This profile has recently been updated or completed. Leave a comment to provide feedback

Profile updated on 26 July 2019

SUMMARY

SUMMARY

IDENTIFICATION

SCIENTIFIC NAME(s)

Thunnus obesus

SPECIES NAME(s)

Bigeye tuna

It is likely there is one stock of bigeye tuna across the Pacific Ocean. The assessment in the EPO is conducted assuming there is a single population for management purposes {Aires-da-Silve and Maunder 2014}.


ANALYSIS

Strengths

The biomass is considered healthy.

There is a catch limit for bigeye tuna caught in the longline fisheries for some countries (China, Japan, Korea, Chinese Taipei).

There is a multi-year conservation plan in place, which has just been extended, for bigeye tuna (and other tuna species).

There is 100% observer coverage on large purse seine vessels operating on the high seas.

Weaknesses

Fishing mortality rates are above sustainable levels.

Formal reference points and harvest control rules (only interim) have not been adopted. 

There are time/area closures in place for the purse seine fleet but these measures are not sufficient to manage the fish aggregating device (FAD) fishery.

Observer coverage (required) in the longline fishery is too low (5%).

There continues to be uncertainty surrounding the stock assessment results.

The longline and purse seine fisheries can interact with ETP species

FISHSOURCE SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

≥ 8

Managers Compliance:

≥ 6

Fishers Compliance:

≥ 6

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

8.1

Future Health:

7.4


RECOMMENDATIONS

RETAILERS & SUPPLY CHAIN
  • Work with IATTC Members and Cooperating Non-Members to: 
    • Develop and implement comprehensive, precautionary harvest strategies with specific timelines for all tuna stocks, including the adoption and implementation of limit and target reference points, harvest control rules, monitoring strategies, operational objectives, performance indicators, and management strategy evaluation.
    • Strengthen compliance processes and make information on non-compliance public and continue to provide evidence of compliance with all IATTC Conservation and Management Measures in a timely manner.
    • Implement a 100% observer coverage requirement for at-sea transshipment activities, as well as other measures that ensure transshipment activity is transparent and well-managed, and that all required data are collected and transmitted to the appropriate bodies in a timely manner.
    • Increase compliance with the mandatory minimum 5% longline observer coverage rates by identifying and correcting non-compliance.
    • Implement a 100% observer coverage requirement – human and/or electronic – within five years for longline fisheries.  Adopt a 100% observer coverage requirement for purse seine vessels where it is not already required and require the use of the best-available observer safety equipment, communications and procedures.
    • Adopt effective measures for the use of non-entangling FAD designs as a precautionary measure to minimize the entanglement of sharks and other non-target species, and support research on biodegradable materials and transition to their use to mitigate marine debris. 
    • More effectively implement, and ensure compliance with, existing RFMO bycatch requirements and take additional mitigation action, such as improving monitoring at sea, collecting and sharing operational-level, species-specific data, and adopting stronger compliance measures, including consequences for non-compliance for all gear types.
  • Monitor IATTC progress on assessing alternative indicators and improving the stock assessment model to determine the status of bigeye tuna in the EPO and to develop management advice.
  • Ensure all products are traceable back to legal sources. Verify source information and full chain traceability through traceability desk audits or third party traceability certification. For fisheries without robust traceability systems in place, invest in meaningful improvements to bring the fisheries and supply chain in compliance with best practices.

FIPS

  • Eastern Pacific Ocean tuna - longline (Transmarina):

    Stage 3, Progress Rating C

CERTIFICATIONS

No related MSC fisheries

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

ASSESSMENT UNIT MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
Eastern Pacific IATTC Colombia Associated purse seining
FAD-free
Ecuador Drifting longlines
Spain FAD-free
Purse seines
United States Associated purse seining
Longlines

Analysis

OVERVIEW

Last updated on 14 August 2018

Strengths

The biomass is considered healthy.

There is a catch limit for bigeye tuna caught in the longline fisheries for some countries (China, Japan, Korea, Chinese Taipei).

There is a multi-year conservation plan in place, which has just been extended, for bigeye tuna (and other tuna species).

There is 100% observer coverage on large purse seine vessels operating on the high seas.

Weaknesses

Fishing mortality rates are above sustainable levels.

Formal reference points and harvest control rules (only interim) have not been adopted. 

