Last updated on 13 January 2016

SUMMARY

SUMMARY

IDENTIFICATION

SCIENTIFIC NAME(s)

Thunnus alalunga

SPECIES NAME(s)

Albacore

The North Pacific albacore population is considered to be biologically separate from the South Pacific population. This is based on fishery, tagging, ecological and genetic data (ISC 2014).


ANALYSIS

Strengths

Based on the most recent stock assessment (2014), albacore in the North Pacific are likely not overfished and not undergoing overfishing. It has been recommended by the ISC Albacore Working Group (http://isc.ac.affrc.go.jp/working_groups/albacore.html) that fishing mortality rates should be maintained at current levels and that current management measures should be maintained (AWG 2014).

Weaknesses

Target and limit reference points have not been formally adopted and there is no harvest control rule in place. Data reporting from some countries (China and South Korea highlighted during 2011 assessment), specifically with regard to effort data, need to be improved. The last assessment noted that additional information on sex-specific size data, updated estimates on maturity and natural mortality rates and spatial analysis, could potentially improve assessment results. Albacore’s range spans multiple regional fishery management organizations (RFMOs)(Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission (WCPFC) and Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (IATTC)). The Convention texts from these two RFMO’s calls for cooperation in the management of albacore throughout its migratory range. The 2005 management measures in place for albacore through the WCPFC and IATTC call for members not to increase fishing effort beyond “current effort” but neither defined explicitly what “current” means. In 2013 IATTC adopted a supplemental resolution to define “current effort” but the WCPFC has yet to follow suit. Information on bycatch in longline fisheries is limited due to low observer coverage (5%).

FISHSOURCE SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

≥ 6

Managers Compliance:

≥ 8

Fishers Compliance:

≥ 6

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

≥ 8

Future Health:

9.3


RECOMMENDATIONS

RETAILERS & SUPPLY CHAIN
  • Identify and rectify issues that are preventing the MSC certification conditions from being closed out in the agreed timeframe. Offer assistance in closing conditions where possible.
  • Work with Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission (WCPFC) and Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (IATTC) Members, Cooperating Non-Members, and Participating Territories to: 
    • Develop and implement comprehensive, precautionary harvest strategies with specific timelines for all tuna stocks, including the adoption and implementation of limit and target reference points, harvest control rules, monitoring strategies, operational objectives, performance indicators, and management strategy evaluation.
    • Strengthen compliance processes and make information on non-compliance public and continue to provide evidence of compliance with all WCPFC and IATTC Conservation and Management Measures in a timely manner.
    • Implement a 100% observer coverage requirement for at-sea transshipment activities, as well as other measures that ensure transshipment activity is transparent and well-managed, and that all required data are collected and transmitted to the appropriate bodies in a timely manner.
    • Increase compliance with the mandatory minimum 5% longline observer coverage rates by identifying and correcting non-compliance.
    • Implement a 100% observer coverage requirement – human and/or electronic – within five years for longline fisheries.  Adopt a 100% observer coverage requirement for purse seine vessels where it is not already required and require the use of the best-available observer safety equipment, communications and procedures.
    • Adopt effective measures for the use of non-entangling FAD designs as a precautionary measure to minimize the entanglement of sharks and other non-target species, and support research on biodegradable materials and transition to their use to mitigate marine debris. 
    • More effectively implement, and ensure compliance with, existing RFMO bycatch requirements and take additional mitigation action, such as improving monitoring at sea, collecting and sharing operational-level, species specific data, and adopting stronger compliance measures, including consequences for non-compliance for all gear types.
  • Ensure all products are traceable back to legal sources. Verify source information and full chain traceability through traceability desk audits or third party traceability certification. For fisheries without robust traceability systems in place, invest in meaningful improvements to bring the fisheries and supply chain in compliance with best practices.

    FIPS

    No related FIPs

    CERTIFICATIONS

    • Canadian Highly Migratory Species Foundation (CHMSF) British Columbia albacore tuna North Pacific :

      MSC Recertified

    Fisheries

    Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

    ASSESSMENT UNIT MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
    North Pacific Hong Kong Hong Kong Longlines
    IATTC Canada Hooks and lines
    Trolling lines
    China Longlines
    Japan Associated purse seining
    Longlines
    Mechanized lines
    Pole-lines hand operated
    Unassociated purse seining
    Korea, Republic of Longlines
    Panama Longlines
    Spain Trolling lines
    Taiwan, Province of China Longlines
    United States Drifting longlines
    Handlines hand operated
    Hooks and lines
    Longlines
    Mechanized lines
    Trolling lines
    Viet Nam Viet Nam Handlines hand operated
    WCPFC China Longlines
    Japan Longlines
    Mechanized lines
    Pole-lines hand operated
    Korea, Republic of Longlines
    Papua New Guinea Longlines
    Philippines Pole-lines hand operated
    Pole-lines mechanized
    Taiwan, Province of China Longlines
    United States Drifting longlines
    Handlines hand operated
    Hooks and lines
    Longlines
    Mechanized lines
    Trolling lines
    Vanuatu Longlines

    Analysis

    OVERVIEW

    Last updated on 6 August 2014

    Strengths

    Based on the most recent stock assessment (2014), albacore in the North Pacific are likely not overfished and not undergoing overfishing. It has been recommended by the ISC Albacore Working Group (http://isc.ac.affrc.go.jp/working_groups/albacore.html) that fishing mortality rates should be maintained at current levels and that current management measures should be maintained (AWG 2014).

