Last updated on 15 December 2015

SUMMARY

SUMMARY

IDENTIFICATION

SCIENTIFIC NAME(s)

Sprattus sprattus

SPECIES NAME(s)

European sprat

Previous attempts to identify different populations of European sprat during the 1980-1990s were unsuccessful (Nielsen 1994). Gulf of Lyon and the Adriatic Sea populations have the “biggest genetic distance” within the Mediterranean and any population differentiation was found between the Baltic Sea, the North Sea and the Bay of Biscay (Debes et al. 2008). Genetic analysis showed a clear genetic distinction from the NE Atlantic Ocean and the Baltic Sea and a high differentiation of the Adriatic Sea population from all northern samples (Limborg et al. 2009). More recently, a “complex population structure is considered across the species’ distribution” (Limborg et al. 2012). Nevertheless ICES recommends the conduction of further studies to clarify this structure (e.g. apparent overlap between North Sea and English Channel spratts) thus here we consider the existing assessment units (ICES 2014):
- Celtic Sea and West of Scotland in Subarea VI and Divisions VIIa–c and f–k
- Skagerrak and Kattegat in Division IIIa
- North Sea in Subarea IV
- English Channel in Divisions VIId,e
- Baltic Sea in Subdivisions 22–32.


ANALYSIS

Strengths

Acoustic surveys to assess biomass were initiated in 2011, but the time series is as yet too short to serve as a reliable indicator of abundance. Catch indices suggest that biomass in recent years has increased, though ICES advises these trends be interpreted with caution.ICES has been providing quantitative catch advice for the management unit since 2013. A TAC is set for the fishery, and compliance is apparently strong. The fishery has negligible impact on the marine seabed, and apparently minimal bycatch and discarding.

Weaknesses

The stock structure is unknown, and as such ICES advice is administered with the caveat that the management unit may not be appropriate. The TAC has been set above ICES’ advised level. There are discrepancies between the national landings data and the official landings for the management unit as a whole, with the former indicating far larger catches for some years.Uncertainty associated with catch indices is not available.No management plan is in place and no reference points are defined.

FISHSOURCE SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

≥ 6

Managers Compliance:

4.5

Fishers Compliance:

10

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

≥ 6

Future Health:

≥ 6


RECOMMENDATIONS

CATCHERS & REGULATORS

1. Advocate and support scientific institutions on establishing reference points.
2. Regulators to follow scientific advice when setting TAC.

RETAILERS & SUPPLY CHAIN

1. Contact the UK Department for Environment Food & Rural Affairs (DEFRA) and request that they follow scientific advice when setting the TAC.
2. Write to Seafish requesting that reference points for the stock are developed.


FIPS

No related FIPs

CERTIFICATIONS

No related MSC fisheries

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

ASSESSMENT UNIT MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
English channel EU United Kingdom Midwater trawls

Analysis

OVERVIEW

Last updated on 15 March 2015

Strengths

Acoustic surveys to assess biomass were initiated in 2011, but the time series is as yet too short to serve as a reliable indicator of abundance. Catch indices suggest that biomass in recent years has increased, though ICES advises these trends be interpreted with caution.ICES has been providing quantitative catch advice for the management unit since 2013. A TAC is set for the fishery, and compliance is apparently strong. The fishery has negligible impact on the marine seabed, and apparently minimal bycatch and discarding.

Weaknesses

The stock structure is unknown, and as such ICES advice is administered with the caveat that the management unit may not be appropriate. The TAC has been set above ICES’ advised level. There are discrepancies between the national landings data and the official landings for the management unit as a whole, with the former indicating far larger catches for some years.Uncertainty associated with catch indices is not available.No management plan is in place and no reference points are defined.

RECOMMENDATIONS

Last updated on 28 June 2016

Improvement Recommendations to Catchers & Regulators

1. Advocate and support scientific institutions on establishing reference points.
2. Regulators to follow scientific advice when setting TAC.

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain

1. Contact the UK Department for Environment Food & Rural Affairs (DEFRA) and request that they follow scientific advice when setting the TAC.
2. Write to Seafish requesting that reference points for the stock are developed.