There are time/area closures in place for the purse seine fleet but these measures are not sufficient to manage the fish aggregating device (FAD) fishery.

Observer coverage (required) in the longline fishery is too low (5%).

There continues to be uncertainty surrounding the stock assessment results.

The longline and purse seine fisheries can interact with ETP species

RECOMMENDATIONS

Last updated on 15 October 2018

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain
  • Work with IATTC Members and Cooperating Non-Members to: 
    • Develop and implement comprehensive, precautionary harvest strategies with specific timelines for all tuna stocks, including the adoption and implementation of limit and target reference points, harvest control rules, monitoring strategies, operational objectives, performance indicators, and management strategy evaluation.
    • Strengthen compliance processes and make information on non-compliance public and continue to provide evidence of compliance with all IATTC Conservation and Management Measures in a timely manner.
    • Implement a 100% observer coverage requirement for at-sea transshipment activities, as well as other measures that ensure transshipment activity is transparent and well-managed, and that all required data are collected and transmitted to the appropriate bodies in a timely manner.
    • Increase compliance with the mandatory minimum 5% longline observer coverage rates by identifying and correcting non-compliance.
    • Implement a 100% observer coverage requirement – human and/or electronic – within five years for longline fisheries.  Adopt a 100% observer coverage requirement for purse seine vessels where it is not already required and require the use of the best-available observer safety equipment, communications and procedures.
    • Adopt effective measures for the use of non-entangling FAD designs as a precautionary measure to minimize the entanglement of sharks and other non-target species, and support research on biodegradable materials and transition to their use to mitigate marine debris. 
    • More effectively implement, and ensure compliance with, existing RFMO bycatch requirements and take additional mitigation action, such as improving monitoring at sea, collecting and sharing operational-level, species-specific data, and adopting stronger compliance measures, including consequences for non-compliance for all gear types.
  • Monitor IATTC progress on assessing alternative indicators and improving the stock assessment model to determine the status of bigeye tuna in the EPO and to develop management advice.
  • Ensure all products are traceable back to legal sources. Verify source information and full chain traceability through traceability desk audits or third party traceability certification. For fisheries without robust traceability systems in place, invest in meaningful improvements to bring the fisheries and supply chain in compliance with best practices.

1.STOCK STATUS

STOCK ASSESSMENT

Last updated on 11 June 2019

A updated stock assessment of bigeye tuna in the Eastern Pacific Ocean (EPO) was conducted during 2018. The assessment was conducted using an age structured model called Stock Synthesis, which has been used in previous assessments.  Because this is an 'updated' assessment, the same base case model from the 2016 assessment was used and only data was updated. Data includes information on catch, discards, catch per unit effort and size composition. New or updated longline data for this assessment were availalbe from China, Japan, Korea, Chinese Taipei, the US, French Polynesia and Vanuatu. The assessment assumes a single stock of bigeye tuna in the EPO, with minimal net movement between the EPO and western and central Pacific Ocean (Xu et al. 2018)

SCIENTIFIC ADVICE

Last updated on 11 June 2019

In 2013 the Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (IATTC) Scientific Committee made the following recommendations to the Commission in 2013 for tunas and sharks: 1. The current tuna management plan should be continued through 2014 because there is evidence that fishing mortality for bigeye tuna may still be too high. 2. A harvest control rule that requires effort to be reduced once fishing mortality exceeds the maximum sustainable yield should be adopted {IATTC 2013a}.

In 2014, the Scientific Committee made several additional recommendations including conducting a feasibility study for sampling lengths from adult tuna on a regular basis, combining observer data into a central database, and analyze movement patterns of bigeye tuna (IATTC 2014). In 2016, the Scientific Committee indicated that the current tuna conservation and management plan should be maintained with the addition of additional purse seine closure days (87 instead of 62)  (IATTC 2016).

The Scientific Committee was unable to provide new management advice for bigeye tuna in 2018 due to considerable uncertainty in the updated stock assessment results (Xu et al. 2018). Instead they suggested a limit on the number of purse seine sets be adopted for the entire fishery (IATTC 2018)

In 2019, due to issues with the yellowfin tuna stock assessment, the IATTC scientific staff was unable to make any management recommendations specific to yellowfin tuna. They instead provided a similar recommendation to that from 2018 to maintain the current management resolution and limit the total number of purse seine (associated and unassociated) sets in 2020 to 15,723  (IATTC 2019). The IATTC Scientific Advisory Committee did not endorse this recommendation from the IATTC staff and provided no additional management advice for yellowfin tuna in 2019 (final report not published yet, personal communication from the meeting).

