Last updated on 29 December 2016

SUMMARY

SUMMARY

IDENTIFICATION

SCIENTIFIC NAME(s)

Katsuwonus pelamis

SPECIES NAME(s)

Skipjack tuna

Skipjack tuna is considered a single population for assessment purposes. There is some indication from tagging studies that it is a single population (IOTC 2015).


ANALYSIS

Strengths

The population is currently estimated to be healthy with sustainable fishing mortality rates. There is a harvest control rule in place along with formally adopted target and limit reference points. Skipjack tuna are managed and assessed by the Indian Ocean Tuna Commission. There is a ban on discarding tropical tuna (bigeye, skipjack and yellowfin) caught in purse seine fisheries and the use of artificial lights and aircraft are prohibited in purse seine fisheries.

Weaknesses

There are no specific management measures for skipjack tuna. The last assessment indicated that if catches remained substantially below the estimated maximum sustainable yield than urgent measures are not needed. However, there are some recent catch trends that suggest catches should be closely monitored. There is considerable uncertainty surrounding the current assessment. Catches from many artisanal fisheries are not being reported at the species level. There is uncertainty surrounding the reported catches from the coastal fisheries of Sri Lanka, Comoros and Madagascar. Observer coverage is low in the purse seine fishery (5%) and much lower than levels mandated by other Regional Fishery Management Organizations. Interactions between sea turtles, sharks and other fish occur in associated purse seine fisheries.

FISHSOURCE SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

≥ 8

Managers Compliance:

≥ 8

Fishers Compliance:

≥ 6

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

10

Future Health:

9.5


RECOMMENDATIONS

CATCHERS & REGULATORS

1. Ensure member countries comply with all Indian Ocean Tuna Commission’s (IOTC’s) conservation and management measures (CMMs), including measures aimed at both target and incidental market and non-market species, and all other obligations. Through your delegation to IOTC, encourage the compliance committee to make information on non-compliance by individual members and cooperating non-members publicly available in order to increase the incentive for compliance by all IOTC members and cooperating non-members
2. Promote the adoption by the Indian Ocean Tuna Commission (IOTC) and member countries of precautionary and ecosystem-based management measures, including formal biological reference points (interim currently in place), harvest control rules, increased observer coverage for purse seine fleets, and monitoring efforts adequate to ensure harvest strategy objectives are being met. Adopt domestic laws and regulation to implement IOTC measures and provide monitoring and surveillance adequate for compliance. Encourage IOC and parties to comply with current required onboard observer coverage rates.

3. Encourage the IOTC to closely monitor catches of skipjack tuna to ensure they remain substantially below 550,000 t and to continue monitoring declines in catches/sets on FADs and free school skipjack. Improve data collection and reporting to ensure complete data sets (i.e. catches, effort, size), which are needed for robust stock assessments. Specifically, catches from many artisanal fisheries are not being reported at the species level and there is uncertainty surrounding the reported catches from the coastal fisheries of Sri Lanka and Madagascar. Catch and effort data from gillnet fisheries of Iran and Pakistan and Sri Lanka are either insufficient or of poor quality.

4. Conduct studies, increase monitoring and publish information to assess purse seine interactions with endangered, threatened and protected (EPT) species and other bycatch species. Identify and mandate best practices bycatch mitigation techniques. Comply with recently implemented IOTC management measures prohibiting the retention of oceanic whitetip and thresher sharks and those requiring member countries to adopt fish aggregating device designs that reduce incidental entanglements of bycatch species.

