F management target is 1.00 .

The underlying Ratio F/Fmsy/F management target for this index is 34.0%.

HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSE RISK

High Medium Low

This indicates the potential risk of human rights abuses within this fishery.

No data available for recruitment

Download Source Data

Registered users can download the original data file for calculating the scores after logging in. If you wish, you can Register now.

Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

SELECT FIP

Access FIP Public Report

Progress Rating: B
Evaluation Start Date: 11 Jul 2014
Type: Fip

Comments:

FIP progress rating a B. Last stage 4 results in past 12 months.  

 

1.
FIP Development
Jul 14
2.
FIP Launch
Jan 12
Jan 15
3.
FIP Implementation
Jan 13
4.
Improvements in Fishing Practices and Fishery Management
Dec 16
5.
Improvements on the Water
Verifiable improvement on the water
6.
MSC certification (optional)
MSC certificate made public

Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

No related MSC certifications

Sources

Credits

Adrill, D., Itano, D. and Gillett, R.2013.A review of bycatch and discard issues in Indian Ocean tuna fisheries.
Smartfish working Papers.Available at:http://www.iotc.org/files/proceedings/2012/wpeb/IOTC-2012-WPEB08-INF20.pdf

IOTC. 2011. Report of the Fourteenth Session of the IOTC Scientific Committee. Mahé, Seychelles, 12–17 December 2011. IOTC–2011–SC14–R[E]: 259 pp.

IOTC. 2012. Status summary for billfish species under the IOTC mandate, IOTC-2012-WPB10-R(E), Indian Ocean Tuna Commission, 1 p.

IOTC. 2013. Status of southwest Indian Ocean swordfish (SWO: Xiphias gladius) resource. IOTC-2013-SC16-ES16[E]. Available at: http://www.iotc.org/files/proceedings/2013/sc/IOTC-2013-SC16-ES16[E].pdf

IOTC. 2013b. Summary report on the level of compliance. IOTC-2013-CoC10-03. Available at: http://www.iotc.org/files/proceedings/2013/coc/IOTC-2013-CoC10-03%5BE%5D.pdf

IOTC.2013c.Compendium of active and pending conservation and management measures for the Indian Ocean Tuna Commission. September 15, 2013. Available at: http://www.iotc.org/files/CMM/IOTC%20-%20Compendium%20of%20ACTIVE%20CMMs%2015%20September%202013.pdf
Murua, H., Arrizabalaga, H., Huang, J., Romanov, E., Bach, P., de Bruyn, P., Chavance, P., de Molina, A., Pianet, R., Ariz, J., Ruiz, J. 2009. Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA) for Species Caught in Fisheries Managed by the Indian Ocean Tuna Commission (IOTC): A First Attempt. IOTC-2009-WPEB-20. Indian Ocean Tuna Commission, Mahé, Seychelles.

  1. Gilman, E, Gearhart, J., Price, B., Eckert, S., Milliken, J., Wang, J., Swimmer, Y., Shiode, D., Abe, O., Peckham, S., Chaloupka, M., Hall, M., Mangel, J., Alfaro-Shigueto, J., Dalzell, P., Ishizaki, A. 2009. Mitigating sea turtle bycatch in coastal passive net fisheries. Fish and Fisheries 11(1): 57-88.http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/by_catch/docs/turtle_article.pdf
  2. Kolody, D. 2011. Review of CPUE Issues for the 2011 Indian Ocean Swordfish Stock Assessment, IOTC-2011-WPB09-13, 22 pages.http://www.iotc.org/files/proceedings/2011/wpb/IOTC-2011-WPB09-13.pdf

Appended content

  1. Maldeniya, R. and D. Amarasooriya. 1998. Tuna Fisheries in Sri Lanka: An Update. 7th Expert Consultation on Indian Ocean Tunas, Victoria, Seychelles, 9-14 November, 1998, 5 pages.http://www.iotc.org/files/proceedings/1998/ec/IOTC-1998-EC7-04.pdf
  2. MFAR – Ministry of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources. 2007. Ten Year Development Policy Framework of the Fisheries and Aquatic Resources Sector. 2007-2016. March 2007, 24 pages.http://www.fisheries.gov.lk/English_link/10%20year%20plan.pdf
  3. Pramod. G. (2010) Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated Marine Fish Catches in the Indian Exclusive Economic Zone, Field Report, Policy and Ecosystem Restoration in Fisheries, Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia, BC, Vancouver, Canada, 30 pages.http://www.mrag.co.uk/Documents/IUU_India.pdf
  4. Pramod, G. 2012. Illegal and unreported fishing: global analysis of incentives and a case study estimating illegal and unreported catches from India, PhD Thesis, University of British Colombia, Canada, 343 pages.https://circle.ubc.ca/handle/2429/41730
  5. Pramod, G. and Pitcher. T. 2006. An Estimation of Compliance of the Fisheries of Sri Lanka with Article 7 (Fisheries Management) of the UN Code of Conduct for Responsible Fishing, 20 pages in Pitcher, T.J., Kalikoski, D. and Pramod, G. (eds) Evaluations of Compliance with the FAO (UN) Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries. Fisheries Centre Research Reports 14(2): 1191pp. ftp://ftp.fisheries.ubc.ca/CodeConduct/CountriesCodePDF/Sri%20Lanka-CCRF.pdf
  6. Wijayaratne, B. 2001.Coastal Fisheries in Sri Lanka: Some Recommendation for Future Management. Ministry of fisheries & Aquatic Resources Development Sri Lanka.http://www.unuftp.is/static/fellows/document/wijayprf.pdf
    References

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