Last updated on 27 January 2016

SUMMARY

SUMMARY

IDENTIFICATION

SCIENTIFIC NAME(s)

Oncorhynchus tshawytscha

SPECIES NAME(s)

Chinook salmon, King Salmon

COMMON NAMES

Chinook salmon, king salmon

This fishery was recertified by the Marine Stewardship Council system in November 2013. Click here to link to the MSC fishery page and to learn more about the MSC fishery certification unit.


ANALYSIS

Strengths

1. Alaska is displaying responsiveness to emerging stock status issues through the regulatory listing of some stocks, declaration of a State of Disaster in some management regions in 2012, and development of a statewide research plan to address knowledge gaps with the species. 2. The 2009 edition of the Pacific Salmon Treaty (PST) stipulated an overall reduction in exploitation rate of the Southeast troll fishery by 30% for 2009-2018 to protect weak stocks. 3. Monitoring of harvest and stock composition in the troll fishery is fairly robust..

1. The main stock in the fishery, the Nushagak River stock, has met its escapement goal in every year of the last 15 years. 2. There is accurate sonar escapement monitoring in place on the Nushagak River.

Weaknesses

1. Many stocks in the Arctic-Yukon-Kuskokwim and Cook Inlet regions are exhibiting depressed returns. 2. Mean length at age measures are exhibiting declines among Arctic-Yukon-Kuskokwim stocks. 3. High cumulative overage (harvest vs. post-season allowable catch) is noted in the Southeast Alaska troll fishery in 1999-2011. Overages in one year are not corrected for in the next year. 4. The release of adipose fin-clipped hatchery fish without Coded Wire Tags by Pacific Northwest hatcheries is a potential threat to the integrity of the Coded Wire Tagging stock composition monitoring program, long used to estimate hatchery and wild contributions to catch. 5. There is high incidental mortality in the Southeast Alaska troll fishery, amounting to approximately 14% of the legal harvest.

1. Due to funding limitations, escapement monitoring is not currently ongoing for two of the three stocks for which escapement goals are in place. It has not been possible to determine whether or not these stocks are meeting their goals since 2008. 2. Harvest was below the 20-year average in 2012.

Options

1. Oppose the proposed construction of the Pebble Mine in the headwaters of the Kvichak and Nushagak Rivers. 2. If additional funding becomes available, reinstate escapement monitoring for Chinook salmon in the Alagnek and Naknek systems.

FISHSOURCE SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

10

Managers Compliance:

10

Fishers Compliance:

7

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

10

Future Health:

10


RECOMMENDATIONS

CATCHERS & REGULATORS

1. Work actively to address and close out conditions placed upon the certification of the fishery in the agreed timeframe.
2. Report achievements publicly to share progress with buyers.

RETAILERS & SUPPLY CHAIN

1. Monitor the progress in closing out conditions placed upon the certification of the fishery and if agreed timelines are met.
2. Express your support to help meet conditions that may be at a government/regulatory level (where applicable).


FIPS

No related FIPs

CERTIFICATIONS

  • Alaska salmon:

    MSC Recertified

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

DISTRICT MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
Annette Islands Reserve Alaska United States Drift gillnets
Purse seines
Trolling lines
Arctic-Yukon-Kuskokwim Alaska United States Drift gillnets
Fish wheel
Set gillnets (anchored)
Bristol Bay Alaska United States Drift gillnets
Set gillnets (anchored)
Cook Inlet Alaska United States Drift gillnets
Purse seines
Set gillnets (anchored)
Copper River Alaska United States Drift gillnets
Southeast Alaska Alaska United States Drift gillnets
Purse seines
Set gillnets (anchored)
Alaska/PSC United States Trolling lines

Analysis

OVERVIEW

Last updated on 24 August 2013

Strengths

1. Alaska is displaying responsiveness to emerging stock status issues through the regulatory listing of some stocks, declaration of a State of Disaster in some management regions in 2012, and development of a statewide research plan to address knowledge gaps with the species. 2. The 2009 edition of the Pacific Salmon Treaty (PST) stipulated an overall reduction in exploitation rate of the Southeast troll fishery by 30% for 2009-2018 to protect weak stocks. 3. Monitoring of harvest and stock composition in the troll fishery is fairly robust..

Bristol Bay

Last updated on 24 August 2013

1. The main stock in the fishery, the Nushagak River stock, has met its escapement goal in every year of the last 15 years. 2. There is accurate sonar escapement monitoring in place on the Nushagak River.

Weaknesses

1. Many stocks in the Arctic-Yukon-Kuskokwim and Cook Inlet regions are exhibiting depressed returns. 2. Mean length at age measures are exhibiting declines among Arctic-Yukon-Kuskokwim stocks. 3. High cumulative overage (harvest vs. post-season allowable catch) is noted in the Southeast Alaska troll fishery in 1999-2011. Overages in one year are not corrected for in the next year. 4. The release of adipose fin-clipped hatchery fish without Coded Wire Tags by Pacific Northwest hatcheries is a potential threat to the integrity of the Coded Wire Tagging stock composition monitoring program, long used to estimate hatchery and wild contributions to catch. 5. There is high incidental mortality in the Southeast Alaska troll fishery, amounting to approximately 14% of the legal harvest.

Bristol Bay

Last updated on 24 August 2013

1. Due to funding limitations, escapement monitoring is not currently ongoing for two of the three stocks for which escapement goals are in place. It has not been possible to determine whether or not these stocks are meeting their goals since 2008. 2. Harvest was below the 20-year average in 2012.

Options
Bristol Bay

Last updated on 24 August 2013

1. Oppose the proposed construction of the Pebble Mine in the headwaters of the Kvichak and Nushagak Rivers. 2. If additional funding becomes available, reinstate escapement monitoring for Chinook salmon in the Alagnek and Naknek systems.

RECOMMENDATIONS
Bristol Bay

Last updated on 2 December 2016

Improvement Recommendations to Catchers & Regulators

1. Work actively to address and close out conditions placed upon the certification of the fishery in the agreed timeframe.
2. Report achievements publicly to share progress with buyers.

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain

1. Monitor the progress in closing out conditions placed upon the certification of the fishery and if agreed timelines are met.
2. Express your support to help meet conditions that may be at a government/regulatory level (where applicable).

1.STOCK STATUS

STOCK ASSESSMENT

Last updated on 17 July 2008

Harvest Monitoring

Virtually 100% of the landed catch in the troll fishery is reported with a fish ticket reporting system and compliance is complete and monitored. However an estimated 14% of reported catch in the Southeast Alaska troll fishery (which accounts for 40% of Alaskan Chinook salmon harvest) is lost to incidental mortality, including sublegal fish (shakers) killed in the regular retention fishery and both legal and sublegal fish killed in the non-retention (coho) fishery. Programs to monitor incidental mortality rates are inconsistent.

Hatchery stocks and many wild stocks coastwide are coded-wire tagged. Many of these programs have been on-going since the mid-1970’s and provide a wealth of information on distribution of various stocks in coastwide fisheries. The CTC currently measures the exploitation rate on 48 tagged stocks and abundance of 31 indicator stocks in the Chinook Model. Genetic studies have also been conducted to confirm the stock composition of Alaska troll catches.