RETAILERS & SUPPLY CHAIN

1. Ask the Indian Ocean Tuna Commission (IOTC) and individual member countries to adopt precautionary and ecosystem-based management measures including formal reference points harvest control rules and increased observer coverage.
2. Require that your suppliers source only from fisheries that comply with all IOTC Conservation and Management Measures, and request that IOTC continue to make information on compliance by members and cooperating non-members publicly available (IOTC.org). An example of how this might be achieved is a control document that ensures recording and reporting interactions, and prohibition on retaining thresher and oceanic whitetip sharks.
3. Source from vessels registered on the International Seafood Sustainability Foundation (ISSF) Proactive Vessel Register (PVR) and in full compliance with all measures relevant to their gear type as demonstrated by annual independent audit reports that are made publicly available.
4. Ask ISSF to expand the ecological sustainability criteria against which tuna vessels on the PVR are assessed.
Contact SFP to learn more about fishery improvement projects (FIPs) and SFP’s Supplier Roundtables.


FIPS

  • Indian Ocean tuna - purse seine (SIOTI):

    Stage 3, Progress Rating C

CERTIFICATIONS

No related MSC fisheries

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

ASSESSMENT UNIT MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
Indian Ocean IOTC France Purse seines
Unassociated purse seining
Indonesia Gillnets and entangling nets
Hooks and lines
Pole-lines hand operated
Purse seines
Trolling lines
Unassociated purse seining
Italy Associated purse seining
Unassociated purse seining
Korea, Republic of Associated purse seining
Unassociated purse seining
Maldives Pole-lines hand operated
Mauritius Drifting longlines
Purse seines
Unassociated purse seining
Seychelles Purse seines
Unassociated purse seining
Spain Purse seines
Unassociated purse seining
Sri Lanka Pole-lines hand operated
Singapore Singapore Associated purse seining
Unassociated purse seining

Analysis

OVERVIEW

Last updated on 20 November 2014

Strengths

The population is currently estimated to be healthy with sustainable fishing mortality rates. There is a harvest control rule in place along with formally adopted target and limit reference points. Skipjack tuna are managed and assessed by the Indian Ocean Tuna Commission. There is a ban on discarding tropical tuna (bigeye, skipjack and yellowfin) caught in purse seine fisheries and the use of artificial lights and aircraft are prohibited in purse seine fisheries.

Weaknesses

There are no specific management measures for skipjack tuna. The last assessment indicated that if catches remained substantially below the estimated maximum sustainable yield than urgent measures are not needed. However, there are some recent catch trends that suggest catches should be closely monitored. There is considerable uncertainty surrounding the current assessment. Catches from many artisanal fisheries are not being reported at the species level. There is uncertainty surrounding the reported catches from the coastal fisheries of Sri Lanka, Comoros and Madagascar. Observer coverage is low in the purse seine fishery (5%) and much lower than levels mandated by other Regional Fishery Management Organizations. Interactions between sea turtles, sharks and other fish occur in associated purse seine fisheries.

RECOMMENDATIONS

Last updated on 28 June 2016

Improvement Recommendations to Catchers & Regulators

1. Ensure member countries comply with all Indian Ocean Tuna Commission’s (IOTC’s) conservation and management measures (CMMs), including measures aimed at both target and incidental market and non-market species, and all other obligations. Through your delegation to IOTC, encourage the compliance committee to make information on non-compliance by individual members and cooperating non-members publicly available in order to increase the incentive for compliance by all IOTC members and cooperating non-members
2. Promote the adoption by the Indian Ocean Tuna Commission (IOTC) and member countries of precautionary and ecosystem-based management measures, including formal biological reference points (interim currently in place), harvest control rules, increased observer coverage for purse seine fleets, and monitoring efforts adequate to ensure harvest strategy objectives are being met. Adopt domestic laws and regulation to implement IOTC measures and provide monitoring and surveillance adequate for compliance. Encourage IOC and parties to comply with current required onboard observer coverage rates.

3. Encourage the IOTC to closely monitor catches of skipjack tuna to ensure they remain substantially below 550,000 t and to continue monitoring declines in catches/sets on FADs and free school skipjack. Improve data collection and reporting to ensure complete data sets (i.e. catches, effort, size), which are needed for robust stock assessments. Specifically, catches from many artisanal fisheries are not being reported at the species level and there is uncertainty surrounding the reported catches from the coastal fisheries of Sri Lanka and Madagascar. Catch and effort data from gillnet fisheries of Iran and Pakistan and Sri Lanka are either insufficient or of poor quality.