    Weaknesses

    Target and limit reference points have not been formally adopted and there is no harvest control rule in place. Data reporting from some countries (China and South Korea highlighted during 2011 assessment), specifically with regard to effort data, need to be improved. The last assessment noted that additional information on sex-specific size data, updated estimates on maturity and natural mortality rates and spatial analysis, could potentially improve assessment results. Albacore’s range spans multiple regional fishery management organizations (RFMOs)(Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission (WCPFC) and Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (IATTC)). The Convention texts from these two RFMO’s calls for cooperation in the management of albacore throughout its migratory range. The 2005 management measures in place for albacore through the WCPFC and IATTC call for members not to increase fishing effort beyond “current effort” but neither defined explicitly what “current” means. In 2013 IATTC adopted a supplemental resolution to define “current effort” but the WCPFC has yet to follow suit. Information on bycatch in longline fisheries is limited due to low observer coverage (5%).

    RECOMMENDATIONS

    Last updated on 30 October 2018

    Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain
    • Work with Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission (WCPFC) and Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (IATTC) Members, Cooperating Non-Members, and Participating Territories to: 
      • Develop and implement comprehensive, precautionary harvest strategies with specific timelines for all tuna stocks, including the adoption and implementation of limit and target reference points, harvest control rules, monitoring strategies, operational objectives, performance indicators, and management strategy evaluation.
      • Strengthen compliance processes and make information on non-compliance public and continue to provide evidence of compliance with all WCPFC and IATTC Conservation and Management Measures in a timely manner.
      • Implement a 100% observer coverage requirement for at-sea transshipment activities, as well as other measures that ensure transshipment activity is transparent and well-managed, and that all required data are collected and transmitted to the appropriate bodies in a timely manner.
      • Increase compliance with the mandatory minimum 5% longline observer coverage rates by identifying and correcting non-compliance.
      • Implement a 100% observer coverage requirement – human and/or electronic – within five years for longline fisheries.  Adopt a 100% observer coverage requirement for purse seine vessels where it is not already required and require the use of the best-available observer safety equipment, communications and procedures.
      • Adopt effective measures for the use of non-entangling FAD designs as a precautionary measure to minimize the entanglement of sharks and other non-target species, and support research on biodegradable materials and transition to their use to mitigate marine debris. 
      • More effectively implement, and ensure compliance with, existing RFMO bycatch requirements and take additional mitigation action, such as improving monitoring at sea, collecting and sharing operational-level, species specific data, and adopting stronger compliance measures, including consequences for non-compliance for all gear types.
    • Ensure all products are traceable back to legal sources. Verify source information and full chain traceability through traceability desk audits or third party traceability certification. For fisheries without robust traceability systems in place, invest in meaningful improvements to bring the fisheries and supply chain in compliance with best practices.
    IATTC
    Canada
    Trolling lines

    Last updated on 30 October 2018

    Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain
    • Identify and rectify issues that are preventing the MSC certification conditions from being closed out in the agreed timeframe. Offer assistance in closing conditions where possible.

    1.STOCK STATUS

    STOCK ASSESSMENT

    Last updated on 6 August 2014

    The North Pacific albacore tuna population resides above the equator in the Northern Hemisphere and is harvested across its range. Stock assessments for North Pacific albacore tuna are conducted by the Albacore Working Group (ALBWG) of the International Scientific Committee (ISC) for Tuna and Tuna-like Species in the North Pacific Ocean. A body formed by agreement by the governments of Japan and USA in 1995. The most recent stock assessment for North Pacific albacore tuna was conducted by the  ISC in 2014. The previous assessment for this species was conducted by ISC in 2011.

    The 2014 stock assessment was conducted using a length and age based integrated statistical stock assessment model fitted to indices of abundance from Japan (pole and line and longline). The assessment included new stock-recruitment estimates, sex-specific growth models and updated catch and effort data through 2012 {AWG 2014}.

    SCIENTIFIC ADVICE

    Last updated on 6 August 2014

    North Pacific albacore tuna are considered to be healthy at current recruitment and fishing mortality levels. The latest stock assessment indicated that increasing fishing mortality rates above current levels will not result in an increase in yield (proportional) but would result in reduced spawning stock biomass. Members of the albacore working group therefore recommended maintaining the current management measures. In addition, they suggested several research recommendations. These included research into age and growth modeling, spatial pattern analyses, CPUE analyses, maturity studies, resolving data issues and making model improvements (AWG 2014).