Escapement Monitoring

A variety of methods are used to count escapements for the over 70 Alaskan Chinook salmon stocks managed to achieve escapement goals. There are continuing efforts to improve on escapement monitoring methods. The escapements of all major Chinook salmon stocks in the Southeast Alaska troll fishery are measured and documented in annual reports of the Chinook Technical Committee (CTC) of the Pacific Salmon Commission. This fishery is managed under the auspices of the Pacific Salmon Treaty. The CTC documents the escapements of 50 stocks outside of Alaska and 11 Transboundary and Southeast Alaska Stocks.

Bristol Bay

Last updated on 9 March 2016

Harvest monitoring

Salmon harvest in Alaska is monitored accurately through the fish ticket system. There is district (watershed)-specific harvest data available for Bristol Bay (Jones et al. 2013).

Escapement Monitoring

Escapement is currently only monitored on the Nushagak River, the largest Chinook salmon-producing system, due to limitations in funding. Managers intend to resume monitoring of escapement on the two other systems with escapement goals in place, the Alagnak and Naknek Rivers, as soon as possible (Fair et al. 2012).

SCIENTIFIC ADVICE

Last updated on 17 July 2008

Alaska Department of Fish & Game (ADF&G) managers may set two types of target reference points: Biological Escapement Goals and Sustainable Escapement Goals. Biological Escapement Goals are generally based on a more extensive and complex analysis of stock performance in light of escapement observations and are considered to represent the escapement with the greatest potential for maximum sustainable yield. In contrast, Sustainable Escapement Goals represent an escapement level that is known to provide for sustained yield over a 5- to 10-year period.

Regional escapement goal review occurs once every three years and ADF&G recommendations for stock-specific goals of either type go before the Board of Fisheries afterward for consideration and approval. The Board of Fisheries may substitute its own Optimum Escapement Goal for either a Sustainable Escapement Goal or a Biological Escapement Goal if the Board finds a need to do so to meet competing objectives.

The Chinook Technical Committee (CTC) also reviews and formally accepts escapement goals for those stocks harvested in the Southeast troll fishery. There is bilateral (US and Canadian) participation in CTC escapement goal approval proceedings.

Chinook and sockeye stocks account for over 50% of the 300 escapement goals currently in use in Alaska. All Southeast Alaska Chinook escapement goals are BEGs, having undergone extensive monitoring and analysis, including through the CTC approval process (all Southeast Alaska goals have been reviewed by the CTC). In contrast, in the Arctic-Yukon-Kuskokwim (AYK) fishery, only three of 26 stocks have BEGs, and the rest of the stocks are managed to achieve SEGs. Reductions to 13 out of 25 existing Yukon River and Kuskokwim Management Area escapement goals have occurred at least once, and several additional Kuskokwim River goals are likely to be lowered during the next review. In one case, goals were lowered twice (Middle Fork Goodnews River). Escapement goal reductions were associated with missed management objectives for the East Fork Andreafsky River stock (Yukon Management Area) and the Middle Fork Goodnews River stock (Kuskokwim Management Area).

There are instances where well-intentioned managers have set escapement goals too high, and after careful analysis conclude that by lowering the goals there will be a better balance between future needs (conservation) and the immediate benefits to the fishery participants (yield)—which is the balance managers are attempting in a sustained fishery. However, there can also be instances when escapement goals are lowered without a careful consideration of these tradeoffs.

Reference Points

Last updated on 17 Jul 2008

The greatest cause for concern with respect to performance against reference points lies with the Arctic-Yukon-Kuskokwim (AYK) region, where depressed stock status has been noted for the last decade. Economic ramifications of associated fishery closures were severe to the extent that both areas were among three Alaska salmon fisheries granted federal disaster status by the United States Department of Commerce in 2012.

Four Chinook salmon stocks in the AYK region failed to achieve escapement goals in eight or more of the recent 15 years, or at least five of the past seven years. Among these are the Kwiniuk River and Shaktoolik River stocks in the Norton Sound Management Area, which failed both the 15-year and 7-year benchmarks on the basis of 1997-2011 data. The Shaktoolik River goal has been recommended for elimination in 2013. While the Shaktoolik River Chinook salmon stock is a stock of yield concern, the Kwiniuk River Chinook salmon stock has not been recommended as a stock of concern. In addition, roughly 25% stocks region-wide are noted as lacking escapement goals.

The other district fishery where federal disaster status was granted in 2012 is that of Upper Cook Inlet. Six stocks in that district are currently exhibiting chronic inability to meet escapement and/or yield targets.

As for Alaska-origin stocks harvested in the Southeast Alaska troll fishery, of the 11 Southeast Alaska escapement systems, 10 had decreasing trends in escapement from 1999-2011, two of which (Stikine River and Situk River) exhibited annual decreases over 5%. The Situk is the most northern Chinook salmon stock in Southeast Alaska and very few Situk fish are caught in the troll fishery. The Stikine River is managed under provisions of the Pacific Salmon Treaty Transboundary Agreement and few Chinook salmon from this system are caught in the troll fishery (an average of 4% of the total run). Although most river systems in Southeast Alaska are currently exhibiting decreasing escapements, only 9% of the time do escapements fall below escapement goal ranges.

Bristol Bay

Last updated on 9 March 2016

There are three Sustainable Escapement Goals currently in place for the Bristol Bay Chinook salmon fishery. An additional two goals were in place as of 2012, but were discontinued in the escapement goal review of that year due to lack of funding for adequate escapement monitoring. The three remaining goals are for Chinook salmon of the Nushagak, Alagnak, and Naknek rivers. The Alagnak and Naknek goals are based upon aerial survey monitoring of abundance up until 2008, and the Nushagak goal was established using a yield analysis of sonar counts begun in the 1980s (Fair et al. 2012).

Reference Points

Last updated on 09 Mar 2016

The Nushagak stock has met its escapement goal in all of the last 15 years (Jones et al. 2013). The Alagnak and Naknek stocks both missed their goals in the last year for which escapement surveys were conducted (2009) (Munro and Volk 2013).

CURRENT STATUS

Last updated on 17 July 2008

Stock status is assessed based on multi-year escapement trends and performance against escapement goals (see synopsis under reference point section and more detailed information under district profiles). There are a number of stocks of regulatory concern in the AYK, Cook Inlet, and Kodiak districts.  See "Recovery Plan" section for more detail.

Trends

Last updated on 17 Jul 2008

Chinook harvests by the commercial fishery in Alaska have not varied much over the past 90 years, with the last ten decadal averages ranging from about 600,000 to 800,000 Chinook salmon. On the other hand, significant use of Chinook salmon in Alaska occurs in sport and subsistence fisheries and those harvests have increased substantially. In several areas of Alaska, Chinook harvests in the commercial fishery are restricted to provide for other users. Harvest declines in the last few years related to fishery curtailment in response to depressed stock status are visible in Figure 2.


Figure 2: Historic Alaska Chinook salmon statewide harvest and overall catch value, 1878-2012 (http://www.adfg.alaska.gov/index.cfm?adfg=commercialbyfisherysalmon.salmoncatch#/Chinook).

