Summary

IDENTIFICATION

SCIENTIFIC NAME

Scomberomorus cavalla

SPECIES NAME(S)

King mackerel, Kingfish, Kings

This fishery is jointly managed by SAFMC and GMFMC under one Fishery management plan for the Atlantic and Gulf stocks. Gulf and South Atlantic stocks mix off Florida seasonally.


ANALYSIS

Strengths
  • Stock is biologically resilient to exploitation due to fast growth and maturing at a young age
  • Managers employ quotas and other measures to limit exploitation
  • Stock is healthy and not overfished and overfishing is not occurring
  • Model used provides some measures of uncertainty as well as projections into the future
     
Weaknesses
  • Analysis that managers base their decision making on is out of date and scheduled to be updated in 2014
  • Managers have not set target fishing mortality rates formally for this stock. This results in management decisions based only on avoiding overfishing rather than achieving a target exploitation.
  • The gillnet fishery has known interactions with ETP species, particularly marine mammals.
     

SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

6

Managers Compliance:

9

Fishers Compliance:

10

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

8.2

Future Health:

8.7


RECOMMENDATIONS

CATCHERS & REGULATORS

Update stock assessments on a more frequent basis
Set a target fishing mortality below the overfishing threshold

1. Start a fishery improvement project to address sustainability issues in this fishery. For advice on starting a FIP, see SFP’s Seafood Industry Guide to FIPs at http://www.sustainablefish.org/publications/2014/04/30/the-seafood-industry-guide-to-fips.
2. Communicate to fishery managers that there are sustainability issues in this fishery that may be affecting the sale of products, and request that they comprehensively evaluate and address such issues.

RETAILERS & SUPPLY CHAIN

1. Encourage your supply chain to start a fishery improvement project. For advice on starting a FIP see SFP’s Seafood Industry Guide to FIPs at http://www.sustainablefish.org/publications/2014/04/30/the-seafood-industry-guide-to-fips.
2. Work with other suppliers and buyers on a pre-competitive basis to start a supplier roundtable to review improvement needs in this and other similar fisheries, catalyze fishery improvement projects, and monitor progress in improvement efforts.


FIPS

No related FIPs

CERTIFICATIONS

No related MSC fisheries

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

ASSESSMENT UNIT MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
Gulf of Mexico US Gulf of Mexico United States Hooks and lines

Analysis

OVERVIEW

Last updated on 23 June 2017

Strengths
  • Stock is biologically resilient to exploitation due to fast growth and maturing at a young age
  • Managers employ quotas and other measures to limit exploitation
  • Stock is healthy and not overfished and overfishing is not occurring
  • Model used provides some measures of uncertainty as well as projections into the future
     
Weaknesses
  • Analysis that managers base their decision making on is out of date and scheduled to be updated in 2014
  • Managers have not set target fishing mortality rates formally for this stock. This results in management decisions based only on avoiding overfishing rather than achieving a target exploitation.
  • The gillnet fishery has known interactions with ETP species, particularly marine mammals.
     
RECOMMENDATIONS

Last updated on 28 June 2016

Improvement Recommendations to Catchers & Regulators

Update stock assessments on a more frequent basis
Set a target fishing mortality below the overfishing threshold

1. Start a fishery improvement project to address sustainability issues in this fishery. For advice on starting a FIP, see SFP’s Seafood Industry Guide to FIPs at http://www.sustainablefish.org/publications/2014/04/30/the-seafood-industry-guide-to-fips.
2. Communicate to fishery managers that there are sustainability issues in this fishery that may be affecting the sale of products, and request that they comprehensively evaluate and address such issues.

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain

1. Encourage your supply chain to start a fishery improvement project. For advice on starting a FIP see SFP’s Seafood Industry Guide to FIPs at http://www.sustainablefish.org/publications/2014/04/30/the-seafood-industry-guide-to-fips.
2. Work with other suppliers and buyers on a pre-competitive basis to start a supplier roundtable to review improvement needs in this and other similar fisheries, catalyze fishery improvement projects, and monitor progress in improvement efforts.

1.STOCK STATUS

Stock Assessment

Last updated on 2 February 2016

The current modeling approach utilizes an two box model virtual population analysis.It has some measures of uncertainty and provides decent estimation on trends and overall population size. However this assessment is out dated and is scheduled to be updated in 2014.

US Gulf of Mexico
United States
Hooks and lines

Last updated on 2 February 2016

Simple equilibrium yield-per-recruit approach, Virtual Population Analysis (VPA), and ADAPT approach have been used for stock assessment of king mackerel stocks in South Atlantic waters (SEDAR 2009). There are two king mackerel stocks in this region the South Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico, with both stocks mixing in south Florida during winter months (SEDAR 2009). VPA models over the years have benefited from catch data of recreational boats, kingfish caught as bycatch in shrimp trawlers, and discards data from recreational boats (SEDAR 2009).

Scientific Advice

Last updated on 2 February 2016

The fishery is regulated through Annual catch limits, quotas and other measures. The current model provides information on stock size and reference points.Managers have utilized this information to set quotas as well as other management measures.However, managers have not set target fishing mortality rates, but have been basing management decisions around the threshold rate. Because this assessment is almost a decade oldit should be updated. Such an update is scheduled for 2014.