4. Conduct studies, increase monitoring and publish information to assess purse seine interactions with endangered, threatened and protected (EPT) species and other bycatch species. Identify and mandate best practices bycatch mitigation techniques. Comply with recently implemented IOTC management measures prohibiting the retention of oceanic whitetip and thresher sharks and those requiring member countries to adopt fish aggregating device designs that reduce incidental entanglements of bycatch species.

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain

1. Ask the Indian Ocean Tuna Commission (IOTC) and individual member countries to adopt precautionary and ecosystem-based management measures including formal reference points harvest control rules and increased observer coverage.
2. Require that your suppliers source only from fisheries that comply with all IOTC Conservation and Management Measures, and request that IOTC continue to make information on compliance by members and cooperating non-members publicly available (IOTC.org). An example of how this might be achieved is a control document that ensures recording and reporting interactions, and prohibition on retaining thresher and oceanic whitetip sharks.
3. Source from vessels registered on the International Seafood Sustainability Foundation (ISSF) Proactive Vessel Register (PVR) and in full compliance with all measures relevant to their gear type as demonstrated by annual independent audit reports that are made publicly available.
4. Ask ISSF to expand the ecological sustainability criteria against which tuna vessels on the PVR are assessed.
Contact SFP to learn more about fishery improvement projects (FIPs) and SFP’s Supplier Roundtables.

1.STOCK STATUS

STOCK ASSESSMENT

Last updated on 4 February 2015

An updated stock assessment for skipjack tuna in the Indian Ocean was conducted in 2014 by the Indian Ocean Tuna Commission (IOTC 2014). The model included catches from 1950 through 2013 and catch and effort data from France, Maldives, and the European Union purse seine fishery. The Stock Synthesis 3 model was used.

SCIENTIFIC ADVICE

Last updated on 4 February 2015

According to the results of the 2014 assessment, if catches are maintained at current levels (~425,000 t), there is a low risk of exceeding MSY reference points by 2023.The Scientific Committee recommended that catches not exceed the lower limit of the current MSY, or 550,000 t. If catches remain below this level, immediate management is not needed. Continued monitoring and improving of data collection and reporting is needed (IOTC 2014).

Reference Points

Last updated on 04 Feb 2015

Biological reference points for Skipjack tuna in the Indian Ocean:

Source: IOTC (2014);
Average catches from 2009-2013: 401,132 tonnes
MSY: 684,000 t (Range: 550-849)
C2013/CMSY = 0.62 (0.69-0.75)
SB2013/SBMSY = 1.59 (1.13-2.14)
SB213/SB0 = 0.58 (0.53-0.62)

CURRENT STATUS

Last updated on 5 February 2015

The current biomass is estimated to be above the maximum sustainable yield (MSY) and fishing mortality rates are below MSY. Therefore skipjack tuna in the Indian Ocean and not overfished or undergoing overfishing (IOTC 2014).

Trends

Last updated on 05 Feb 2015

Skipjack tuna is fished throughout the equatorial waters of the Indian Ocean with the majority of the catch being taken in western areas. However, during the last two year, the purse seine fleet moved far off the coast of Somalia due to active piracy in the region.

The primary gear’s used to catch skipjack tuna in the Indian ocean are purse seine’s set on Fish Aggregating Devices (FADs) and gillnets. Free school purse seine sets, pole and line, trolling and handline gears are also used.

Catches of skipjack increased slowly from the 1950s, reaching around 50,000 t at the end of the 1970s, mainly due to the activities of baitboats (or pole and line) and gillnets. The catches increased rapidly with the arrival of the purse seiners in the early 1980s, and skipjack became one of the most important tuna species in the Indian Ocean.