The FishSource method examines 15-year trends in wild stock harvest at the district fishery scale. Meaningful (≥5%) annual declines in wild harvest are visible in the Arctic Yukon Kuskokwim fishery and in the Copper River fishery.

Bristol Bay

Last updated on 9 March 2016

Stock status is assessed based on multi-year escapement trends and performance against escapement goals (see synopsis under reference point section). There are no Chinook salmons stocks of concern in the Bristol Bay district.

Trends

Last updated on 09 Mar 2016

Chinook salmon harvests in 2012 were below recent 20-year averages in all districts but one. The 2012 baywide commercial harvest of 17,000 Chinook salmon was well below the 20-year average of 67,000 fish (Jones et al. 2013).

Despite this, Bristol Bay Chinook salmon harvest has exhibited a 2% annual increasing trend in 1998-2012 when the regression method of Geiger and Zhang (2002) is applied (Jones et al. 2013).

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

MANAGEMENT

Last updated on 9 March 2016

In-Season Management Responsiveness

The Arctic-Yukon-Kuskokwim fishery has historically ranked second behind Southeast Alaska in terms of Chinook salmon harvest volume. However, in recent seasons, it has ranked fourth or fifth due to meaningful declines in returns. Chinook salmon commercial harvests in the Arctic-Yukon-Kuskokwim Region are guided by an adaptive management strategy. In addition to pre-season forecasting, there is extensive in-season monitoring to assess Chinook salmon run strength and timing throughout the three nested management areas. Annually, commercial fishing activities are initiated, altered, and restricted based on information from these assessment projects. Poor runs over the past decade have prompted many commercial fishing closures; there have been no directed commercial fisheries in the Norton Sound Management Area for the past eight years. Both the Yukon and Kuskokwim rivers were closed to commercial fishing of Chinook salmon in 2012. There were also substantial restrictions to subsistence fisheries and commercial sockeye and chum fisheries in order to conserve Chinook salmon.

The Southeast Alaska troll salmon fishery is a “mixture pool management fishery,” which means that it is managed predominantly on the basis of a catch limit set in the pre-season. In 1999-2011, the actual catch has exceeded the “post-season catch limit” in 9 of 13 years (1999-2011), and the cumulative overage and underage amounted to 23% of the annual average catch limit for those years.

Multi-Season Management Responsiveness

9 of 11 salmon stocks that have regulatory Stock of Concern status granted by the Alaska Board of Fisheries are Chinook salmon stocks. Six of those stocks are located in Upper Cook Inlet, and were listed during the 2010-2011 Board of Fisheries regulatory cycle. Commercial harvest is generally considered to be secondary relative to sport fishing pressure on these stocks; however, due to the mixed stock nature of the Upper Cook inlet commercial fisheries, actual stock-specific harvest numbers are unknown. Regulatory actions in response to the stock of concern designations include expanded area closures for the commercial fisheries as well as greater time and area sport fishing restrictions.

Two of the other three listed stocks are located in the Arctic-Yukon-Kuskokwim region – the Yukon River and Norton Sound (districts 4 & 5) Chinook salmon stocks are formally designated stocks of yield concern. Recovery action plans for the Yukon River stocks have continued to develop after initial implementation in 2001 and significant fishery restrictions have been applied, including commercial and subsistence fishery delays, commercial fishery closures in low run years, reduced schedules for subsistence fisheries, in-season management strategies, and practices to reduce incidental harvest of Chinook salmon in commercial chum salmon fisheries. Action plans implemented for affected Norton Sound stocks beginning in 2004 have included emergency closures of subsistence fisheries, reduced bag limits for sport fisheries, reductions to commercial fishing schedules, use of in-season run strength monitoring to determine commercial fishery openings, and restrictions on gillnet mesh size.

Kuskokwim River stocks have generally fared better than the Norton Sound and Yukon River stocks in terms of achieving escapement goals, and were delisted as stocks of concern in 2007 in response to improved return sizes. Run abundance in subsequent years declined again to below average levels; though renewed stock of concern status is not being recommended for Kuskokwim River Chinook salmon based on the evidence that escapement goals are too high for several of the most poorly performing stocks and that recent drainage-wide escapements have not been below sustainable levels (ADF&G 2012d).

Management Responsiveness to Habitat Issues

ADF&G has a division devoted to permitting and monitoring the use of freshwater habitat. The agency has a record of altering or halting projects that may diminish salmon habitat.

Recovery Plans

Last updated on 09 Mar 2016

Action plans focused upon recovery of nine Chinook salmon stocks with regulatory listings are currently being implemented. Six of these stocks are located in Upper Cook Inlet, two stocks in the Arctic-Yukon-Kuskokwim (AYK) region, and one stock in the Kodiak region.

The two listed AYK stocks have held regulatory status for over a decade, a rarity in the very successful Alaska regulatory listing process. It is possible that management effectiveness in attaining escapement goals is being hampered by environmental conditions for some Arctic-Yukon-Kuskokwim spawning stocks. Furthermore, Chinook salmon in the AYK region are impacted by bycatch in pollock fisheries that take place in the Bering Sea and Gulf of Alaska.

As for Cook Inlet, depressed stocks in this district are exposed to significant, non-commercial harvest impacts including sport fishing pressure and, in the case of one stock, predation on juvenile Chinook salmon by illegally introduced Northern pike. However, the mixed stock nature and lack of stock identification in the commercial fisheries renders the estimation of true commercial harvest impacts on these individual stocks, as well as total run size, impossible to achieve comprehensively.

The Alaska Department of Fish and Game is in the process of assessing stock assessment data gaps and outlining research priorities necessary to improve understanding of recent Chinook salmon abundance trends.

Bristol Bay

Last updated on 9 March 2016

In-season management actions are taken in order to achieve objectives for Chinook stocks, including spatial and temporal closures and mesh restrictions (Jones et al. 2013).

Recovery Plans

Last updated on 09 Mar 2016

There are no Chinook salmon stocks of concern in Bristol Bay.

COMPLIANCE

Last updated on 9 March 2016

ADF&G has an extensive fish-ticket reporting system, with compliance monitoring and criminal penalties for intentional misreporting. Harvest controls are judged “precise and effective” by the 2007 MSC assessment authors. Enforcement, fleet education, and engagement of fishers in management objectives are all strong, and no systemic violations are noted.

Bristol Bay

Last updated on 9 March 2016

There is effective enforcement of regulations, monitoring of fishery objectives and reporting of results. Illegal fishing is not a significant problem (SCS 2007).

HATCHERY IMPACTS

Hatchery culture of Chinook salmon entails long-term freshwater rearing, and is therefore a more complicated endeavor than hatchery culture of pink or chum salmon. Activities are largely limited to Southeast Alaska to support Pacific Salmon Treaty-regulated recreational and troll fisheries. Overall Alaskan releases of Chinook salmon from hatcheries have held fairly steady over the last two decades (Figure 1).


Figure 1: Alaska hatchery releases of sockeye, coho, and Chinook salmon, 1982-2012.