 
CURRENT STATUS

Last updated on 11 June 2019

The 2017 updated assessment indicated a recovering trend for bigeye tuna in the EPO between 2005-2009 but the rebuilding trend was not sustained between 2010-2013. The spawning biomass ratio (SBR) declined gradually to a historically low value of 0.15 at the start of 2013. The SBR has increased since to 0.23 at the start of 2016. Bigeye tuna are not currently considered overfished in the eastern Pacific Ocean (Xu et al. 2018).

Fishing mortality rates are above the level corresponding to the maximum sustainable yield (MSY). Bigeye tuna in the eastern Pacific Ocean are undergoing overfishing based on this increased fishing mortality rate (Xu et al. 2018)

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

MANAGEMENT

Last updated on 14 August 2018

Management measures specific to pelagic longline fisheries operating in the Eastern Pacific Ocean include catch limits (combined) for bigeye and yellowfin tuna by set type for large purse seine vessels. There are additional catch limits for longline caught bigeye by China, Japan, Korea and Taiwan. IATTC currently uses an interim limit reference point for bigeye tuna but target reference points and harvest control rules are not used. Management measures specific to the purse seine fisheries include a mandatory closure for 72 days during one of two predefined time periods and there is an additional purse seine closure between October 9th and November 8th in the area of 960 and 1100W and between 40N and 30S (IATTC 2017). If a fisheries observer is onboard from the On-Board Observer Program of the Agreement on the International Dolphin Conservation Program (AIDCP), the vessels (182-272 metric tons carrying capacity) can make one 30 day trip during the specified closures dates. An additional time/area closure off the coast of Central and South America for purse seine vessels is also in place {IATTC 2013b}. Discarding bigeye, skipjack and yellowfin tuna is prohibited {IATTC 2013}. Purse seine vessels are also prohibited from setting on data buoys {IATTC 2010}. 

Recovery Plans

The Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (IATTC) has a multi-annual conservation program in place to monitor bigeye tuna populations. The plan was last updated in 2017 for the 2018-2020 fishing seasons (IATTC 2017).

COMPLIANCE

Last updated on 14 August 2018

Individual countries that have been given a catch limit for longline caught bigeye tuna, China, Japan, Korea and Chinese Taipei, have abided by those limits. Other countries have kept their catches below 500 t or at 2001 levels (Xu et al. 2018).

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

BYCATCH
ETP Species

Last updated on 14 August 2018

The longline fisheries operating in the eastern Pacific Ocean (EPO) that capture bigeye tuna can also incidentally catch several species of sea turtles currently listed under CITES Appendix I. Purse seine fisheries have some interactions with sea turtles, but far less than in the longline fisheries. The troll and pole fisheries for bigeye tuna do not incidentally capture any of these species.

Green, hawksbill, leatherback, loggerhead and olive ridley sea turtles have been reported as incidentally captures in longline fisheries operating in the EPO. The International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) classifies green, leatherback and loggerhead turtles as Endangered, hawksbill as Critically Endangered, and olive ridley as Vulnerable (www.iucn.org).

Marine mammal interactions are not common in this fishery.

Several species of seabirds, including black-footed, laysan and waved albatross. Black-footed, laysan albatross are considered Near Threatened by the IUCN and waved albatross as Critically Endangered.

Purse seine (associated) fisheries also incidentally capture a variety of bycatch species including some sea turtles and shark species. Unassociated purse seine fisheries typically have less bycatch associated with them.

The Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (IATTC) has put several management measures aimed at bycatch species into place. IATTC member countries are to implement an International Plan of Action for Seabirds. Two seabird mitigation methods are required on vessels larger than 20 m fishing in specific areas. A 3 year program to reduce the impact of fishing on sea turtles has been put into place. This plan requires reporting of any interaction and carrying of proper handling and release gears. Shark finning is banned (5% rule) and oceanic whitetip sharks are prohibited from being retained (IATTC 2011b)(IATTC 2011c)(IATTC 2005)(IAC 2012). Purse seine fisheries fishing on fish aggregating devices (FADs) must use specific methods designed to avoid entangling sea turtles or other bycatch species. Any interactions must be reported and sea turtles are to be released (IATTC 2012)(IATTC 2007).