1.STOCK STATUS

STOCK ASSESSMENT

Last updated on 9 March 2015

Presently, sprat in ICES DIvisions VIId and VIIe are managed as a unit. ICES provides corresponding advice based mainly on assessment of information from Lyme Bay, off the English coast of the Western Channel, where most of the catch occurs. Meanwhile the stock structure in the overall management unit is in question, and ICES advises that further work is needed to determine if a single stock is represented therein (ICES 2014a).

An acoustic survey was conducted in 2011 and 2012 in an area around Lyme Bay as part of a British Fisheries Science Partnership program (Van der Kooij et al., 2011, 2012), but a five year series is the minimum required to assess the status of the stock (ICES, 2012a). The Eastern Channel has also been surveyed as part of IBTS from 2006 (ICES, 2012b). A surplus production model was fitted beginning in 2012 by Centre for Environment, Fisheries & Aquaculture Science (CEFAS) researchers based on landings per unit effort (LPUE) series. ICES concluded that the LPUE series can be used as an indicator of stock trends although should be interpreted with caution when based on landings from a shoaling species such as sprat. The uncertainty associated with the index values is not available (ICES, 2013a).

SCIENTIFIC ADVICE

Last updated on 17 April 2014

As for 2014, and based on a landings per unit effort (LPUE) index, ICES maintains that catches in 2015 should be limited to less than 3,832 tons(ICES, 2014).

For data-limited stocks for which a biomass index (i.e. lpue) is available, ICES bases advice on a comparison of the two most recent index values with the three preceding values, combined with recent catch or landings data (ICES 2012c). For this stock the landings per unit effort (lpue) was estimated to have increased by more than 20% between the periods 2008–2010 (average of the three years) and 2011–2012 (average of the two years). This implied an increase in catches of at most 20% in relation to the average catch of the earlier three years, corresponding to catches in 2014 of no more than 4,790 tons.However, considering the stock’s unknown exploitation status,precautionary 20% buffer was applied, resulting in catches of no more than 3,832 tons in 2014. New lpue data did not alter the perception of the stock; thus advised catches for 2015 are unchanged. Previously, ICES had advised in qualitative terms, for a reduction in catches (ICES, 2011a).

ICES has conducted exploratory analysis to develop models that would incorporate acoustic survey data along with catch data; however these models are not yet acceptable for formal stock assessment (ICES 2015).ICES acknowledges that their scientific advice for sprat could be better informed if a longer time series of the acoustic data became available, but meanwhile the lpue series remains the best available indicator of stock trends.

Reference Points

Last updated on 17 Apr 2014

No precautionary reference points have been defined. Recently, surplus production models incorporating landing per unit effort (LPUE) and acoustic survey data have been used to estimate Maximum sustainable yield (MSY). In 2013, MSY was estimated to be 3,094 tonnes(ICES 2013C), and an updated analysis in 2014 did not result in changes to this estimate (2014b).

CURRENT STATUS

Last updated on 12 March 2015

Due to the lack of fishery-independent data, there is insufficient information with which thoroughly assess the status of the stock.However, the average LPUE of mid-water trawl is considered to be a stock size indicator (kg hour−1). In recent years (2011–2012) it was 137% higher than the average of the three previous years (2008–2010) (ICES, 2013a).

The second of two sprat population assessments from acoustic survey data was published in 2012, and reported an estimated biomass of 27,971 tons for that year, and a revised estimate of 33,861 tons for 2011 (Van der Kooij et al., 2012). The 2013 annual landings of 3,793t would constitute only a relatively small fraction of the 2012 biomass estimate (ICES 2014a), an amount well below the 30% which is determined to be supportable by other low-trophic level species such as sardine and anchovy (ICES, 2012b). However, while the acoustic survey data has yielded estimates that are comparable to the mid-water trawl LPUE, several more years of data are needed before stock status can be reliably evaluated based on this information(ICES 2013a).