    Reference Points

    Last updated on 06 Aug 2014

    There is currently no biomass based reference point for North Pacific albacore tuna. However, an interim management measure to keep the spawning stock biomass (SSB) of North Pacific tuna above the average of the ten historically lowest estimated points (SSB-ATHL) threshold during a 25 year projection period was put into place in 2008.

    The target fishing mortality reference point is FSSB-ATHL50%, which is the fishing mortality rate that would lead to future minimum SSB falling below the SSB-ATHL threshold level at least once during a projection period (2010-2035). This is a simulation based biological reference point, meaning it does not assume SSB remains constant during the projections. In addition, there are a number of potential reference points that are used to ascertain the status of the population (AWG 2014).

    Reference PointF2010-2012/FRPSSBEquilibrium yield (t)
    FSSB-ATHL0.72100,34490,256
    F[~MSY~}0.5249,680105,571
    F0.10.5173,38093,939
    FMED1.301152,29174,640
    F10%0.6322,86796,590
    F20%0.7154,530105,418
    F30%0.8186,19299,612
    F40%0.94117,85589,568
    F50%1.13149,51777,429
    CURRENT STATUS

    Last updated on 25 July 2013

    Albacore tuna in the North Pacific are likely not overfished or experiencing overfishing {AWG 2014}.

    Trends

    Last updated on 25 Jul 2013

    The spawning stock biomass (SSB) of albacore in the North Pacific Ocean shows three general trends, one in the beginning (1966-1970’s) of the time series, one in the middle (1980’s) and one at the end (1990’s to 2009).The SSB was high (~400,000 t) during the first stage, declined during the middle (~300,000 t) and has been higher again during the most recent time period, reaching a record high of 504,000 t in 1999.The total stock biomass has declined since around 1971 from 1 million t to 500,000 t during the late 1980’s.The total biomass increased to 1.2 million t by 1996 but has since declined to around 800,000 t. Recruitment has averaged around 48 million t since 1966.Low recruitment rates occurred from 1978 to 1987, while high recruitment occurred during two separate time periods, 1966-1977 and 1988-2009 (ISC 2011). The estimated SSB of females in 2012 was 110,101 t {AWG 2014}.

    2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

    MANAGEMENT

    Last updated on 29 December 2009

    Management measures for albacore tuna in the North Pacific have not been changed since 2005.According to the 2005 Conservation and Management Measure (CMM) adopted by the Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission (WCPFC), current catch levels were to be maintained for long-term sustainability of the stock.Under this CMM, the WCPFC was also asked to work with members of the Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission to agree on consistent management measures for the North Pacific population {WCPFC 2005a}. In 2013, IATTC adopted a new resolution requiring member countries to report the average catches of North Pacific albacore tuna between 2007 and 2012 by gear type, along with a list of vessels that fish for albacore in the North Pacific {IATTC 2013}.

    Recovery Plans

    Last updated on 29 Dec 2009

    North Pacific albacore tuna are not overfished or undergoing overfishing and there is no recovery plan in place (ISC 2011).

    IATTC
    Canada
    Trolling lines

    Last updated on 25 April 2011

    Canada has developed a management plan in the North Pacific, which uses a risk averse and precautionary manner, based on the best scientific advice, to conserve albacore tuna populations {FOC 2012}. The majority of Canadian troll vessels fish in coastal waters of Canada and the United States but some fishing does occur in international waters managed by the Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission (WCPFC) and Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (IATTC). There are few international management measures in place for albacore tuna in the North Pacific Ocean. Measures were adopted by the WCPFC and IATTC in 2005 and have not been updated since then. Those management measures included maintaining current catch levels in order to maintain the long-term sustainability of the stock and the WCPFC was to work with members of the IATTC to agree on consistent management measures for the North Pacific population {IATTC 2005}{WCPFC 2005}. In 2013, IATTC adopted a new resolution requiring member countries to report the average catches of North Pacific albacore tuna between 2007 and 2012 by gear type, along with a list of vessels that fish for albacore in the North Pacific {IATTC 2013}. Within Canadian waters, albacore tuna are managed under the Pacific Region Integrated Fisheries Management plan Albacore Tuna, under Fisheries and Oceans Canada. Canada has recently begun using a new fishery decision-making framework to include precautionary measures into policies. Under this plan, there is a treaty between the United States and Canada, allowing Canadian fishermen to fish in US waters during certain times of the year, and there are a limited number of vessels allowed under this treaty. In addition, there are fishing seasons, area restrictions and catch and effort reporting requirements {FOC 2012}.

    COMPLIANCE

    Last updated on 24 July 2013

    The Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission (WCPFC) has a compliance monitoring scheme in place that assess’s members compliance with obligations, identifies areas of conservation and management that may need refinement, responds to non-compliance and monitors and resolves non-compliance issues. The Commission evaluates compliance by members annually with respect to: catch and effort limits and reporting for target species, spatial and temporal closures, observer and Vessel Monitoring Systems (VMS) coverage and provision of scientific data {WCPFC 2012d}. However, the WCPFC has historically not made this information publicly availalbe. For the first time in 2013 the Commission did publish information on compliance by individual countries {WCPFC 2013c}. The Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (IATTC) has a compliance monitoring plan that includes collecting information from member nations on compliance and enforcement of measures, requiring a plan of action to improve any issues from member nations not under compliance, and allows the Commission to develop sanctions and incentives to improve compliance {IATTC 2011a}.