It is estimated that about 15% of the Southeast Alaska troll catch consists of local, Alaskan hatchery fish. Meanwhile, the estimated hatchery contribution for Canadian and Southern U.S. hatcheries to the troll fishery has averaged 43.5% over 1999-2011. In the peak year of hatchery contribution to the fishery (2005), hatchery fish comprised over 60% of the troll harvest. However, the accuracy of these estimates is undermined by problems with the coast-wide Coded Wire Tag monitoring system. Since the 1990s, southern US hatcheries have been releasing hatchery fish with an adipose fin clip but no Coded Wire Tag, or with a Tag but no adipose fin clip. The fin clips are intended to allow for recognition of hatchery fish by sport fishermen, who retain only hatchery fish in order to promote wild spawning. However, the selective removal of clipped fish in interceptive fisheries impacts both the precision of hatchery contributions to Alaskan fisheries and exploitation rate analysis.

Straying of hatchery fish into wild spawning areas in Southeast Alaska is minimal and has been estimated at 0.28-0.3% of fish sampled in wild stock systems.

Another consideration in evaluating the hatchery influence on troll fishery management is the “Alaska hatchery add-on.” The add-on was initiated in 1985 to mitigate for some of the reductions in catch levels resulting from the Pacific Salmon Treaty. It consists of a separately-managed troll fishery opening in June that is intended to target Alaska-origin hatchery fish. The hatchery add-on has averaged about 24,000 fish from 1999-2011. As a result of the add-on system, the Alaska hatchery component of the catch is treated entirely separately from the catch of all other stocks in the catch. This results in about 11% higher catches in the troll fishery. ADF&G manages the fishery to maximize harvest of Alaska hatchery-origin fish by focusing effort in areas and times of high hatchery abundance. However, this may increase harvest rates on wild stocks that are also abundant in the spring fisheries and it also results in shortening of the subsequent general summer troll fishery, increasing incidental mortality rates.

Bristol Bay

Hatcheries

There is no hatchery production of Chinook salmon in Bristol Bay.

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

BYCATCH
ETP Species

Last updated on 17 July 2008

Bycatch of non-salmon PET species is not considered to be a problem in Alaska salmon fisheries. Trollers in Southeast Alaska incidentally catch small numbers of halibut, rockfish, and lingcod under Federal and State regulations.

Other Species

Last updated on 17 July 2008

The Southeast Alaska Chinook troll fishery intercepts many transiting, non-local stocks from British Columbia and the Pacific Northwest USA. See the Southeast Alaska Chinook salmon troll fishery profile for detail.

HABITAT

Last updated on 20 August 2013

Habitat impacts of Alaska’s Chinook salmon fishery are believed to be minimal. Management prohibits use of poisons, explosives, and other destructive practices. Gear loss, which can result in “ghost fishing” impacts, has not been formally quantified “but is believed to be relatively minor in most areas,” the MSC 2007 assessment authors note. Benthic impacts from salmon fishing gear are considered minor.

Alaska’s freshwater salmon habitat has benefited from sparse human occupancy in most watersheds and a suite of state laws governing activities (road-building, logging, mining, etc.) in riparian areas and spawning streams. Alaska’s Anadromous Fish Act regulates construction activities in salmon streams; its Forest Practices Act requires buffer zones to protect salmon spawning and rearing areas from logging impacts; the Commissioner of Fish and Game has authoroity to require water rights on behalf of fish. Streamflow necessary for salmon is reserved under the Water Use Protection Act. Alaska’s Department of Environmental Conservation oversees discharge of pollutants to protect fresh and marine waters.

Changes in climate and marine productivity are indirectly incorporated in management through pre-season forecasts and in-season monitoring of catch per effort, according to authors of the 2007 MSC assessment. They also observe: “ADFG managers recognize the importance of pristine habitat in maintaining resilience of wild salmon runs in light of significant changes in climate and ocean conditions. However, many plans in Alaska are under development to build roads in remote areas tin order to explolit resources such as oil, gas, and minerals.”

The recent (2012) failure of the Alaska Legislature to renew the Coastal Zone Management Program decreases the opportunity for review of coastal development projects. Alaska is the only state with coastal waters that does not have an active CZMP. The real strength of the CZMP was the designation of uses allowed in coastal zones. Much as a city can designate certain areas as residential and others as industrial, the CZMP designated certain coastal zones for conservation and others for growth, with limitations specified in permits. The CZMP provided a basis for protecting, restoring, and responsibly developing Alaska’s coastal communities and resources. The CZMP was also particularly useful in coordinating state and federal actions and provided a much-needed forum for public input concerning coastal habitat issues.

With particular respect to Southeast Alaska, the most productive region for coho salmon, Alaska management, together with a number of conservation groups, has provided constructive input to a number of transboundary river mining projects that are still in the planning stage. Acceptance of these suggestions will be known only when the projects are in full production.

FishSource Scores

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

Click on the score to see subscores

As calculated for 2014 data.

The score is 10.0.

There are three escapement goals in place for the fishery for the three most productive stocks, the Nushagak, Alagnak, and Naknek stocks. There have not been problems with goal lowering in association with missed management objectives (Baker et al. 2006; Fair et al. 2012).

Click on the score to see subscores

×

Management Responsiveness Subscores

As calculated for 2014 data.

The score is 10.0.

In-season management actions are taken in order to achieve objectives for Chinook stocks, including spatial and temporal closures and mesh restrictions (Jones et al. 2013).

As calculated for 2014 data.

The score is 10.0.

There are no Chinook salmon stocks of concern in Bristol Bay. The Alaska Department of Fish and Game has acted appropriately in response to other species in Bristol Bay designated as stock of concern; (i.e. Kvichak sockeye salmon) through the restriction of directed fishing on the stock and measures to reduce incidental harvest of the stock in other fisheries (SCS 2007).

As calculated for 2014 data.

The score is 10.0.

Habitat is pristine in Bristol Bay, and habitat factors are not known to adversely impact salmon runs in the district. ADF&G has a habitat division actively engaged in development project planning and efforts to minimize the effects of development on fish (ADF&G 2013).

×

Adequacy of Data Subscores

As calculated for 2014 data.

The score is 10.0.

There is effective enforcement of regulations, monitoring of fishery objectives and reporting of results. Illegal fishing is not a significant problem (SCS 2007).

As calculated for 2014 data.

The score is 10.0.

There is stock-specific harvest data for Bristol Bay Chinook salmon (Jones et. al 2013).

As calculated for 2014 data.

The score is 7.0.

Due to funding limitations, escapement monitoring is currently only taking place for one of three stocks for which escapement goals are in place (Fair et al. 2012).

STOCK HEALTH:

Click on the score to see subscores

Click on the score to see subscores

×

Stock Status Subscores

As calculated for 2014 data.

The score is 10.0.

The Nushagak escapement goal has been met in every year of the last 15 years. The Alagnek and Naknek stocks each missed their goals in the last year for which their escapement was surveyed (2009) (Munro and Volk 2013).

As calculated for 2014 data.

The score is 10.0.

Harvest has exhibited a 2% annual increasing trend in 1998-2012 when the regression method of Geiger and Zhang (2002) is applied (Jones et al. 2013).