The dolphin set fishery has historically had interactions with spinner and pan tropical dolphins. The Agreement of the International Dolphin Conservation Program (AIDCP) was put into place to track this fishery and any dolphin moralities (IATTC 2003).

IATTC
Ecuador
Drifting longlines

Last updated on 14 December 2018

Information from the Ecuador longline observer program indicated that there were 15 observed interactions with sea turtles during 2017 (Ecuado 2018). This included 10 olive ridley, 4 green and 1 unknown sea turtle. Interactions with sea birds were not reported during 2017 by the observer program (Ecuado 2018). The observer coverage rate during 2017 was just over 10% (Ecuado 2018). The required observer coverage rate in the eastern Pacific Ocean, through the IATTC, is 5% (IATTC 2011). The IATTC has a measure in place for sea turtles that requires fishermen to carry safe release materials and to ensure the prompt release of incidentally captured turtles (IATTC 2005). Sea turtles have been nationally protected since 1990, and there is a ban on their capture, processing, and internal and external commercialization (Agreement 212, published on the 12th of December of 1990). The national plan for sea turtle conservation (MAE n.d.) (Ministry Agreement 324, published on the 6th of October of 2014) includes actions to quantify the interactions of longline fisheries with sea turtles, which have not been fulfilled. Conversely, actions for the (i) promotion of circle hooks and (ii) training of fishers in the handling of hooked turtles are at an advanced stage. Import of circle hooks is tax-exempt since 2012; these taxes increased the price of circle hooks, limiting their use.

Other Species

Last updated on 14 August 2018

Eastern Pacific Ocean (EPO) longlines fisheries that capture bigeye tuna also catch a number of other species of fish, including billfish and other tuna species, and sharks. Purse seine fisheries also catch a number of fish and shark species. The troll fishery catches small amounts of other tuna species and fish.

Other common bycatch species in the longline fishery include blue and silky sharks, indo-Pacific sailfish, dolphinfish and swordfish. Blue shark populations are currently healthy in the north Pacific region of the EPO but populations in the south Pacific appear to be in much worse condition. The current status of silky sharks, despite an assessment being conducted, is unknown in this region. The status of indo-Pacific sailfish is also uncertain. Swordfish populations are healthy in both the northern and southern region of the EPO {ISCSWG 2014}{IATTC 2013c}{IATTC 2014b}.

In the purse seine fishery (floating object), yellowtail, mahimahi, rainbow runner and wahoo are common bycatch species. Mahimahi and rainbow runner are also caught in the unassociated fisheries. Assessments have not been conducted on these species, so their status is unknown. Silky and oceanic white tips sharks, along with manta rays (unassociated) are also incidentally caught (Hall and Rowman 2013). No assessments of oceanic whitetip sharks or manta rays have been conducted. Oceanic whitetip sharks are prohibited from being retained and shark finning (5% rule) is prohibited (IATTC 2011c).

IATTC
Ecuador
Drifting longlines

Last updated on 14 December 2018

Several species of sharks and a number of fish species are caught alongside tuna in the Ecuadorian tuna longline fishery. During 2017, 936 t of sharks (N=4,112), compared to 7,939 t of bony fish (N=17,689), were caught. This consisted of 8 individual species (Ecuado 2018). The most commonly captured shark species was the blue shark, followed by the pelagic thresher and silky sharks. For bony fish, 9 species, in addition to the three targeted tunas, were reported as incidentally captured (Ecuado 2018). These considered primarily of swordfish and mahi mahi, which are also retained and targeted during certain times of the year. Observer coverage rate during 2017 was 10.2%, which is above the required 5% through the IATTC (IATTC 2011) (Ecuado 2018). The IATTC has a management measure in place with respect to silky sharks, restricting the bycatch of silky sharks to 20% of the total catch (longline) by fishing trip (IATTC 2016). There is also a management measure in place requiring fishers to submit catch data on silky (and hammerhead) sharks and the use of 'shark lines' is prohibited (IATTC 2016).