    Vessel Monitoring Systems are required on all vessels fishing for highly migratory species in the western and central Pacific Ocean south of 20N and east of 175E. The area north of 20N and west of 175W will have an activation date for VMS’s set at a later time {WCPFC 2012e}. There are measures in place allowing for the boarding and inspection of vessels in the Convention Area {WCPFC 2006} and the WCPFC maintains a list of illegal, unreported and unregulated vessels {WCPFC 2010b}. In the eastern Pacific Ocean, vessels larger than 24 m in length must use VMS {IATTC 2004} and a list of IUU vessels is maintained {IATTC 2005}. However, assessing the effectiveness of these enforcement measures is difficult because there is a general lack in the transparency of information with regards to surveillance activities, infractions and enforcement actions and outcomes {Gilman et al. 2013}.

    IATTC
    Canada
    Trolling lines

    Last updated on 14 July 2014

    All Canadian tuna vessels greater than 24 m in length are required to be equipped with VMS while fishing in the Pacific Ocean east of 150 degrees east longitude. Vessel master have to report to DFO (Hail requirements) before going on a fishing trip (MSC 2011); Vessel master are required to generate Fish Slip at the first point of landing to ensure accurate estimation of catches each year (MSC 2010). Under Section 68 of the license, Canadian vessels are also allowed to land catches in US ports when majority of it is taken in US EEZ as part of the US/Canada Albacore tuna treaty (PRIFMP 2009, 2011).

    3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

    BYCATCH
    ETP Species

    Last updated on 29 December 2009

    Green, hawksbill and leatherback sea turtles are currently listed on CITES Appendix I, meaning they are threatened with extinction and international trade is banned. In addition, the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) has listed green turtles as Endangered and hawksbill and leatherback turtles as Critically Endangered. Leatherback turtles have also been listed as Endangered on the Endangered Species Act since 1970 and Olive Ridley turtles as Threatened since 1978. Bottlenose dolphins can also be incidentally caught in this fishery and have been listed on CITES Appendix II (Martinez 2000)(Seminoff 2004)(Marine Turtle Specialist Group 2006)(Mortimer and Donnelly 2008)(NMFS 2012).

    In addition to these species that are protected through global measures, several bird species and additional marine mammals are incidentally captured in this fishery. This includes black-footed and Laysan albatross and humpback whales (Molony 2005) (OFP 2010).

    The Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission (WCPFC) and Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (IATTC) have adopted several management measures to protect vulnerable bycatch species. For example, WCPFC and IATTC members are asked to implement the International Plan of Action for Reducing Incidental Catches of Seabirds in Longline Fisheries. Vessels fishing north of 23N in the Western and Central Pacific Ocean (WCPO) and Eastern Pacific Ocean (EPO) are required to use at least two mitigation measures including at least one of the following: side setting, night setting, tori line or weighted branch line. Members must submit annual reports detailing the mitigation measures used and are encouraged to undertake additional mitigation research {IATTC 2011}{WCPFC 2012f}. Members of both the WCPFC and IATTC are also to implement the FAO Guidelines to Reduce Sea Turtle Mortality in Fishing Operations. Proper handling and release guidelines should be used when hard-shell turtles are incidentally captured and longline vessels must carry line cutters and de-hookers to allow for the safe handling and release of turtles. Longline fisheries are also urged to research mitigation techniques such as the use of circle hooks {WCPFC 2008}{IATTC 2006}. In addition, fisheries observers record and report interactions with seabirds and turtles {IATTC 2011b}{WCPFC 2012f}{WCPFC 2008}.

    Incidental captures of protected, endangered and threatened species in troll and pole fisheries and handline fisheries are uncommon.

    IATTC
    Canada
    Trolling lines

    Last updated on 14 July 2014

    Bycatch in the North Pacific albacore troll and pole fishery is minimal, representing typically less than 1% of the total catch (Kelleher 2005).Bycatch does not typically include any species of concern, such as sea birds, sea turtles, or marine mammals, although sharks may be incidentally caught {Holmes 2012}.

    Other Species

    Last updated on 7 May 2013

    Several species of tunas, sharks, billfish and other fish are caught as bycatch species in the North Pacific albacore fisheries. In the North Pacific albacore pelagic longline fishery, discard rates for tuna ranged from 0-35%, for billfish from 3-44%, for sharks and rays from 0-100%, 0-100% for other bony fish, 100% for marine mammals, sea birds and turtles {OFP 2010}. Discard rates in tuna troll and pole and line fisheries are very low, around 0.1 to 0.4% (Kelleher 2005).