×

Hatchery Impacts Subscores

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To see data for stock status, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for hatchery impacts, please view this site on a desktop.
DATA NOTES

Scores appearing at the region level reflect the range of scores for the district profiles in the region for each of the five FishSource scoring criteria.  District profiles are scored according to the complete FishSource salmon scoring method, which can be downloaded here. A summary of the method’s scoring criteria for district profiles follows below (for the Alaska/PSC troll fishery component, scroll further to see a slightly modified set of criteria applied to mixture pool fisheries).

The FishSource sustainability criteria as applied to salmon: Criterion 1. Management Responsiveness (Is the management strategy precautionary?) 1.1 Over the last decade, has fisheries management exhibited in-season responsiveness to stock status? 1.2 Has fisheries management responded appropriately over the last 15 years when/if the stock has failed to meet management objectives and/or maintain yields? 1.3 Has management exhibited responsiveness to concerns regarding the conservation and restoration of the stock’s essential freshwater, estuarine and coastal habitats during the last ten years? Criterion 2. Management Guidelines (Do the managers follow scientific advice?) Have appropriate escapement goals or operational equivalents been developed and implemented for the fishery’s wild stocks? Criterion 3. Adequacy of Data (Do fishers comply?) 3.1 Is a portion of harvest attributable to illegal, unreported, or unregulated fishing, resulting in official harvest data that is lower than the actual catch? 3.2 Is the fishery’s harvest adequately and accurately measured and reported? 3.3 Has escapement been adequately and accurately measured and publicly reported? Criterion 4. Stock Status (Is the fish stock healthy?) 4.1 Have escapement measures for the fishery’s wild stocks been maintained above escapement goals or thresholds, or have harvest rates been below the target harvest rates? 4.2 Has the catch trend been level or increasing over a 15-year period? Criterion 5. Are hatcheries or other enhancement activities negatively affecting wild stocks? (Will the fish stock be healthy in the future?) 5.0 Do hatcheries account for 10% or less of the fishery’s total production, or are hatchery-produced fish not in substantial contact with wild salmon? If “no,” then the following sub-criteria are analyzed: 5.1 Are managers able to manage for the (wild) stocks in a fishery that also contains hatchery stocks of salmon? 5.2 Is there a low quantity of hatchery strays in the escapement throughout the freshwater habitat of the wild stock, and is hatchery straying quantified by means of a technically sound data collection and analysis? 5.3 Over the past 10 years, have hatchery strays, hatchery out-plants, or any returning hatchery-produced fish been intentionally allowed to mix with the wild stock during spawning? 5.4 Are there active and effective policies that (1) establish objectives for the conservation of wild salmon, (2) put into place operational systems that limit hatchery impacts on wild stocks, (3) grant sufficient oversight and authority over individual hatchery programs to management agencies, and (4) establish a hatchery evaluation system that monitors the performance of individual hatcheries against wild salmon conservation objectives?

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Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

No related FIPs

Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

SELECT MSC

NAME

Alaska salmon

STATUS

MSC Recertified on 1 September 2000

SCORES

Principle Level Scores:

Unit of Certification Principle Score
Southeast Alaska Principle 1 – Target Species 80.7
Principle 2 - Ecosystem 81.0
Principle 3 – Management System 91.5
Yakutat Principle 1 – Target Species 97.1
Principle 2 - Ecosystem 83.7
Principle 3 – Management System 96.5
Prince William Sound

Principle 1 – Target Species

83.5

Principle 2 - Ecosystem 86.0
Principle 3 – Management System 91.5
Copper/Bering Districts Principle 1 – Target Species 82.4
Principle 2 - Ecosystem 85.7
Principle 3 – Management System 91.5
Lower Cook Inlet Principle 1 – Target Species 91.0
Principle 2 - Ecosystem 86.0
Principle 3 – Management System 89.5
Upper Cook Inlet Principle 1 – Target Species 94.3
Principle 2 - Ecosystem 85.7
Principle 3 – Management System 91.5
Bristol Bay Principle 1 – Target Species 98.9
Principle 2 - Ecosystem 87.3
Principle 3 – Management System 96.5
Yukon River Principle 1 – Target Species 91.7
Principle 2 - Ecosystem 87.3
Principle 3 – Management System 96.5
Kuskokwim Principle 1 – Target Species 91.2
Principle 2 - Ecosystem 87.3
Principle 3 – Management System 96.5
Kotzebue Principle 1 – Target Species 88.3
Principle 2 - Ecosystem 87.7
Principle 3 – Management System 96.5
Norton Sound Principle 1 – Target Species 84.2
Principle 2 - Ecosystem 87.3
Principle 3 – Management System 96.5
Kodiak Principle 1 – Target Species 82.5
Principle 2 - Ecosystem 85.3
Principle 3 – Management System 91.5
Chignik Principle 1 – Target Species 87.1
Principle 2 - Ecosystem 87.7
Principle 3 – Management System 96.5
Peninsula/Aleutian Islands Principle 1 – Target Species 97.4
Principle 2 - Ecosystem 87.3
Principle 3 – Management System 96.5