HABITAT

Last updated on 30 October 2014

The gears used to capture tuna have no impact on bottom habitats.

FishSource Scores

Last updated on 11 June 2019

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

As calculated for 2018 data.

The score is ≥ 8.

The regional fisheries management organization has adopted a harvest control rule, and interim reference points are in place. There is a tuna conservation and management plan in place that includes bigeye tuna.

As calculated for 2018 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

Managers have followed scientific advice by carrying over the current management plan into 2014 but have not adopted harvest control rules or reference points as of the 2014 Commission meeting.

As calculated for 2018 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

The TAC is only in place for the longline fleet and for four countries. China has exceeded their TAC in recent years, while the other countries catches have remained within their alloted TAC.

STOCK HEALTH:

As calculated for 2017 data.

The score is 8.1.

This measures the Ratio SSB/SSBmsy as a percentage of the SSB=SSBmsy.

The Ratio SSB/SSBmsy is 1.02 . The SSB=SSBmsy is 1.00 .

The underlying Ratio SSB/SSBmsy/SSB=SSBmsy for this index is 102%.

As calculated for 2017 data.

The score is 7.4.

This measures the Ratio F/Fmsy as a percentage of the F management target.

The Ratio F/Fmsy is 1.15 . The F management target is 1.00 .

The underlying Ratio F/Fmsy/F management target for this index is 115%.

ECOSYSTEM IMPACTS

Click on the score to see subscore

Click on the score to see subscore

Click on the score to see subscore

×

Bycatch Subscores

The IATTC requires 5% observer coverage in the longline fishery (IATTC 2011). Ecuador observers around 10% of its longline fishery (Ecuado 2018).

This fishery interacts with several species of sea turtles and sharks (Ecuado 2018) and it is unknown whether these interactions jeopardizes their population.

This fishery interacts with a number of fish and shark species (Ecuado 2018) and it is unclear whether these interactions jeopardize their populations.

There are some management measures in place for sea turtle's and some shark species (IATTC 2005)(IATTC 2016).

×

Habitat Subscores

Information on the where the fishery occurs is well known (Xu et al. 2018).

There is some information on priority habitats (Xu et al. 2018).

The fishery will not reduce the structure and function of the habitat (Chuenpagdee et al. 2003).

There are no measures in place to manage potential impacts on priority habitats.

×

Ecosystem Subscores

There is some reliable information to assess the main impacts of the fishery on the ecosystem structure (Xu et al. 2018)

There is substantial, reliable information to characterize the ecosystem.

No measures are in place to manage the potential impacts of the fishery on the ecosystem.

To see data for biomass, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for catch and tac, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for fishing mortality, please view this site on a desktop.
No data available for recruitment
No data available for recruitment
To see data for management quality, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for stock status, please view this site on a desktop.
DATA NOTES

1) There are country TAC longline limits for China, Japan), Korea  and Taiwan  and other countries must keep catches below 500 t or catch levels from 2001. 3) The time series of F and B is provided relative to MSY (F/FMSY)(B/B[~MSY`]); the thresholds have been set accordingly. 4) Catches are from IATTC Fishery for tunas and billfishes in the 2017 report (IATTC 2017).

Download Source Data

Registered users can download the original data file for calculating the scores after logging in. If you wish, you can Register now.

Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

SELECT FIP

Access FIP Public Report

Progress Rating: C
Evaluation Start Date: 28 Nov 2017
Type: Comprehensive

Comments:

FIP progress rating remains  C. FIP has reported stage 3 activities currently underway. 

1.
FIP Development
Apr 17
2.
FIP Launch
Jul 16
Nov 17
3.
FIP Implementation
Oct 18
4.
Improvements in Fishing Practices and Fishery Management
Verifiable improvement in policy/management and fishing practices
5.
Improvements on the Water
Verifiable improvement on the water
6.
MSC certification (optional)
MSC certificate made public

Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

No related MSC certifications

Sources

Credits

SFP is grateful to the Global Sustainable Supply Chains for Marine Commodities (GMC) project for contributing to the development of this profile. GMC is an interregional initiative implemented by Ministries and Bureaus of Fisheries and Planning of Costa Rica, Ecuador, Indonesia and Philippines, with technical support of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), facilitated by Sustainable Fisheries Partnership (SFP) and funded by the Global Environment Facility (GEF).