Annual total catches exceeded 400,000 t in the 2000’s. Total catches peaked at 615,000 t in 2006 but have since decreased. In 2013 the total catches were 424,580 t, which was an increase over the past two years.

Information on catch rates is available from several fisheries. Indices from France and the European Union (purse seine) are generally variable with peaks occurring in the early 2000’s. A recent decline is noted started around 2010.The Maldive’s pole and line abundance series has decreased since 2007 (IOTC 2014).

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

MANAGEMENT

Last updated on 5 February 2015

The Indian Ocean Tuna Commission (IOTC) is an intergovernmental organization mandated to manage tuna and tuna-like species in the Indian Ocean and adjacent seas. Its objective is to promote cooperation among its Members with a view to ensuring, through appropriate management, the conservation and optimum utilization of stocks and encouraging sustainable development of fisheries based on such stocks. Members of IOTC include Australia, Belize, China, Comoros, Eritrea, European Community, France, Guinea, India, Indonesia, Republic Islamic of Iran, Japan, Kenya, Republic of Korea, Madagascar, Malaysia, Mauritius, Sultanate of Oman, Pakistan, Philippines, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Tanzania, Thailand, United Kingdom, and Vanuatu. The Cooperating Non-Contracting Parties are Senegal, South Africa and Uruguay.

Management measures in place include: required reporting and recording of catches and effort, and providing a record of active fishing vessels (IOTC 2014). Artificial lights to attract fish are prohibited in the purse seine fishery as are aircraft and unmanned aerial vehicles {IOTC 2016}. In 2016 a harvest control rule and target and limit reference points were formally adopted by the Commission for skipjack tuna. In addition, the Commission formed a Technical Committee on Management Procedure to enhance decision making response of the Commission {IOTC 2016}.

Recovery Plans

Last updated on 05 Feb 2015

Skipjack tuna in the Indian Ocean are estimated to be healthy and there is no indication this will change in the near future. Therefore no recovery play is currently needed (IOTC 2014).

COMPLIANCE

Last updated on 5 February 2015

There is no TAC or catch limit set for this fishery in Indian Ocean. Therefore, the compliance cannot be measured.

However, IUU fishing in the Indian Ocean has been a major issue, which includes a range of illicit activities: fishing without permission or out of season; harvesting prohibited species; using outlawed types of fishing gear; disregarding catch quotas; or non-reporting or under-reporting catch weights. Of particular concern are the western Indian Ocean and the maritime areas along the coast of eastern Africa. There, fishing vessels of various flags have taken advantage of the absence in coastal countries of strong enforcement mechanisms (FAO 2007). The Commission has regularly been also establishing a list of vessels presumed to have carried out illegal, unregulated and unreported fishing in the IOTC area.

There have been compliance issues with some countries regarding accurate reporting of catch and effort data, particularly by species. Notably, there is uncertainty surrounding catches from the coastal fisheries of Sri Lanka and Madagascar. In addition, there is insufficient effort data from Iran and Pakistan gillnet fisheries and the effort data from Sri Lanka gillnet fisheries is considered to be of poor quality (IOTC 2014).


In 2016, the Commission took further steps to address IUU fishing and compliance with catch reporting and other Conservation and Management Measure requirements {IOTC 2016}.

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

BYCATCH
ETP Species

Last updated on 5 February 2015

Skipjack are predominantly caught using purse seines, gillnets, troll/pole and line gear. Bycatch of PET species in the troll/pole and line fishery is low (Kelleher 2004) and animals caught in this fishery are likely to be released alive since gears are retrieved immediately after hooking occurs (NMFS 2004 in NMFS 2005).