    Several tuna species are also caught in the albacore longline fishery, including bigeye and yellowfin tuna. Overfishing is currently occurring on bigeye tuna {Davies et al. 2011} but yellowfin and skipjack tuna populations are healthy {Langley et al. 2011}. Common shark bycatch species include blue, shortfin mako, silky and oceanic whitetip sharks. Both silky and oceanic whitetip sharks are overfished and undergoing overfishing {Rice and Harley 2012a,b}. Incidentally captured billfish species include, swordfish, black, blue and striped marlin {OFP 2010}. Striped marlin are currently in an overfished state{Lee et al. 2012}. In addition to these species, several bony fish including mahi-mahi, opah and wahoo {OFP 2010}}.

    There are few management measures in place to protect these bycatch species (other than tuna). Members are prohibited from retaining, transshipping, storing or landing oceanic whitetip sharks and any incidentally caught sharks should be released, the incident recorded and reported {WCPFC 2012h}. Members are also to implement the FAO International Plan of Action for the Conservation and Management of Sharks and National Plans of Action should have policies in place to reduce waste and discarding of sharks. Information on catch and effort for key species is to be reported. Shark finning is banned (5% ratio) {WCPFC 2010a}.

    IATTC
    Canada
    Trolling lines

    Last updated on 25 April 2011

    Bycatch in the Canadian troll fishery typically comprises as little as less than 0.002% of the actual catch as per logbook records (Holmes 2009; NMFS 2007). Bycatch in the Canadian North Pacific albacore troll fishery during 2011, consisted of 10 albacore tuna considered too small, 8 blue sharks, 2 shortfin mako sharks, 6 Pacific Bluefin tuna, 1 bigeye tuna, 2 dolphin fish and 42 yellowtail, all of which were released alive. This represented 0.02% of the total catch by weight {Holmes 2012}.

    HABITAT

    Last updated on 29 December 2009

    Pelagic longlines typically fish on or near the ocean surface and therefore are not likely to contact bottom habitats. However, contact with the seabed can occur in shallow-set fisheries, such as the Hawaiian shallow-set fishery (Passfield and Gilman 2010) (Gilman et al. 2012). Troll and pole fishing has a negligible impact to bottom habitats (Morgan and Chupengadee 2003).

    Marine Reserves

    Last updated on 29 Dec 2009

    There are no marine reserves for longline or troll and pole fisheries in the North Pacific Ocean.

    FishSource Scores

    Last updated on 14 February 2018

    MANAGEMENT QUALITY

    As calculated for 2012 data.

    The score is ≥ 6.

    There is no biomass based reference point in place and no harvest control rule.

    As calculated for 2012 data.

    The score is ≥ 8.

    The scientific advice is that current management measures should be maintained.

    As calculated for 2012 data.

    The score is ≥ 6.

    The stock is not managed through quotas or TACs

    STOCK HEALTH:

    As calculated for 2012 data.

    The score is ≥ 8.

    The biomass is at healthy levels

    As calculated for 2012 data.

    The score is 9.3.

    This measures the Ratio F/Fmsy as a percentage of the F management limit.

    The Ratio F/Fmsy is 0.520 . The F management limit is 0.760 .

    The underlying Ratio F/Fmsy/F management limit for this index is 68.4%.

    To see data for biomass, please view this site on a desktop.
    To see data for catch and tac, please view this site on a desktop.
    To see data for fishing mortality, please view this site on a desktop.
    No data available for recruitment
    No data available for recruitment
    To see data for management quality, please view this site on a desktop.
    To see data for stock status, please view this site on a desktop.
    DATA NOTES

    There are no TACs in place, but the population is healthy, thus qualitative scores have been assigned for scores 1, 2 and 3. The latest stock assessment was conducted in 2014. Catch values are from WCPFC 2013. Score 4 is qualitative because there is no biomass based reference point. The values presented are depletion values (SSB/SSB0) and the fishing mortality rate is for the FMSY proxy {AWG 2014}.

    Download Source Data

    Registered users can download the original data file for calculating the scores after logging in. If you wish, you can Register now.

    Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

    No related FIPs

    Certifications

    Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

    SELECT MSC

    NAME

    Canadian Highly Migratory Species Foundation (CHMSF) British Columbia albacore tuna North Pacific

    STATUS

    MSC Recertified on 22 March 2010

    SCORES

    This fishery was recertified by the Marine Stewardship Council system in March 2010 and re-certified in June 2015.