  1. Aires-da-Silva, A., and Maunder, M. 2014. Status of bigeye tuna in the eastern Pacific Ocean in 2013 and outlook for the future. IATTC Document SAC-05-08a.
  2. Aires-da-Silva, A., and Maunder, M. 2015. Status of bigeye tuna in the eastern Pacific Ocean in 2014 and outlook for the future. IATTC Document SAC-06-05.
  3. Aires-da-Silva, A., Minte-Vera, C. and Maunder, M.N. 2016. Status of bigeye tuna in the eastern Pacific Ocean in 2015 and outlook for the future. Document SAC-07-05a.
  4. An H-H, Kwon Y-J, Kim DN, Moon DY, Hwang SJ. 2009. Effects of set type on catch of small-sized tuna by the Korean tuna purse seine fishery in the WCPO. Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission Scientific Committee Fifth Regular Session, 10-21 August 2009, Port Vila, Vanuatu. Information Paper Number WCPFC-SC5-2009/FT-WP-02. Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission, Palikir, Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia.
  5. Bromhead D, Foster J, Attard R, Findlay J, Kalish J. 2003.. A review of the impacts of fish aggregating devices (FADs) on tuna fisheries. Final Report to the Fisheries Resources Research Fund. Bureau of Rural Sciences, Canberra, ACT, Australia.
  6. Cramer, J. 2003. Distribution of juvenile swordfish (Xiphias gladius) caught by pelagic longline in the Atlantic Ocean. Col. Vol. Sci. Pap. ICCAT 55(4): 1587-1596.
  7. Dagorn, L., Holland, K.N., Filmalter, J., Are drifting FADs essential for testing the ecological trap hypothesis? Fisheries Research (2010), doi:10.1016/j.fishres.2010.07.002.
  8. FAO. 1997. A Study of the Options for Utilization of Bycatch and Discards from Marine Capture Fisheries. FAO Fisheries Circular C928. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy.
  9. FAO. 2008. Fishing Gear Types. Lift nets. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Fisheries and Aquaculture Department, Rome.
  10. Fonteneau A, Pallares P, Pianet R. 2000. A worldwide review of purse seine fisheries on FADs. In: Le Gall JY, Cayré P, Taquet M (eds) Pêche thonière et dispositifs de concentration de poissons. Actes Colloques‐IFREMER 28:15–35.
  11. Gillett, R. 2010. Replacing Purse Seining with Pole-and-Line Fishing in the Western Pacific: Some Aspects of the Baitfish Requirements. International Seafood Sustainability Foundation, Washington, D.C., USA.
  12. Gilman, E., Lundin, C. 2010. Minimizing Bycatch of Sensitive Species Groups in Marine Capture Fisheries: Lessons from Commercial Tuna Fisheries. Pp. 150-164 IN: Grafton, Q., Hillborn, R., Squires, D., Tait, M., Williams, M. (Eds.). Handbook of Marine Fisheries Conservation and Management. Oxford University Press.
  13. Hall, M. and Roman M. 2013. Bycatch and non-tuna catch in the tropical tuna purse seine fisheries of the world. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Technical Paper 568.
  14. Hallier, J.P., Gaertner, D., 2008. Drifting fish aggregation devices could act as an ecological trap for tropical tuna species. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 353, 255-264.
  15. Inter-American Convention for the Protection and Conservation of Sea Turtles (IAC). 2012. Conservation status and habitat use of sea turtles in the Eastern Pacific Ocean. 3rd Meeting of the Scientific Advisory Committee, 15-18 May, 2012, La Jolla, CA
  16. IATTC. 2005. Resolution on the conservation of sharks caught in association with fisheries in the Eastern Pacific Ocean. Resolution C-05-03.
  17. IATTC. 2007. Resolution to mitigate the impact of tuna fishing vessels on sea turtles. Resolution C-07-03.
  18. IATTC. 2010. Recommendation prohibiting fishing on data buoys. Recommendation C-10-03.
  19. IATTC. 2011a. Resolution on the conservation of oceanic whitetip sharks caught in association with fisheries in the Antigua Convention Area. Resolution C-11-10.