Certification Type: Silver

Sources

Credits
  1. ADF&G (Alaska Department of Fish and Game), 2010. Upper Cook Inlet Stock of Concern Recommendations (memorandum to the Alaska Board of Fisheries) [online]. Alaska Department of Fish & Game Office, 1255 West 8th Street, P.O. Box 25526, Juneau.http://www.adfg.alaska.gov/index.cfm?adfg=fisheriesboard.pastmeetinginfo2010_2011
  2. ADF&G (Alaska Department of Fish and Game), 2011. Chuitna River, Theodore River, and Lewis River King Salmon Stock Status and Action Plan, 2011. Report to the Board of Fisheries. [PDF] Anchorage: Alaska Department of Fish and Game. http://www.adfg.alaska.gov/index.cfm?adfg=fisheriesboard.pastmeetinginfo2010_2011
  3. Eggers, D. M. and Carroll, A. M., 2011. Run forecasts and harvest projections for 2011 Alaska salmon fisheries and review of the 2010 season. Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Special Publication No. 11-03, Anchorage.http://www.adfg.alaska.gov/FedAidPDFs/SP11-03.pdf
  4. Howard, K.G., Hayes, S.J., and Evenson, D.F., 2009. Yukon River Chinook salmon stock status and action plan 2010; a report to the Alaska Board of Fisheries. [PDF] Anchorage: Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Special Publication No. 09-26. http://www.adfg.alaska.gov/FedAidPDFs/sp09-26.pdf
  5. Kent, S.M. and Bergstrom, D.J., 2009. Norton Sound Subdistrict 5 (Shatoolik) and Subdistrict 6 (Unalakleet) Chinook salmon stock status and action plan, 2010; a report to the Alaska Board of Fisheries. [PDF] Anchorage: Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Special Publicaion No. 09-25. http://www.adfg.alaska.gov/FedAidPDFs/SP09-25.pdf
  6. Moody Marine Ltd., 2011. Fourth Marine Stewardship Council Annual Surveillance Report: Alaska Salmon Fisheries. [pdf] Nova Scotia: Intertek Moody Marine Ltd.http://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/certified/pacific/alaska-salmon/assessment-downloads-2/Fourth_Marine_Stewardship_Council_Surveillance_Audit_Final.pdf
  7. NMFS (National Marine Fisheries Service), 2003. Final programmatic environmental impact statement for Pacific salmon fisheries management off the coasts of Southeast Alaska, Washington, Oregon, and California and in the Columbia River Basin. [pdf] Seattle: National Marine Fisheries Service. http://www.nwr.noaa.gov/Salmon-Harvest-Hatcheries/Salmon-Fishery-Management/upload/slmn-hrvst-FPEIS.pdf
  8. NPAFC (North Pacific Anadromous Fish Commission), 2012. NPAFC Statistical Yearbook. [online] NPAFC Annual Statistics, Issues 1993-2009. http://www.npafc.org/new/pub_statistics.html
  9. PSC (Pacific Salmon Commission), 2011. 2010 Annual Report of Catches. [pdf] Pacific Salmon Commission, Joint Chinook Technical Committee Report TCCHINOOK (11)-2, Vancouver, BC. http://www.psc.org/pubs/TCCHINOOK11-2.pdf
  10. Scientific Certification Systems (SCS), 2007. The Commercial Alaska Salmon Fisheries Managed by the Alaska Department of Fish and Game: A 5-Year Re-Assessment Based on the Marine Stewardship Program. [PDF] Emeryville, CA: Scientific Certification Systems Inc. http://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/certified/pacific/alaska-salmon/assessment-downloads-2/Final_Cert_Report_Oct07.pdf
  11. Skannes, P., Hagerman, G., and Shaul, L. 2012. Annual Management Report for the 2011 Southeast Alaska/Yakutat Salmon Troll Fisheries.[pdf] Fishery Management Report No. 12-02, Anchorage. http://www.adfg.alaska.gov/FedAidPDFs/FMR12-02.pdf
  12. Somerville, M. A., 2011. Fishery management report for the recreational fisheries of the Upper Copper/Upper Susitna River management area, 2010. [pdf] Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Fishery Management Report No. 11-55 Anchorage.http://www.adfg.alaska.gov/FedAidPDFs/FMR11-38.pdf
  13. Templin, W. D., J.M. Berger, and L.W. Seeb, 2011. Mixed stock analysis of Chinook salmon harvested in the Southeast Alaska commercial troll fishery, 1999–2003. [pdf] Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Fishery Manuscript Series No. 11-03, Anchorage. http://www.adfg.alaska.gov/FedAidPDFs/FMS11-03.pdf
  14. Vercessi, Lorraine. 2012. Alaska Salmon Fisheries Enhancement Program 2011 Annual Report. Fishery Management Report No. 12-04. Anchorage, AK: Alaska Department of Fish and Game.http://www.adfg.alaska.gov/FedAidpdfs/FMR12-04
  15. Volk, E. C. and R. P. Josephson. 2011. Alaska Salmon Hatchery Releases, Commercial Fishery Catch Statistics, and Sport Fishery Catch Statistics for 2010 Season. NPAFC Doc. 1338. 6pp. Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Division of Commercial Fisheries, P.O. Box 115526, Juneau, AK. 99811-5526.http://www.npafc.org/new/publications/Documents/PDF%202011/1338(USA).pdf
  16. White, B. 2011. Alaska salmon fisheries enhancement program 2010 annual report. [pdf] Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Fishery Management Report No. 11-04, Anchorage.http://www.adfg.alaska.gov/FedAidPDFs/FMR11-04.pdf
  17. ADF&G (Alaska Department of Fish and Game), 2004. Escapement goal review of select AYK Region salmon stocks.[pdf] Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Division of Commercial Fisheries Regional Information Report 3A04-01, Anchorage. http://www.adfg.alaska.gov/FedAidPDFs/rir.3a.2004.01.pdf
  18. ADF&G (Alaska Department of Fish and Game), 2010. 2010 Norton Sound Salmon Season Summary. [news release] Alaska Department of Fish and Game, 103 East Front Street, Nome, Alaska.http://www.adfg.alaska.gov/static/fishing/PDFs/commercial/2010_norton_salmon_summary.pdf
  19. ADF&G (Alaska Department of Fish and Game), 2011a. 2011 Norton Sound Salmon Season Summary. [news release] Alaska Department of Fish and Game, 103 East Front Street, Nome, Alaska.http://www.adfg.alaska.gov/static/fishing/PDFs/commercial/2011_norton_salmon_summary.pdf
  20. ADF&G (Alaska Department of Fish and Game), 2011b. 2011 Preliminary Kuskokwim Area Salmon Season Summary. [news release] Alaska Department of Fish and Game, 333 Raspberry Road, Anchorage, Alaska. http://www.adfg.alaska.gov/static/home/news/pdfs/newsreleases/cf/93505531.pdf
  21. ADF&G (Alaska Department of Fish and Game), 2011c. 2011 Preliminary Yukon River Summer Season Summary. [news release] Alaska Department of Fish and Game, 333 Raspberry Road, Anchorage, Alaska.http://www.adfg.alaska.gov/static/fishing/PDFs/commercial/2011_yukonriver_summersalmon_summary.pdf
  22. ADF&G (Alaska Department of Fish and Game), 2012a. 2012 Norton Sound Salmon Season Summary. [news release] Alaska Department of Fish and Game, 103 East Front Street, Nome, Alaska.http://www.adfg.alaska.gov/static/home/news/pdfs/newsreleases/cf/232684328.pdf
  23. ADF&G (Alaska Department of Fish and Game), 2012b. 2012 Preliminary Kuskokwim Area Salmon Season Summary. [news release] Alaska Department of Fish and Game, 333 Raspberry Road, Anchorage, Alaska. http://www.adfg.alaska.gov/static/home/news/pdfs/newsreleases/cf/229503860.pdf
