Last updated on 15 August 2016

SUMMARY

SUMMARY

IDENTIFICATION

SCIENTIFIC NAME(s)

Loligo pealeii

SPECIES NAME(s)

Longfin squid, Longfin Inshore Squid

Several genetic studies have indicated a single stock between Cape Cod, MA and Cape Hatteras NC, but others have indicated multiple stocks (SEDAR 2010).


ANALYSIS

Strengths

The fishery is well managed through Total Annual Catch limits, Moratorium on new fishery permits, A minimum codend mesh size of 1 7/8 inches to reduce by-catch of other species, Onboard observers, and Possession limits. Discards data is far better quantified in recent years through onboard observer program. Stocks managed by seasonal quotas and other restrictions. Fishery complies with quotas for most years.

Weaknesses

Landings data prior to 1987 is beset with substantial uncertainty (Cadrin and Hatfield 1999). Discards averaged 3.4% of the total landings for the 1989-2009 period but due to lack of quantitative estimates of discards for the period prior to 1989, discards of 3.4% was assumed backwards although foreign fishery might have had a higher percentage of discards.

Options

Consider developing an analytical model to base quota on. Suggest increased data collection to gather information to make an analytical assessments possible in the near future.

FISHSOURCE SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

≥ 6

Managers Compliance:

≥ 6

Fishers Compliance:

10

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

≥ 6

Future Health:

≥ 6


RECOMMENDATIONS

RETAILERS & SUPPLY CHAIN
  • Monitor the progress in closing out conditions placed upon the MSC certification of the fishery and if agreed timelines are met. Offer assistance in closing conditions where possible.
  • This profile is not currently at the top of our priority list for update/development, and we can’t at this time provide an accurate prediction of when it will be developed. To speed up an evaluation of the sustainability status of non-prioritized fisheries we have initiated a program whereby industry can directly contract SFP-approved analysts to develop a FishSource profile on a fishery. More information on this External Contributor Program is available at https://www.sustainablefish.org/Programs/Science/External-Contributor-Program.

    FIPS

    No related FIPs

    CERTIFICATIONS

    • US Northeast Longfin Inshore Squid Bottom Trawl Fishery:

      MSC Certified

    Fisheries

    Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

    ASSESSMENT UNIT MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
    NW Atlantic US Atlantic United States Pumps
    Small mesh bottom trawls
    Traps

    Analysis

    OVERVIEW

    Last updated on 18 December 2012

    Strengths
    US Atlantic
    United States
    Small mesh bottom trawls

    Last updated on 18 December 2012

    The fishery is well managed through Total Annual Catch limits, Moratorium on new fishery permits, A minimum codend mesh size of 1 7/8 inches to reduce by-catch of other species, Onboard observers, and Possession limits. Discards data is far better quantified in recent years through onboard observer program. Stocks managed by seasonal quotas and other restrictions. Fishery complies with quotas for most years.

    Weaknesses
    US Atlantic
    United States
    Small mesh bottom trawls

    Last updated on 18 December 2012

    Landings data prior to 1987 is beset with substantial uncertainty (Cadrin and Hatfield 1999). Discards averaged 3.4% of the total landings for the 1989-2009 period but due to lack of quantitative estimates of discards for the period prior to 1989, discards of 3.4% was assumed backwards although foreign fishery might have had a higher percentage of discards.

    Options
    US Atlantic
    United States
    Small mesh bottom trawls

    Last updated on 18 December 2012

    Consider developing an analytical model to base quota on. Suggest increased data collection to gather information to make an analytical assessments possible in the near future.

    RECOMMENDATIONS

    Last updated on 27 December 2018

    Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain
    • This profile is not currently at the top of our priority list for update/development, and we can’t at this time provide an accurate prediction of when it will be developed. To speed up an evaluation of the sustainability status of non-prioritized fisheries we have initiated a program whereby industry can directly contract SFP-approved analysts to develop a FishSource profile on a fishery. More information on this External Contributor Program is available at https://www.sustainablefish.org/Programs/Science/External-Contributor-Program.
    US Atlantic
    United States
    Small mesh bottom trawls

    Last updated on 27 December 2018

    Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain
    • Monitor the progress in closing out conditions placed upon the MSC certification of the fishery and if agreed timelines are met. Offer assistance in closing conditions where possible.