Trends

Last updated on 12 Mar 2015

Landings have averaged 3,017 tons over the recent 20-year time series (ICES 2014a). Occasional large catches have been reported, the largest at 7,215 tons in 1992, and over 5,000 tons in 1988, 1994, 1998 and 1999 (sum of official landings by country, (ICES 2013a)). The lowest catches were 840 tons reported in 2004. Since then, an increasing trend has occurred, reaching 4,435 tons in 2012.

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

MANAGEMENT

Last updated on 9 March 2015

No management plan is in place. TAC levels have been based solely on landings trends, with precautionary buffers applied due to uncertainty and lack of fishery independent data (ICES, 2013a). The TAC set for EU member states (CEC 2013, 2014, 2015) has exceeded ICES advised TAC since ICES began publishing advise for the stock in 2013. For 2015, ICES advised catch for sprat in Divisions VIIe and VIIf is 3,832 tons; while the overall set TAC remains at 5,150 tons, the same as for the prior three years (ICES 2014b).

Recovery Plans

Last updated on 09 Mar 2015

Not applicable.

EU
United Kingdom

Last updated on 1 April 2014

A TAC is set for the English Channel of which the UK quota has constituted over 50%. No management plan is in place and TAC levels have been based on landings trends, having reportedly been reduceddue to low catch rates (ICES, 2012a). For 2014, a TAC of 5,150 tons was set with a UK quota of 2,702 tons, the same as for 2012 and 2013 (EU, 2012, 2013, 2014).

COMPLIANCE

Last updated on 29 June 2015

Sprat are subject to landing obligation (discard ban) under the EU’s Common Fisheries Policy; all catches must be brought to shore and are counted toward quota (DEFRA 2014). In circumstances where quotas are overfished, there are various scenarios for obtaining additional quota such as banking and borrowing from subsequent year quotas, and swapping or leasing quota with other EU member states.

The overall TAC has not been exceeded since 1988 according to official landings reported by ICES (2013a); however, based on the sum of landings reported by country, the TAC would have been exceeded once- by approximately 5% in 2006. All catches are assumed to be landed. The fishing season runs from August until February-March (ICES, 2013b). Regulation requires observer coverage at a rates of 5% or 10% (varies by season) for the trawl sectors in which sprat and other pelagic species are targeted (SMRU 2009).

EU
United Kingdom

Last updated on 1 April 2014

Most of the sprat landings in this area are taken by the English fleet in the vicinity of Lyme Bay and are used for human consumption (ICES, 2013a). Since 2000, catches have practically only been recorded by UK fleets. In recent years the UK quota has been increased via swaps with other member states, with closures of the fishery while further quota is procured (MMO, 2011). In 2013 the UK quota was increased 51% to 4,081 tons. The UK landings in 2013 were 3,793 tons, about 92% of the UK quota (MMO, 2013a). The overall TAC has not been exceeded since 1988 according to official landings reported by ICES (2012a). All catches are assumed to be landed (ICES, 2013a). Fishing season runs from August until February-March (ICES, 2013b).

Meanwhile, the area-wide official landings statistics appear to exclude sizable catches from Denmark in a number of years (see years 1992, 1994, 1995, 1997 and 1999 in tables 5.4.40.1 and 5.4.40.2 (ICES 2013a)), though the derivation of these statistics is not made explicit. Since 2000, virtually 100% of recorded catches have consisted of landings by UK nations (landings were recorded by France in 2013, but accounted for less than 1% of total recorded landings (MMO 2013). The UK’s 2012 and 2013 EU allocated quotas (CEC 2012, 2013) were increased by 37% and 51% respectively (MMO 2012, 2013) in part by procuring 1,000 additional tons of quota in each year from Denmark, with costs incurred by members of the South and West Fish Producer’s Organisation (SWFPO) (NWWAC 2014). The UK landings in those two years, totaled 3,793 tons and 4,083 tons respectively, equating to roughly 90% of the annual UK quotas including quota obtained from Denmark, (MMO, 2013).