  24. ADF&G (Alaska Department of Fish and Game), 2012c. Arctic-Yukon- Kuskokwim Escapement Goal Recommendations. [Memorandum to ADF&G Commercial Fisheries Division Director, Jeff Regnart and Sport Fisher Division Director, Charles O. Swanton from Commercial Fisheries Division Region III Regional Research Coordinators, Jan Conitz and Katie Howard and Sport Fish Division Region III Regional Research Coordinator, Matt Evenson, September 19, 2012], Alaska Department of Fish & Game Office, 1255 West 8th Street, P.O. Box 25526, Juneau.http://www.adfg.alaska.gov/index.cfm?adfg=fisheriesboard.meetinginfo
  25. ADF&G (Alaska Department of Fish and Game), 2012d. Arctic-Yukon- Kuskokwim Stock of Concern Recommendations. [Memorandum to Alaska Board of Fisheries Members from ADF&G Commercial Fisheries Division Director, Jeff Regnart and Sport Fisher Division Director, Charles O. Swanton], Alaska Department of Fish & Game Office, 1255 West 8th Street, P.O. Box 25526, Juneau. http://www.adfg.alaska.gov/index.cfm?adfg=fisheriesboard.meetinginfo
  26. ADF&G (Alaska Department of Fish and Game), 2012e. 2012 Alaska Chinook Salmon Fishery Disaster. [online] http://www.adfg.alaska.gov/index.cfm?adfg=hottopics.federalchinookdisaster
  27. ADF&G (Alaska Department of Fish and Game), 2012f. 2012 Preliminary Yukon River Summer Season Summary. [news release] Alaska Department of Fish and Game, 333 Raspberry Road, Anchorage, Alaska.http://www.adfg.alaska.gov/static/home/news/pdfs/newsreleases/cf/229271472.pdf
  28. ADF&G (Alaska Department of Fish and Game), 2012g. ADF&G announces Chinook Salmon Symposium.[Press Release] Alaska Department of Fish & Game Office, P.O. Box 115526 Juneau, Alaska 99811.http://www.adfg.alaska.gov/index.cfm?adfg=pressreleases.pr09202012
  29. ADF&G (Alaska Department of Fish and Game), 2012h. Alaska Commercial Salmon Harvests and Exvessel Values. [online] http://www.adfg.alaska.gov/index.cfm?adfg=CommercialByFisherySalmon.exvesselquery
  30. ADF&G (Alaska Department of Fish and Game), 2012i. Habitat Division Website.http://www.adfg.alaska.gov/index.cfm?adfg=habitatregulations.main
  31. ADF&G (Alaska Department of Fish and Game, 2012j. 2012 Prince William Sound salmon season summary. [news release] Alaska Department of Fish and Game, PO Box 669, Cordova, Alaska. http://www.adfg.alaska.gov/static/home/news/pdfs/newsreleases/cf/233173893.pdf
  32. ADF&G (Alaska Department of Fish and Game), 2012k. Commercial Fishing Information by Area .[online]http://www.adfg.alaska.gov/index.cfm?adfg=fishingcommercialbyarea.interior
  33. ADF&G (Alaska Department of Fish and Game), Various Authors, 2008-2012. Annual Management Reports of the Yakutat Area Commercial Salmon Fisheries. Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Fishery Management Report No. __-__, Anchorage. http://www.adfg.alaska.gov/FedAidpdfs/FMR12-01.pdf
  34. ADF&G (Alaska Department of Fish & Game), Various Authors, 1998-2012. Alaska Salmon Fisheries Enhancement Program Annual Reports [for the years 1997-2011]. Fishery Management Report No. __-__. Anchorage, AK, ADF&G.http://www.adfg.alaska.gov/FedAidpdfs/FMR12-04
  35. Blyth-Skyrme, R., Ruggerone, G., Schmidt, D., Seeb, J., Knapman, P., 2013. Alaska Salmon Fishery – Public Certification Report. Intertek Moody Marine, November 2013. 583pphttp://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/fisheries-in-the-program/certified/pacific/alaska-salmon/new-client-2nd-re-assessment-download-documents/20131114_PCR_V3_SAL002.pdf
  36. Blyth-Skyrme, R., Ruggerone, G., Seeb, J., 2015. First Annual Surveillance Report - Alaska Salmon Fishery. Intertek Fisheries Certification Ltd, February 2015. 47pphttp://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/fisheries-in-the-program/certified/pacific/alaska-salmon/new-client-2nd-re-assessment-download-documents/20150224_SR_SAL002.pdf
  37. Botz, J., Hollowell, G., Sheridan, T., Brenner, R., and Moffitt, S., 2012. 2010 Prince William Sound area finfish management report. [pdf] Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Fishery Management Report No. 12-06, Anchorage. http://www.adfg.alaska.gov/FedAidPDFs/FMR12-06.pdf
  38. Brannian, L. K., Evenson, M. J., and Hilsinger J. R., 2006. Escapement goal recommendations for select Arctic-Yukon-Kuskokwim region salmon stocks, 2007. [pdf] Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Fishery Manuscript No. 06-07, Anchorage.http://www.adfg.alaska.gov/FedAidPDFs/fms06-07.pdf
  39. Brazil, C., Bue, D., Carroll, H., and Elison, T., 2011. 2010 Kuskokwim area management report. [pdf] Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Fishery Management Report No. 11-67, Anchorage.http://www.adfg.alaska.gov/FedAidPDFs/FMR11-67.pd
  40. Bue, B. G., Schaberg, K.L., Liller, Z.W., and Molyneaux, D.B., 2012. Estimates of the historic run and escapement for the Chinook salmon stock returning to the Kuskokwim River, 1976-2011. [pdf] Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Fishery Data Series No. 12-49, Anchorage. http://www.adfg.alaska.gov/FedAidPDFs/FDS12-49.pdf
  41. Estensen, J. L. and Evenson, M.J., 2006. A summary of harvest and escapement information and recommendations for improved data collection and escapement goals for Unalakleet River Chinook salmon. [pdf] Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Fishery Manuscript No. 06-04, Anchorage. http://www.adfg.alaska.gov/FedAidPDFs/fms06-04.pdf
  42. Estensen, J. L., D. B. Molyneaux, and D. J. Bergstrom. 2009. Kuskokwim River salmon stock status and Kuskokwim area fisheries, 2009; a report to the Alaska Board of Fisheries. [pdf] Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Special Publication No. 09-21, Anchorage.http://www.adfg.alaska.gov/FedAidPDFs/SP09-21.pdf
  43. Estensen, J. L., Hayes, S., Buckelew, S., Green, D., and Bergstrom, D.L., 2012. Annual management report for the Yukon and Northern Areas, 2010. [pdf] Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Fishery Management Report No. 12-23, Anchorage.http://www.adfg.alaska.gov/FedAidPDFs/FMR12-23.pdf
  44. FishSource. 2012. Annual Harvest Statistics: Chinook Salmon Profileshttp://www.fishsource.org
  45. Geiger, H. J. and Zhang, X., 2002. A simple procedure to evaluate salmon escapement trends that emphasizes biological meaning over statistical significance. [pdf] Alaska Fishery Research Bulletin 9(2):128-134.http://www.adfg.alaska.gov/FedAidPDFs/AFRB.09.2.128-134.pdf
  46. Gisclair, B.R., 2009. Salmon Bycatch Management in the Bering Sea Walleye Pollock Fishery: Threats and Opportunities for Western Alaska. In: Pacific salmon: ecology and management of western Alaska’s populations (American Fisheries Society Symposium 70, Bethesda, Maryland, 2009). C. C. Krueger and C. E. Zimmerman, eds.: pp. 799–816. http://www.yukonsalmon.com/news/Bycatch%20Article%2012-09.pdf
  47. Hayes, S. J., Bue, F.J., Borba, B.M., Boeck, K.R., H. Carroll, H.C., Boeck, L., Newland, E.J., Clark, K.J., and Busher, W.H., 2008. Annual management report Yukon and Northern areas 2002-2004. [pdf] Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Fishery Management Report No. 08-36, Anchorage. http://www.adfg.alaska.gov/FedAidPDFs/fmr08-36.pdf