US Gulf of Mexico
United States
Hooks and lines

Last updated on 2 February 2016

The fishery is regulated through Annual catch limits and TAC.

Reference Points

Last updated on 2 February 2016

The current model utilizes MSY based reference points to determine stock status. However mangers have not set a formal fishing mortality rate target.

US Gulf of Mexico
United States
Hooks and lines

Last updated on 2 February 2016

SSB2006 = 2443.0
F2006 = 0.26

Current Status

Last updated on 2 February 2016

As per the 2009 (terminal year 2005)assessment King Mackerel are not over fished and overfishing in no occurring.Stock is very healthy according to this most recent assessment. However this information is quite old and a new assessment is scheduled for 2014

US Gulf of Mexico
United States
Hooks and lines

Last updated on 2 February 2016

The most recent stock assessment was conducted in 2009, which shows that the stock is not overfished and overfishing is not occurring (SEDAR 2009).

Trends

Last updated on 2 February 2016

Landings and fishing mortality have been trending down for the most recent time period available. Meanwhile stock size and has increased. However this information is quite old and a new assessment is scheduled for 2014.

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

Managers' Decisions

Last updated on 2 February 2016

Mangers have used quotas as well as effort controls to limit harvest of this fishery.Mangers usual follow scientific advice but have not set or formally manage to a target fishing mortality rate.

US Gulf of Mexico
United States
Hooks and lines

Last updated on 2 February 2016

Gulf of Mexico Federal Regualtions for commercial and recreational boats include: (Source: GMFMC 2011)

1. Minimum for length 24”
2. Maximum of 5% by weight only may be undersized
3. Harvest on Florida west coast requires a mackerel vessel permit.
4. Area restrictions.
5. Permit moratorium
6. Restrictions on permit transfer in effect.
7. Daily possession limit / Trip limit:
Eastern Zone: FL east coast subzone
11/1 to 3/31—50 fish per trip until quota filled. If 75% of quota is not harvested by 2/1,
trip limit increases to 75 fish. 4/1 to 10/31—South Atlantic regulations apply, refer to
South Atlantic Council regulation pamphlet.

FL west coast subzone: Hook-and-line
7/1 until 75% gear quota—1,250 lbs/trip then 500 lbs/trip whole weight until gear quota filled

Western Zone: 7/1 – 3,000 lbs/trip until quota filled

Recovery Plans

Last updated on 2 February 2016

A rebuilding plan is in place to bring the stock back to sustainable levels, if needed.

Compliance

Last updated on 2 February 2016

Harvesters have complied with all regulations. Discards and illegal fishing are thought to be extremely low for this fishery.

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

ETP Species

Last updated on 2 February 2016

While the hook and line fishery is thought to have low incidental interactions with protected species, the gillnet fishery is listed as a category 2 fishery by NMFS.Such a listing suggests “occasional incidental mortality or serious injury of marine mammals”.

US Gulf of Mexico
United States
Hooks and lines

Last updated on 2 February 2016

Hook and line fishing is not thought to contribute significantly to PET species mortality.

Other Target and Bycatch Species

Last updated on 2 February 2016

Bycatch in the hook and line fishery is thought to be low.

Marine Reserves
US Gulf of Mexico
United States
Hooks and lines

Last updated on 2 February 2016

MPAs and Area Closures in Gulf of Mexico include: (Source: GMFMC 2011).

Following locations are closed to fishing in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary
Tortugas South Ecological Reserve
EEZ portion of Tortugas North Ecological Reserve
East Flower Garden Bank
West Flower Garden Bank

Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary (NAD 83)
“The Edges” 40 fathom contour is closed to fishing from January 1—April 30. The Edges is a
390 nautical square mile region northwest of Steamboat Lumps.

FishSource Scores

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

As calculated for 2005 data.

This measures the F at low biomass as a percentage of the F management target.

The F at low biomass is 0.250 (from management plan). The F management target is 0.250 .

The underlying F at low biomass/F management target for this index is 100%.

As calculated for 2005 data.

This measures the Set TAC as a percentage of the Advised TAC.

The Set TAC is 4.63 ('000 t). The Advised TAC is 4.35 ('000 t) .

The underlying Set TAC/Advised TAC for this index is 106%.

As calculated for 2005 data.

This measures the Catch as a percentage of the Set TAC.

The Catch is 2.72 ('000 t). The Set TAC is 4.63 ('000 t) .

The underlying Catch/Set TAC for this index is 58.8%.

STOCK HEALTH:

As calculated for 2005 data.

This measures the Fecundity as a percentage of the SSBmsy.

The Fecundity is 3290 (M eggs). The SSBmsy is 3170 ('000 t) .

The underlying Fecundity/SSBmsy for this index is 104%.

As calculated for 2005 data.

This measures the F as a percentage of the F management target.

The F is 0.207 (age-averaged). The F management target is 0.250 .

The underlying F/F management target for this index is 82.8%.

HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSE RISK

High Medium Low

This indicates the potential risk of human rights abuses within this fishery.

No data available for recruitment

Download Source Data

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Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

No related FIPs

Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

No related MSC certifications

Sources

Credits
  1. SEDAR, 2009. SEDAR 16 Stock Assessment Report South Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico King Mackerel . Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review.http://www.sefsc.noaa.gov/sedar/download/SEDAR16_final_SAR.pdf?id=DOCUMENT

Appended content

    References

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