    Principle Level Scores:

    Principle Score
    Principle 1 – Target Species 85.0
    Principle 2 - Ecosystem 95.7
    Principle 3 – Management System 91.5

    Certification Type: Bronze

    Sources

    Credits
    1. Albacore Working Group (AWG). 2014. Stock assessment of albacore tuna in the North Pacific ocean in 2014. WCPFC-SC10-2014/SA-WP-12. http://www.wcpfc.int/system/files/SC10-SA-WP-12%20North%20Pacific%20Albacore%20Assmt%20Report%202014.pdf
    2. Brodziak, J. and Ishimura, G. 2010. Stock assessment of North Pacific swordfish (Xiphias gladius) in 2009. Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center Administrative Report H-10-01. 43 p.PIFSC_Admin_Rep_10-01.pdf
    3. Chang J.H. and Liu, K.M. 2009. Stock assessment of the shortfin mako (Isurus oxyrinchus) in the Northwest Pacific Ocean using per recruit and virtual population analyses. Fisheries Research 98:92-101.http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0165783609000940
    4. Clarke, S. 2011. A status snapshot of key shark species in the Western and Central Pacific and potential management options. Scientific Committee Seventh Regular Session, 9-17 August 2011, Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia. WCPFC-SC7-EB-WP-04. 37 p.EB-WP-04__A_Status_Snapshot_of_key_shark_species_.pdf
    5. Collette, B., Acero, A., Amorim, A.F., Boustany, A., Canales Ramirez, C., Cardenas, G., Carpenter, K.E., de Oliveira Leite Jr., N., Di Natale, A., Die, D., Fox, W., Fredou, F.L., Graves, J., Guzman-Mora, A., Viera Hazin, F.H., Hinton, M., Juan Jorda, M., Kada, O., Minte Vera, C., Miyabe, N., Montano Cruz, R., Nelson, R., Oxenford, H., Restrepo, V., Salas, E., Schaefer, K., Schratwieser, J., Serra, R., Sun, C., Teixeira Lessa, R.P., Pires Ferreira Travassos, P.E., Uozumi, Y. & Yanez, E. 2011c. Acanthocybium solandri. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/170331/0
    6. Collette, B., Acero, A., Amorim, A.F., Boustany, A., Canales Ramirez, C.,et al. 2011a. Makaira nigricans. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2.http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/summary/170314/0
    7. Collette, B., Acero, A., Amorim, A.F., Boustany, A., Canales Ramirez, C., et al. 2011b. Coryphaena hippurus. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2.http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/154712/0
    8. Davies, N., Hoyle, S., Harley, S., Langley, A., Kleiber, P., and Hampton, J. 2011. Stock assessment of bigeye tuna in the Western and Central Pacific Ocean. Scientific Committee Seventh Regular Session, 9-17 August, 2011, Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia. WCPFC-SC7-2011/SA-WP-02. 133 p.SC7-SA-WP-02__BET_Assessment_.pdf
    9. Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO). 2012. Fishstat J database. Food and Agriculture Organisation, Rome, Itsly. Accessed April, 2013.http://www.fao.org/fishery/statistics/software/fishstatj/en
    10. Gilman, E., Chaloupka, M., Read, A., Dalzell, P., Holetschek, J., Curtice, C. 2012. Hawaii longline tuna fishery temporal trends in standardized catch rates and length distributions and effects on pelagic and seamount ecosystems. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 22: 446-488.https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&pid=sites&srcid=ZGVmYXVsdGRvbWFpbnxwdWJsaWNhdGlvbnNlcmljZ2lsbWFufGd4OjUwZjVlMjliYmMxMTAzZWE
    11. Gilman, E., Pasfield, K. and Nakamura, K. 2013. Performance of regional fisheries management organizations: ecosystem-based governance of bycatch and discards. Fish and Fisheries DOI:10.1111/faf.12021MP_Gilman_2011_Tuna-RFMO_bycatch_govern.pdf
    12. Hoyle, S., Kleiber, P., Davies, N., Langley, A. and Hampton, J. 2011. Stock assessment of skipjack tuna in the western and central Pacific Ocean. Scientific Committee Seventh Regular Session, 9-17 August, 2011, Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia. WCPFC-SC7-2011/SA-WP-04. 134 p.SC-7-SA-WP-04__SKJ_Assessment-rev1_.pdf
    13. Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (IATTC). 2004. Resolution on the establishment of a vessel monitoring system (VMS). Resolution c-04-06, 72nd Reunion, Lima Peru.http://www.iattc.org/PDFFiles2/Resolutions/C-04-06-Vessel-monitoring-system.pdf
    14. Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (IATTC). 2005. Resolution to establish a list of vessels presumed to have carried out illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing activities in the eastern Pacific Ocean. Resolution C-05-07. 73rd Meeting, Lanzarote, Spain, 20-24 June 2005.http://www.iattc.org/PDFFiles2/Resolutions/C-05-07-IUU-Vessel-list.pdf
    15. Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (IATTC). 2006. Consolidated resolution on bycatch. Resolution C-04-05 (Rev 2). 74th Meeting, Pusan, Korea. 26-30 June 2006.http://www.iattc.org/PDFFiles2/Resolutions/C-04-05-REV-2-Bycatch-Jun-2006.pdf