    1.STOCK STATUS

    STOCK ASSESSMENT
    US Atlantic
    United States
    Small mesh bottom trawls

    Last updated on 30 March 2011

    The L. pealeii stock has been assessed using length-based virtual population analysis, and Surplus production model in 2002, and 2010, but due to absence of reliable biological reference points the stock is mostly managed through Annual Biological Catch (ABC) Limits in U.S. waters (NFSC 2002; Hendrickson and Jacobson 2006; Moustahfid et al., 2009).

    SCIENTIFIC ADVICE

    Last updated on 17 December 2012

    Reference Points

    Last updated on 17 Dec 2012

    Biological reference points have not been estimated for this stock. The most recent stock assessment in 2010 revealed that current “F” reference point is not appropriate for lightly exploited longfin squid stock (NFSC 2011).

    US Atlantic
    United States
    Small mesh bottom trawls

    Last updated on 18 December 2012

    There is a need to define biological reference points before any realistic stock assessment can be undertaken for this stock.

    Reference Points

    Last updated on 18 Dec 2012

    Biological reference points have not been estimated for this stock. The most recent stock assessment in 2010 revealed that current “F” reference point is not appropriate for lightly exploited longfin squid stock (NFSC 2011; MAFMC 2009).

    FMSY proxy = 1.24
    BMSY proxy = 80,000 MT

    CURRENT STATUS

    Last updated on 17 December 2012

    The most recent stock assessment was conducted in 2010, which shows that overfishing was not occurring for the longfin inshore squid stock in NW Atlantic waters of USA (NFSC 2011).

    US Atlantic
    United States
    Small mesh bottom trawls

    Last updated on 17 December 2012

    The most recent stock assessment was conducted in 2010, which shows that overfishing was not occurring for the longfin inshore squid stock in NW Atlantic waters of USA (NFSC 2011).

    Trends

    Last updated on 17 Dec 2012

    Squid fishery began as early as 1800 in U.S. waters, with longfin squid largely used as bait until 1928. For the period 1928 to 1967, catches ranged from 500-2000 tonnes each year (Lange and Sissenwine 1980). During the 1967-1984 period catches from foreign fishing vessels (averaging 20,130 tonnes) operating in offshore waters dominated the fishery. Since 1987, after the elimination of foreign fishery, domestic fishery was developed, with landings averaging 16,610 mt during the 1987-2009 time period.Landings gradually decreased after the introduction of in-season quotas for the domestic fleet in 2000 (NFSC 2011).

    2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

    MANAGEMENT
    US Atlantic
    United States
    Small mesh bottom trawls

    Last updated on 30 March 2011

    Since 2000, the inshore longfin squid has been managed under the guidelines of the Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fishery Management Plan (FMP) several management measures apply for vessels operating in this fishery:

    Total Annual Catch limits;
    Moratorium on fishery permit;
    A minimum codend mesh size of 1 7/8 inches to reduce by-catch of other species;
    Onboard observers;
    Possession limit of 2500 lbs.

    Recovery Plans

    Last updated on 30 Mar 2011

    None are contemplated under the current management plan.

    COMPLIANCE
    US Atlantic
    United States
    Small mesh bottom trawls

    Last updated on 30 March 2011

    Compliance is relatively good in this fishery with regular at-sea and dockside monitoring of landings.

    3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

    BYCATCH
    ETP Species
    US Atlantic
    United States
    Small mesh bottom trawls

    Last updated on 18 December 2012

    The small-mesh bottom trawlers can interact with marine mammals (including pilot whales, common dolphins) species and several large pelagic (swordfish, and a variety of shark, ray, and tuna) species (NOAA 2012).

    NOAA is trying to minimise interactions with marine mammals by educating fishermen on actions to undertake in the eventuality of interaction of trawl gear with marine mammals, and by communicating real-time observations on hotspots of marine mammal interactions to the fishermen (NOAA 2012).

    Other Species
    US Atlantic
    United States
    Small mesh bottom trawls

    Last updated on 30 March 2011

    Some of the by-catch species caught in this fishery include butterfish, hakes, Illex squid, fluke, herring, spiny dogfish, and Atlantic mackerel, swordfish, tuna, sharks and rays (NOAA 2012).

    HABITAT
    US Atlantic
    United States
    Small mesh bottom trawls

    Last updated on 18 December 2012

    The habitat characteristics of Longfin Inshore Squid, Loligo pealeii are described in detail in NOAA (2005).

    “Squid are found over sandy or muddy habitats, which are less sensitive to impacts from trawling than other habitat types, such as coral” (NOAA 2012).