Sea turtles caught in purse seines set on FADs include olive ridley (Lepidochelys olivacea), green (Chelonia mydas), leatherback (Dermochelys coriacea), hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata), and loggerhead (Caretta caretta). The majority of this bycatch occurs in the FAD purse seine fishery and purse seines set over floating objects (IATTC 2004; Molony 2005). While most sea turtles are released alive, they can be killed or injured from being lifted out of the water, passing through the power block, or falling from the net (IATTC 2004). In addition, trapped sea turtles may drown if they are unable to reach the surface to breathe (IATTC 2004). Population impacts on sea turtles associated with purse seine fisheries are unknown, however the expanding use of FADs is cause for concern. Marine mammal bycatch (Romanov 2002; Malony 2005), and seabird bycatch (Romanov 2002) are thought to be low in purse seine and gillnet fisheries targeting tunas.


Required observer coverage rates and compliance with these rates are low in the Indian Ocean. In 2016, the Commission adopted a new resolution to develop a pilot program to promote the regional observer scheme of the IOTC {IOTC 2016}.
 

Other Species

Last updated on 5 February 2015

Discard levels are believed to be low although they are unknown for most industrial fisheries. Discard levels are believed to be low although they are unknown for most industrial fisheries. Discard levels were estimated for the purse-seine fishery for the period 2003-2008(IOTC 2009b).

Preliminary quantitative estimates of the main bycatch species and species groups (billfishes, sharks, rays and fin fishes) were made for the whole purse seine fishery since 2003. Data are from the French and Spanish observer programs from 2003 to 2007, representing a total of 1958 observed sets (4% of the total number of sets during this period). Annual raising factors by fishing mode based on tuna production (tons per 1000 tons of tuna landed) were estimated for each species group from logbooks and observer information stratified by quarter, fishing area and fishing mode. According to these estimations, total bycatch was estimated at 9,585 t, corresponding to 35.5 t bycatch per 1000t of tuna landed. Tuna discards represents 54% of the total amount, followed by other fin fish (34%), sharks (10%), billfishes (1.5%) and rays (0.7%) (IOTC 2009d).

These mean ratios were applied to the whole purse seine fishery annual catches from 2003 to 2008 to compute total bycatches by species groups, and then distributed within the groups according to the proportion in weight of the main species or families. The bulk of the bycatch consisted of tuna discards (average annual catch 6,700t; range 5,100-8,300t). The annual bycatch of all other groups averaged some 4,000t (range 2,750-4,400t). Of this the majority was made up of “fin fishes”, with an annual mean catch close to 2,500t (range 1550-2,800t). The main species was rainbow runner (Elagatis bipinnulatus , 37% of the total), followed by triggerfishes (Balistidae, 24%), dolphinfishes (Coryphaena spp. , 11%) and carangids (Carangidae, 7%), with the balance (21%) being made up of some 50 other species. Most were caught under FADs (95%). Fin fish species composition between FAD and log schools was rather similar, although there were more dolphinfishes on FADs, and the greatest diversity was from free schools. The next most important bycatch group was “sharks”, with a total average annual catch close to 1,300t (range 1,000-1,650t). Shark bycatch was dominated by carcharhinids, the most important being the silky shark (Carcharhinus falciformis , 79%) followed by the oceanic whitetip shark (C. longimanus, 11%). 97% of sharks were caught on FADs. Shark species composition was quite similar between FAD and free schools sets.“Billfish” bycatch was relatively low, with an average annual catch of 180t (range 140-210t). The most important species were marlins (70%, mainly M. indica and T. audax ) and sailfishes (27%). Most billfishes (72%) were caught on FADs. Billfish species composition was quite similar between FAD and log sets. “Rays” were caught in smaller quantities, with an average annual catch of 50t (range 40-70t). 65% of rays were caught on FADs. The most important species group was the Mobulidae (42%), followed by the giant manta (Manta birostris , 37%) and other and unidentified rays (20%). Ray species composition is rather similar between FAD and free schools, but with a larger diversity on free schools. Overall, discards by the purse seine fishery (excluding tuna discards) remains relatively low when compared to many other fisheries, with the large majority coming from FAD sets (IOTC 2009d).