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

BYCATCH
ETP Species

Last updated on 15 March 2015

Sprat is an important prey species for both marine mammals and seabirds in the Celtic Sea ecosystem (ICES, 2012b). No documented effects of the fishery on protected, endangered or threatened species could be located. Onboard fishery observer data indicate that bycatch for the pelagic trawl fisheries is generally low, with the main risk reported to be cetacean bycatch (Ross and Isaac 2004; Northridge et al. 2011).In the South West UK, the common dolphin is the most noted bycatch concern; however this concern is limited primarily to the pair trawl fishery for sea bass. While the pelagic fisheries’ associated risk of direct mortality on seabirds is also likely low (Seafish 2014b), the need for quantification of sprat biomass required to sustain predator populations (birds and mammals) in the region was identified as a research priority to constitute an input to multispecies models (ICES, 2012b).Since that time, an ecological risk assessment (ERA) of the effects of fishing for South West UK fisheries (Seafish 2014a) has been published.Supporting documentation for the ERA (Seafish 2014b) concluded that fisheries targeting herring and sprat, main forage species for offshore surface- and dive-feeding seabirds,may pose moderate risk to these bird species due to food source depletion. Meanwhile, the effect on small cetaceans was noted to be much more challenging to assess, and no estimation of risk was reported.

Other Species

Last updated on 15 March 2015

Sprat is mostly fished with herring, which is controlled by bycatch percentage limits and a bycatch ceiling (ICES, 2012b). These quotas may result in low percentages of herring being discarded (EC 2011), but generally discard rates are considered negligible (ICES 2014b). Pelagic trawl fisheries are considered to be generally selective as to species caught (Bjordal, 2002), and while species and fishery specific bycatch rates are not regularly estimated, observations for this fishery indicate that bycatch is minimal (EC 2011).

HABITAT

Last updated on 15 March 2015

The fishery is primarily carried out by mid-water trawl which has negligible impact on the marine seabed (ICES, 2013a) and does not pose a risk of ghost fishing (Bjordal, 2002).

Marine Reserves

Last updated on 15 Mar 2015

Special Areas of Conservation (SACs) and Special Protection Areas (SPAs) have been declared in the UK part of the English Channel as part of the Natura 2000 network, and Voluntary Marine Conservation Areas and Voluntary Marine Nature Reserves are also in place (UK MPA Centre, 2007).In November 2013, The UK designated 27 Marine Conservation Zones as the first of three planned designations (DEFRA, 2012; DEFRA, 2014).As of the most recent update, management measures for these initial designations were undergoing review by relevant public authorities, and an additional 37 new areas had been recommended as suitable for consideration during the second round of designations. The final round of designations are planned for 2016. The consultative process and associated documents can be accessed here . Associated scientific advice can be accessed here . An interactive map for visualizing MPAs in the vicinity of the UK can be accessed here .

A cod recovery zone has been declared in the Eastern Channel and seasonal closures are also enforced to protect spawning cod but do not affect pelagic trawlers (MMO, 2013b).

FishSource Scores

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

As calculated for 2015 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

A “precautionary TAC” has been set for Divisions VIId,e since the 1980s and has been based on landing trends. However, no management plan is known to be in place and no harvest control rule is explicitly defined.

As calculated for 2015 data.

The score is 4.5.

This measures the Set TAC as a percentage of the Advised TAC.

The Set TAC is 5.15 ('000 t). The Advised TAC is 3.83 ('000 t) .

The underlying Set TAC/Advised TAC for this index is 134%.

As calculated for 2013 data.

The score is 10.0.

This measures the Catch as a percentage of the Set TAC.

The Catch is 3.79 ('000 t). The Set TAC is 5.15 ('000 t) .

The underlying Catch/Set TAC for this index is 73.7%.

STOCK HEALTH:

As calculated for 2015 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

The average lpue of mid-water trawl is considered a stock size indicator (kg hour−1). During 2011-2012, it was 137% higher than the average of the three previous years (2008–2010) (ICES, 2013a).