    FishSource Scores

    MANAGEMENT QUALITY

    As calculated for 2010 data.

    The score is ≥ 6.

    The scientific body that officially conducts regular stock assessments recognizes the management plan as

    As calculated for 2010 data.

    The score is ≥ 6.

    All key recommendations made by the scientific organization responsible for the stock assessments are being taken into account by the management bodies via tangibly implemented conservation measures.

    As calculated for 2010 data.

    The score is 10.0.

    This measures the Catch as a percentage of the Set TAC.

    The Catch is 6.70 ('000 t). The Set TAC is 19.0 ('000 t) .

    The underlying Catch/Set TAC for this index is 35.3%.

    STOCK HEALTH:

    As calculated for 2010 data.

    The score is ≥ 6.

    The scientific body conducting stock assessments notes that recent catch levels do not constitute a problem for stock condition.

    As calculated for 2010 data.

    The score is ≥ 6.

    The stock is recognizably being

    To see data for biomass, please view this site on a desktop.
    To see data for catch and tac, please view this site on a desktop.
    To see data for fishing mortality, please view this site on a desktop.
    No data available for recruitment
    No data available for recruitment
    To see data for management quality, please view this site on a desktop.
    To see data for stock status, please view this site on a desktop.

    Download Source Data

    Registered users can download the original data file for calculating the scores after logging in. If you wish, you can Register now.

    Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

    No related FIPs

    Certifications

    Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

    SELECT MSC

    NAME

    US Northeast Longfin Inshore Squid Bottom Trawl Fishery

    STATUS

    MSC Certified on 22 May 2018

    SCORES

    Principle Level Scores:

    Principle Score
    Principle 1 – Target Species 85.8
    Principle 2 – Ecosystem 82.7
    Principle 3 – Management System 96.9

    Certification Type: Silver

    Sources

    Credits
    1. Cadrin, S.X. 2000. Longfin Inshore Squid. Status of Fishery Resources off the Northeastern US. NEFSC - Resource Evaluation and Assessment Division, 4 pages.http://www.nefsc.noaa.gov/sos/spsyn/iv/lfsquid/archives/Longfin_Inshore_Squid_Jan-2000.pdf
    2. Hendrickson, L. and L. Jacobson. Longfin Inshore Squid. Status of Fishery Resources off the Northeastern US. NEFSC - Resource Evaluation and Assessment Division, 8p.http://www.nefsc.noaa.gov/sos/spsyn/iv/lfsquid/archives/31_LoligoInshoreSquid_2006.pdf
    3. NFSC. 2002. Report of the 34th Northeast Regional Stock Assessment Workshop (34th SAW): Stock Assessment Review Committee (SARC) consensus summary of assessments. Northeast Fish. Sci. Cent. Ref. Doc. 02-06. Available from: National Marine Fisheries Service, 166 Water Street, Woods Hole, MA 02543-1026., 123 pages.http://www.mafmc.org/meeting_materials/SSC/2010-05/Loligo%20squid/SAW_34_Loligo.pdf
    4. NFSC. 2011. 51st Northeast Regional Stock Assessment Workshop (51st SAW) Assessment Report. US Dept Commer, Northeast Fish Sci Cent Ref Doc. 11-01; 70 phttp://www.nefmc.org/tech/cte_mtg_docs/110412-13/whiting/3_SAW%2051%20Hake%20Assessment%20Summaries%20CRD%201101.pdf
    5. NOAA. 2005. Longfin Inshore Squid, Loligo pealeii, Life History and Habitat Characteristics, August 2005, NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-NE-193, 52 pages.http://www.nefsc.noaa.gov/publications/tm/tm193/tm193.pdf
    6. NOAA. 2012. Longfin Squid, NOAA FishWatch U.S. Seafood Facts, NOAA Fisheries.http://www.fishwatch.gov/seafood_profiles/species/squid/species_pages/longfin_squid.htm
    7. Shaw, P.W., Hendrickson, L., McKeown, N.J., Stonier, T., Naud, M.J., Sauer, W.H.H. 2012. Population structure of the squid Doryteuthis (Loligo)pealeii on the eastern coast of the USA: Reply to Gerlach et al. (2012). Mar Ecol Prog Ser 450:285-287.http://www.int-res.com/abstracts/meps/v450/p285-287/
    References

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      Longfin squid - NW Atlantic, US Atlantic, United States, Small mesh bottom trawls

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