  48. Hayes S. J., Bue, F., Newland, E., Busher, W.H., Clark, K., Evenson, D. F., Borba, B.M., Horne-Brine, M., and Bergstrom, D., 2011. Annual management report Yukon and Northern Areas 2005. [pdf] Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Fishery Management Report No. 11-36, Anchorage. http://www.adfg.alaska.gov/FedAidPDFs/FMR11-36.pdf
  49. Menard, J., Soong, J., and Kent, S., 2012. 2010 annual management report Norton Sound, Port Clarence, and Kotzebue. [pdf] Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Fishery Management Report No. 12-31, Anchorage. http://www.adfg.alaska.gov/FedAidPDFs/FMR12-31.pdf
  50. Molyneaux, D. B. and Brannian, L.K., 2006. Review of escapement and abundance information for Kuskokwim area salmon stocks.[pdf] Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Fishery Manuscript No. 06-08 Anchorage. http://www.adfg.alaska.gov/FedAidPDFs/fms06-08%20-%20Copy.pdf
  51. Munro, A. R., and Volk, E.C., 2010. Summary of Pacific salmon escapement goals in Alaska with a review of escapements from 2001 to 2009. [pdf] Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Special Publication No. 10-12, Anchorage. http://www.adfg.alaska.gov/FedAidPDFs/SP10-12.pdf
  52. Munro, A. R., and Volk, E.C., 2012. Summary of Pacific salmon escapement goals in Alaska with a review of escapements from 2003 to 2011. [pdf] Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Special Publication No. 12-03, Anchorage. http://www.adfg.alaska.gov/FedAidPDFs/FMS12-03.pdf
  53. NMFS (National Marine Fisheries Service), 2012. Secretary of Commerce declares disaster for Alaska king salmon. [pdf] NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) press release, September 13, 2012.http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/mediacenter/2012/09/alaska_disaster_html.pdf
  54. NPAFC (North Pacific Anadromous Fish Commission), 2012. NPAFC Statistical Yearbook. [online] NPAFC Annual Statistics, Issues 1993-2009. http://www.npafc.org/new/pub_statistics.html
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  56. Volk, E., Evenson, M. J., and Clark, R. A., 2009. Escapement goal recommendations for select Arctic-Yukon-Kuskokwim Region salmon stocks, 2010. [pdf] Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Fishery Manuscript No. 09-07, Anchorage.http://www.adfg.alaska.gov/FedAidPDFs/FMS09-07.pdf
  57. YRFDA (Yukon River Drainage Fisheries Association) and YRP (Yukon River Panel), 2005. Yukon River Salmon Agreement Handbook. [pdf] Yukon River Panel, Whitehorse, YT and Yukon River Drainage Fisheries Association, Anchorage. http://www.yukonsalmon.org/whatwedo/handbook.pdf
  58. ADF&G (Alaska Department of Fish and Game). 2013. Habitat Division Website.http://www.adfg.alaska.gov/index.cfm?adfg=habitatregulations.main.
  59. Baker, T. T., Fair, L. F., Clark, R. A. and Hasbrouck, J. J., 2006. Review of salmon escapement goals in Bristol Bay, Alaska, 2006. [pdf] Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Fishery Manuscript No. 06-05, Anchorage. http://www.adfg.alaska.gov/FedAidPDFs/fms06-05.pdf
  60. Eggers, D. M. and Carroll, A. M., 2011. Run forecasts and harvest projections for 2011 Alaska salmon fisheries and review of the 2010 season. Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Special Publication No. 11-03, Anchorage.ttp://www.adfg.alaska.gov/FedAidPDFs/SP11-03.pdf
  61. Fair, L.F., Brazil, C.E., Zhang, X., Clark, R.A., and Erickson, J.W. 2012. Review of salmon escapement goals in Bristol Bay, Alaska, 2012. Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Fishery Manuscript Series No. 12-04, Anchorage.http://www.adfg.alaska.gov/FedAidPDFs/FMS12-04.pdf
  62. Geiger, H. and Zhang, X. 2002. A simple procedure to evaluate escapement trends over time that emphasizes biological meaning over statistical significance. Alaska Fishery Research Bulletin, 9(2): 128-134. http://www.adfg.alaska.gov
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  64. Munro, A.R., and Volk, E.C. 2013. Summary of Pacific salmon escapement goals in Alaska with a review of escapements from 2004 to 2012. Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Fishery Manuscript Series No. 13-05, Anchorage http://www.adfg.alaska.gov/
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  68. ADF&G (Alaska Department of Fish and Game), 2010. Upper Cook Inlet Stock of Concern Recommendations (memorandum to the Alaska Board of Fisheries). [pdf] Alaska Department of Fish & Game Office, 1255 West 8th Street, P.O. Box 25526, Juneau.http://www.adfg.alaska.gov/index.cfm?adfg=fisheriesboard.pastmeetinginfo2010_2011
  69. ADF&G (Alaska Department of Fish and Game) 2011. Chuitna River, Theodore River, and Lewis River King Salmon Stock Status and Action Plan, 2011. Report to the Board of Fisheries. [PDF] Anchorage: Alaska Department of Fish and Game. http://www.adfg.alaska.gov/index.cfm?adfg=fisheriesboard.pastmeetinginfo2010_2011
  70. ADF&G (Alaska Department of Fish and Game). 2013. Chinook salmon stock assessment and research plan, 2013. Alaska Department of Fish & Game, Special Publication No. 13-01, Anchorage.http://www.adfg.alaska.gov/static/home/news/hottopics/pdfs/chinook_research_plan.pdf
  71. Begich, R. N. 2006b. Ninilchik River Chinook salmon assessment, 1999 and 2000.[pdf] Alaska Department of Fish and Game Fishery Data Series 06-15, Anchorage.http://www.adfg.alaska.gov/FedAidPDFs/fds06-27.pdf
  72. BOF (Board of Fisheries), 2011. Findings regarding regulatory action taken to address salmon stocks of concern in the Upper Cook Inlet Area [pdf]. Alaska Department of Fish & Game Office, 1255 West 8th Street, P.O. Box 25526, Juneau. http://www.adfg.alaska.gov/static/regulations/regprocess/fisheriesboard/pdfs/findings/2011-266-fb.pdf
  73. Dischner, M. 2012. "Feds declare disaster for king salmon fisheries." Alaska Journal of Commerce, September 21, 2012.http://www.alaskajournal.com/Alaska-Journal-of-Commerce/September-Issue-4-2012/Feds-declare-disaster-for-king-salmon-fisheries/
  74. Fair, L.F., Willette, T.M., Erickson, J.W., Yanusz, R.J., and McKinley, T.R. 2010. Review of salmon escapement goals in Upper Cook Inlet, Alaska, 2011. Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Fishery Manuscript Series No. 10-06, Anchorage.http://www.adfg.alaska.gov/FedAidPDFs/FMS10-06.pdf
  75. Fleischman, S.J., and McKinley, T.R. 2013. Run reconstruction, spawner-recruit analysis, and escapement goal recommendation for late-run Chinook salmon in the Kenai River. Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Fishery Manuscript Series No. 13-02, Anchorage.http://www.adfg.alaska.gov/FedAidPDFs/FMS13-02.pdf
  76. Geiger, H. and Zhang, X. 2002. A simple procedure to evaluate escapement trends over time that emphasizes biological meaning over statistical significance. Alaska Fishery Research Bulletin, 9(2): 128-134.http://www.adfg.alaska.gov/
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