HABITAT

Last updated on 5 March 2010

Skipjack tuna is mainly caught by purse seine, gillnet and baitboat —using pole and line.

These gears do not come into contact with the seafloor (e.g., pole and line, purse seines, etc.) and therefore have a minimal impact on habitat (Chuenpagdee et al. 2003).

Marine Reserves

Last updated on 05 Mar 2010

Given the highly migratory nature of tuna that is particularly highlighted in the Indian Ocean by the results of the IOTC tagging project, MPAs, to be an effective tool for management, have to cover large areas. Some authors consider this would require closing half of the area of distribution of the species. Alternatively, targeted MPAs can be designed with the aim of protecting spawning aggregations, known concentration of protected, endangered or threatened (PET) species or diversity hotspots. In the case of tunas, closure of feeding area or spawning and nursery area might be useful but they would need to be extensive (IOTC 2009b).

The SC recommended that IOTC should actively engaged with research initiatives on MPAs. This issue is now common at a global scale amongst various management bodies and research institutions. Furthermore, the SC noted that the context for pelagic MPAs is very different than that of coastal MPAs and requires further research. The SC was also informed that several research projects dealing with MPA are underway through European or French funding in the Indian Ocean and outcomes of those projects will contribute to a better understanding of the dynamics of PET or tuna species with respect to area closures (IOTC 2009b).

FishSource Scores

Last updated on 6 September 2018

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

As calculated for 2015 data.

The score is ≥ 8.

A harvest control rule and reference points for skipjack tuna were formally adopted by the IOTC in 2016.

As calculated for 2015 data.

The score is ≥ 8.

Mangers have followed scientific advice and adopted precautionary management measures for skipjack tuna.

As calculated for 2015 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

There is no TAC in place. However there are issues with accurate catch reporting by some important fisheries.

STOCK HEALTH:

As calculated for 2013 data.

The score is 10.0.

This measures the Ratio SSB/SSBmsy as a percentage of the SSB=SSBmsy.

The Ratio SSB/SSBmsy is 1.59 . The SSB=SSBmsy is 1.00 .

The underlying Ratio SSB/SSBmsy/SSB=SSBmsy for this index is 159%.

As calculated for 2013 data.

The score is 9.5.

This measures the Ratio F/Fmsy as a percentage of the F management target.

The Ratio F/Fmsy is 0.620 . The F management target is 1.00 .

The underlying Ratio F/Fmsy/F management target for this index is 62.0%.

To see data for biomass, please view this site on a desktop.
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To see data for fishing mortality, please view this site on a desktop.
No data available for recruitment
No data available for recruitment
To see data for management quality, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for stock status, please view this site on a desktop.
DATA NOTES

As there is no TAC for this stock in IOTC region, compliance cannot be measured so qualitative scores are assigned for 1,2 and 3.

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Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

SELECT FIP

Access FIP Public Report

Progress Rating: C
Evaluation Start Date: 6 Mar 2017
Type: Comprehensive

Comments:

FIP has stage 3 achievements within 12 months. FIP rating remains C

1.
FIP Development
Aug 16
2.
FIP Launch
Oct 16
Mar 17
3.
FIP Implementation
Apr 18
4.
Improvements in Fishing Practices and Fishery Management
Verifiable improvement in policy/management and fishing practices
5.
Improvements on the Water
Verifiable improvement on the water
6.
MSC certification (optional)
MSC certificate made public

Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

No related MSC certifications

Sources

Credits

Bayliff, W.H., Moreno, J.I., Majkowski, J., eds. 2005.
Second Meeting of the Technical Advisory Committee of the FAO Project “Management of Tuna Fishing Capacity: Conservation and Socio-economics”. Madrid, Spain, 15-18 March 2004. FAO Fisheries Proceedings No. 2. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

Chuenpagdee, R., L. E. Morgan, Sara. M. Maxwell,. E. A Norse., D. Pauly. 2003. Shifting gears: assessing collateral impacts of fishing methods in US waters. The Ecological Society of America. Front Ecol Environ 2003; 1(10):517-524.