  20. IATTC. 2011b. Resolution to mitigate the impact on seabirds of fishing for species covered by the IATTC. Resolution C-11-02.
  21. IATTC. 2011c. Resolution on the conservation of oceanic whitetip sharks caught in association with fisheries in the Antigua Convention Area. Resolution C-11-10.
  22. IATTC. 2012. Bycatch issues. 2nd Meeting of the Scientific Advisory Committee 9-14 May 2011, La Jolla, CA
  23. IATTC. 2013a. Meeting report. Scientific Meeting, La Jolla, CA, 29 April – 3 May 2013.
  24. IATTC. 2013b. Multiannual program for the conservation of tuna in the Eastern Pacific Ocean during 2014-2016. Resolution C-13-01.
  25. IATTC. 2013c. Status of sailfish in the Eastern Pacific Ocean in 2011 and outlook for the future. Document SAC-04-07c.
  26. IATTC. 2013d. Collection and analyses of data on fish-aggregating devices. Resolution C-13-04.
  27. IATTC. 2014. Fishery status report No. 12. IATTA, La Jolla, CA.
  28. IATTC. 2014b. Scientific Advisory Committee Fifth Meeting. La Jolla, California 12-16 May 2014. Available at:http://www.iattc.org/Meetings/Meetings2014/MAYSAC/PDFs/SAC-05-May-2014-Meeting-report.pdf
  29. IATTC. 2015. Recommendations by the staff for conservation measures in the eastern Pacific Ocean, 2015. Document SAC-06-11.
  30.  
  31. IATTC. 2016. Recommendations by the staff for conservation measures in the eastern Pacific Ocean, 2016. Document SAC-07-08.
  32. IATTC. 2017. Conservation of tuna in the Eastern Pacific Ocean during 2017. Resolution C-17-01. http://www.iattc.org/PDFFiles2/Resolutions/C-17-01-Tuna-conservation-2017.pdf
  33. IOTC. 2002. Resolution 02/08 on the Conservation of Bigeye and Yellowfin Tuna in the Indian Ocean. Indian Ocean Tuna Commission, Mahé, Seychelles.
  34. ISCSWG. 2014. Stock assessment and future projections of blue shark in the North Pacific Ocean. Report of the Shark Working Group. International Scientific Committee for Tuna and Tuna-like species in the North Pacific Ocean. 16-21 July 2014 Taipei, Chinese-Taipei.
  35. Marsac, F., Fonteneau A., Ménard, F., 2000. Drifting FADs used in tuna fisheries: and ecological trap? In: Le Gall, J.Y., Cayré, P., Taquet, M. (Eds.), Pêche thonière et dispositifs de concentration de poisons. Actes Colloques-IFREMER. 28, 537-552.
  36. Nicol S., Lawson T., Briand K., Kirby D., Molony B., Bromhead D., Williams P., Schneiter E., Kumoru L., Hampton J. 2009. Characterisation of the tuna purse seine fishery in Papua New Guinea. Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, Canberra, Australia. ISBN 978 1 921531 77 4.
  37. PNA. 2008. A Third Arrangement Implementing the Nauru Agreement Setting Forth Additional Terms and Conditions of Access to the Fisheries Zones of the Parties. Parties to the Nauru Agreement Concerning Cooperation in the Management of Fisheries of Common Interest, 16 May 2008, Koror, Palau.
  38. Romanov, E. 2002. Bycatch in the tuna purse-seine fisheries of the western Indian Ocean. Fish. Bull. 100(1): 90-105.
  39. Secretariat of the Pacific Community. 2006. Preliminary Review of the Western and Central Pacific Ocean Purse Seine Fishery. Prepared for the Internal Meeting of Pacific Island Parties to the South Pacific Regional U.S. Multilateral Treaty, March 6-8, Honolulu, Hawaii. Oceanic Fisheries Programme, Secretariat of the Pacific Community, Noumea, New Caledonia. 18 pp.
  40. Ward, P., Porter, J., Elscot, S. 2008. Broadbill swordfish: status of established fisheries and lessons for developing fisheries. Fish and Fisheries 1(4): 317-336.
  41.  
References

    Comments

    This tab will disappear in 5 seconds.

    Comments on:

    Bigeye tuna - Eastern Pacific, IATTC, Ecuador, Drifting longlines

    comments powered by Disqus