    16. Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (IATTC). 2011a. Resolution on the process for improved compliance of resolutions adopted by the Commission. Resolution C-11-07. 82nd Meeting, La Jolla, CA, 4-8 July 2011.http://www.iattc.org/PDFFiles2/Resolutions/C-11-07-Compliance.pdf
    17. Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (IATTC). 2011b. Resolution on scientific observers for longline vessels. Resolution C-11-08. 82nd Meeting, La Jolla, CA, 4-8 2011.http://www.iattc.org/PDFFiles2/Resolutions/C-11-08-Observers-on-longline-vessels.pdf
    18. Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (IATTC). 2013. Resolution C-13-03 Supplemental resolution on North Pacific albacore. 85th Meeting, Veracruz, Mexico, June 10-14, 2013.
    19. ISC (International Scientific Committee for Tuna and Tuna-Like Species in the North Pacific Ocean). 2007. Report of the Albacore Working Group Workshop. Shimizu, Japan. 72p.http://www.pcouncil.org/wp-content/uploads/F4a_ATT2.pdf
    20. ISC (International Scientific Committee for Tuna and Tuna-Like Species in the North Pacific Ocean). 2011. Stock assessment of albacore tuna in the North Pacific Ocean in 2011, Report of the Albacore Working Group Stock Assessment Workshop, Annex 9, International Scientific Committee for Tuna and Tuna-like Species in the North Pacific Ocean, 4-11 June 2011http://isc.ac.affrc.go.jp/pdf/ISC11pdf/Annex_9_ISC11_ALBWG_Stock%20Assessment%20Workshop%20Report_FINAL_complete.pdf
    21. Kelleher, K. 2005. Discards in the world's marine fisheries. An update. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper No. 470. Rome, FAO. 131 p.ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/008/y5936e/y5936e00.pdf
    22. Kleiber, P., Clarke, S., Bigelow, K., Nakano, H., McAllister, M. and Takeuichi, Y. 2009. North Pacific blue shark stock assessment. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-PIFSC-17. 83 p.north_pac_blue_shark.pdf
    23. Kleiber, P., Hinton, M.G and Uozumi, Y. 2003. Stock assessment of blue marlin (Makaira nigricans) in the Pacific using MULTIFAN-CL. Marine and Freshwater Research 54: 349-360.north_pac_blue_shark.pdf
    24. Langley, A., Hoyle, S. and Hampton, J. 2011. Stock assessment of yellowfin tuna in the Western and Central pacific Ocean. Scientific Committee Seventh Regular Session, 9-17 August 2011, Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia. WCPFC-SC7-2011/SA-WP-03. 135p.SC7-SA-WP-03__Yellowfin_tuna_stock_assessment-rev.1_-_03Aug2011_.pdf
    25. Lawson, T. 2001. Observer data held by the Oceanic Fisheries Programme covering tuna fishery bycatches in the western and central Pacific Ocean. 14th Meeting of the the Standing Committee on Tuna and Billfish, 9-16 August 2001, Numea, New Caledonia. SWG-9. 42 p.SWG_9.pdf
    26. Lee, H., Piner, K.R., Humphreys, R. and Brodziak, J. 2012. Stock assessment of striped marlin in the western and central North Pacific Ocean in 2011. Report of the Billfish Working Group Stock Assessment Workshop. International Scientific Committee for Tuna and Tuna-like Species in the North Pacific Ocean. ISC-BILLWG_2011_Stock_Assessment_of_Striped_Marlin.pdf
    27. Marine Turtle Specialist Group (MTSG).1996. Caretta caretta. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2.http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/3897/0
    28. Marine Turtle Specialist Group (MTSG). 2006. Caretta caretta. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2.http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/3897/0
    29. Martinez, A.L. 2000. Dermochelys coriacea. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2.http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/6494/0
    30. Molony, B. 2005. Estimates of the mortality of non-target species with an initial focus on seabirds, turtles and sharks. First meeting of the Scientific Committee of the western and central Pacific Fisheries Commission, 9-19 August 2005. WCPFC-SC1. 84 p.wcp_bycatch.pdf
    31. Morgan, LE. And Chuenpagdee, R. 2003. Shifting gears: addressing the collateral impacts of fishing methods in US waters. Pew Science Series.Washington D.C., Island Press.collaterol_damage_of_fishing_gear.pdf
    32. Mortimer, J.A & Donnelly, M. (IUCN SSC Marine Turtle Specialist Group). 2008. Eretmochelys imbricata. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/8005/0
    33. National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS). 2012. Endangered Species Act - Section 7 Consultation Biological Opinion. National Marine Fisheries Service, Pacific Islands Region, Protected Resources Division. 162 pg.SSLL_2012_BiOp_1-30-2012-final_FOR_POSTING_ON_WEBSITE.pdf
    34. Oceanic Fisheries Programme (OFP). 2010. Non-target species interactions with the tuna fisheries of the Western and Central Pacific Ocean. Scientific Committee Sixth Regular Session, 10-19 August, 2010, Nuku'alofa, Tonga. 59 p.WCPFC-SC6-2010-EB-IP-08_Non_target_spp_interactions.pdf
    35. Oceanic Fisheries Programme (OFP). 2012. Estimates of annual catches in the WCPFC statistical area. Scientific Committee Eighth Regular Session, 7-15 August 2012, Busan, Republic of Korea. WCPFC-SC8-2012/ST IP-1.SC8-WCPFC8-05-Tuna-Fishery-Assess-Report-2010-modified-WCPFC8-2011-IP-02.pdf