Fonteneau A, Pallares P, Pianet R. 2000. A worldwide review of purse seine fisheries on FADs. In: Le Gall JY, Cayré P, Taquet M (eds) Pêche thonière et dispositifs de concentration de poissons. Actes Colloques‐IFREMER 28:15–35.

Garcia, M., M. Hall. 1995. Spatial and temporal distribution of bycatches of yellowfin, skipjack, mahi-mahi and wahoo in the eastern Tropical Pacific’s purse seine tuna fishery. In Proceedings of the 46th annual tuna conference. (A. J. Mullen, and J. Suter, eds.), p. 54. IATTC, La Jolla, CA.

Grande, M., Murua, H., Zudaire, I., Korta, M. 2010. Spawning activity and batch fecundity of skipjack, Katsuwonus pelamis, in the Western Indian Ocean. Working paper presented to the 12th session of the IOTC Working Party on Tropical Tunas. IOTC–2010–WPTT12–47.

IATTC. 2004. Resolution on Catch Reporting. Resolution C-04-10. Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission, La Jolla, California, USA.

IOTC. 2005. Resolution 05/05 Concerning the Conservation of Sharks Caught in Association with Fisheries Managed by IOTC. Indian Ocean Tuna Commission, Mahé, Seychelles.

IOTC. 2009c. Resolution 09/06 on Marine Turtles. Indian Ocean Tuna Commission, Mahé, Seychelles

IOTC. 2010b. Resolution 10/06 on Reducing the Incidental Bycatch of Seabirds in Longline Fisheries. Indian Ocean Tuna Commission, Mahé, Seychelles.

IOTC. 2010c. Resolution 10/12 on the Conservation of Thresher Sharks (Family Alopiidae) Caught in Association with Fisheries in the IOTC Area of Competence. Indian Ocean Tuna Commission, Mahé, Seychelles.

IOTC. 2010d. Recommendation 10/13 on the Implementation of a Ban on Discards of Skipjack Tuna, Yellow Fin Tuna, Bigeye Tuna and Non Targeted Species Caught by Purse Seiners. Indian Ocean Tuna Commission, Mahé, Seychelles.

IOTC. 2011. Report of the Thirteenth Session of the IOTC Working Party on Tropical Tunas, Indian Ocean Tuna Commission, Maldives, 16-23 October, 2011, 94 pp.

IOTC. 2013. Compendium of active [and pending] conservation and management measures for the Indian Ocean Tuna Commission. Indian Ocean Tuna Commission.

IOTC. 2014. Status of Indian Ocean skipjack tuna (SKJ: Katsuwonus pelamis) resource. IOTC-2014-SC17-ES03.


IOTC. 2016. Conservation and Management Measures adopted by the IOTC at its 20th Session. IOTC Circular 2016-054.

Kelleher, K. 2005. Discarding in the World’s Marine Fisheries: An Update. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper No. 470. Rome.

Kolody, D., Herrera, M., and Million, J. 2011. Indian Ocean Skipjack Tuna Stock Assessment 1950-2009 (Stock Synthesis), Indian Ocean Tuna Commission, October 15, 2011, 93 pp.

Molony, B. 2005. Estimates of the Mortality of Non-Target Species with an Initial Focus on Seabirds, Turtles and Sharks. WCPFC-SC1 EB WP-1. 1st Meeting of the Scientific Committee of the Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission, WCPFC-SC1, Noumea, New Caledonia, 8-19 August 2005.

Romanov, E. 2002. Bycatch in the tuna purse-seine fisheries of the western Indian Ocean. Fish. Bull. 100(1): 90-105.

References

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