    36. Passfield, K., Gilman, E. (2010) Effects of Pelagic Longline Fishing on Seamount Ecosystems based on Interviews with Pacific Island Fishers. Technical Report produced under the Global Environment Facility Oceanic Fisheries Management Project. International Union for the Conservation of Nature, Gland, Switzerland.http://cmsdata.iucn.org/downloads/pelagic_longline_seamount_iucn_final__june_20_2010__3_.pdf
    37. PRIFMP. 2011. Pacific Region Integrated Fisheries Management Plan – Tuna, April 1, 2010 to March 31, 2011, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, 57 pp.
    38. Rice, J. and Harley, S. 2012a. Stock assessment of silky sharks in the western and central Pacific Ocean. Scientific Committee Eighth Regular Session, 7-15 August 2012, Busan, Republic of Korea. WCPFC-SC8-2012/SA-WP-07 Rev 1. 53 pg.SA-WP-07-Stock-Assessment-Silky-Shark-WCPO-Rev-1-_3-August-2012_.pdf
    39. Rice, J. and Harley, S. 2012b. Stock assessment of oceanic whitetop sharks in the western and central Pacific Ocean. Scientific Committee Eighth Regular Session, 7-15 August 2012. WCPFC-SC8-2012/SA-WP-06 Rev 1. 53 pg.SA-WP-06-Oceanic-Whitetip-Stock-Assessent-WCPO-Rev-1-_3-August-2012_.pdf
    40. Seminoff, J.A. 2004. Chelonia mydas. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2.http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/4615/0
    41. Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission (WCPFC). 2005. Conservation and management measure for North Pacific albacore. Conservation and Management Measure-2005-03. Second Session 12-16 December 2005.http://iss-foundation.org/wp-content/rfmo-uploads/WCPFC-CMM-2005-03.pdf
    42. Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission (WCPFC). 2006. Western and central Pacific fisheries commission boarding and inspection procedures. Conservation and Management Measure 2006-08. Third Regular Session, Apia, Samoa, 11-15 December 2006.WCPFC-CMM-2006-08.pdf
    43. Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission (WCPFC). 2008. Conservation and management of sea turtles. Conservation and Management Measure 2008-03. Fifth Regular Session, 8-12 December 2008, Busan, Korea.WCPFC-CMM-2008-03.pdf
    44. Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission (WCPFC). 2010a. Conservation and management measure for sharks. Conservation and Management Measure 2010-07. Seventh Regular Session, Honolulu, HI, 6-12 December 2010.WCPFC-CMM-2010-07.pdf
    45. Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission (WCPFC). 2010b. Conservation and management measure to establish a list of vessels presumed to have carried out illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing activities in the WCPO. Conservation and Management Measure 2010-06. Seventh Regular Session, Honolulu, HI, 6-10 December 2010.WCPFC-CMM-2010-06.pdf
    46. Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission (WCPFC). 2012a. Conservation and management measure for oceanic whitetip shark. Conservation and Management Measure 2011-04. Eighth Regular Session, Tumon, Guam, 26-30 March 2011. WCPFC-CMM-2011-04.pdf
    47. Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission (WCPFC). 2012b. Conservation and management measure for bigeye, yellowfin and skipjack tuna in the western and central Pacific Ocean. Conservation and Management Measure 2012-01. Commission Ninth Regular Session, Manila, Philippines, 2-6 December 2012.http://iss-foundation.org/wp-content/rfmo-uploads/WCPFC-CMM-2012-01.pdf
    48. Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission (WCPFC). 2012c. Conservation and management measure for Pacific bluefin tuna. Conservation and Management Measure 2012-06. Commission Ninth Regular Session, Manila, Philippines 2-6 December 2012. CMM-2012-06-CMM-Pacific-Bluefin.pdf
    49. Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission (WCPFC). 2012d. Conservation and management measure for compliance monitoring scheme. Conservation and Management Measure 2012-02. Commission Ninth Regular Session, Manila, Philippines, 2-6 December 2012.WCPFC-CMM-2012-02.pdf
    50. Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission (WCPFC). 2012e. Commission vessel monitoring system. Conservation and Management Measure 2011-02. Commission Eighth Regular Session, Tumon, Guam, 26-30 March 2012.WCPFC-CMM-2011-02.pdf
    51. Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission (WCPFC). 2012f. Conservation and management measure to mitigate the impact of fishing for highly migratory fish stocks on seabirds. Conservation and Management Measure 2012-07. Commission Ninth Regular Session, Manila, Philippines, 2-6 December 2012.WCPFC-CMM-2012-07.pdf
    References

      Comments

      This tab will disappear in 5 seconds.

      Comments on:

      Albacore - North Pacific, IATTC, Canada, Trolling lines

      comments powered by Disqus