As calculated for 2015 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

Exploitation rates are indicated to be within acceptable levels known for similar trophic level species, but this is interpretation is based on biomass estimates from only two years of acoustic survey data, and should be considered preliminary. In addition, the most recent LPUE trend data indicate that overfishing is not occurring (ICES, 2012b). The 2015 quota of 5,150 tons has remained unchanged since 2012, consistently exceeding ICES' advised catch limit. While a population assessment based on data from two years of acoustic surveys suggests the quota is within sustainable fishing limits (Van der Kooij et al., 2012), a longer data time series is necessary to reliabley inform management choices. According to a recent Ecological Risk Assessment (Seafish 2014a), the level of consequence for the fishery on the stock is rated as a ‘2.4’, indicating a moderate to significant impact that is unlikely to irreversibly contravene management objectives. Factors that were considered to mitigate the fishery's impact on the species (and incorporated into the score) included management under the Common Fisheries Policy (CFP), quota and local bylaws, pelagic licensing, no new entrants to the fishery and a limited market for the species.

No data available for biomass
No data available for biomass
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No data available for fishing mortality
No data available for fishing mortality
No data available for recruitment
No data available for recruitment
To see data for management quality, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for stock status, please view this site on a desktop.
DATA NOTES

Notes: 1) Catches and TACs statistics include all countries fishing for sprat in divisions VIId,e. 2) Catches represented here correspond to “ICES catches” in ICES Advice reports. These statistics are equal to the sum of official landings by country (see data in ICES advice for 2013 (ICES (2012a), but differ from the comprehensive official landings statistics in certain years. 3) Based on the available information, partial qualitative grades, rather than quantitative scores, have been attributed to scores 1, 4 and 5 (please mouse-over for explanation). 3) All catches are assumed to be landed (ICES, 2013a).

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Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

No related FIPs

Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

No related MSC certifications

Sources

Credits

Bjordal, Å., 2002. The use of technical measures in responsible fisheries: regulation of fishing gear. In: Cochrane, K.L. (ed.), 2002. A fishery manager’s guidebook. Management measures and their application. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper no. 424. Rome, FAO. ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/004/y3427e/y3427e00.pdf

CEC (European Commission), 2011. Council Regulation (EU) No 57/2011 of 18 January 2011, fixing for 2011 the fishing opportunities for certain fish stocks and groups of fish stocks, applicable in EU waters and, for EU vessels, in certain non-EU waters.http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2011:024:0001:0125:EN:PDF

CEC (European Commission), 2012. Council Regulation (EU) No 43/2012 of 17 January 2012: fixing for 2012 the fishing opportunities available to EU vessels for certain fish stocks and groups of fish stocks which are not subject to international negotiations or agreements. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2012:025:0001:0054:EN:PDF

CEC (European Commission), 2013. Council Regulation (EU) No 39/2013 of 21 January 2013 fixing for 2013 the fishing opportunities available to EU vessels for certain fish stocks and groups of fish stocks which are not subject to international negotiations or agreements. Offficial Journal of the European Union L 23; 53 pp.http://faolex.fao.org/docs/pdf/eur119559.pdf

CEC (European Commission), 2014. Council Regulation (EU) No 43/2014 of 20 January 2014 fixing for 2014 the fishing opportunities for certain fish stocks and groups of fish stocks, applicable in Union waters and, to Union vessels, in certain non-Union waters . Official Journal of the European Union http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2014:024:0001:0145:EN:PDF

DEFRA (Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs), 2012. Marine Conservation Zones: Consultation on proposals for designation in 2013. http://www.defra.gov.uk/consult/2012/12/13/marine-conservation-zones-1212/

DEFRA (Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs), 2014. Consultation on the Implementation of the pelagic landing obligation in England. https://consult.defra.gov.uk/fisheries/pelagic-landing-obligation-in-england/supporting_documents/Consultation%20Document%20%20pelagic%20landing%20obligation%20final.pdf

DEFRA (Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs), 2014. Marine Conservation Zones: Update [consulted on 31 March 2014]. https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/285304/pb14141-mcz-update-201402.pdf

EC (European Commission), 2011. Impact Assessment of Discard Reducing Policies: EU Discard Annex. In Studies in the Field of the Common Fisheries Policy and Maritime Affairs, Lot 4: Impact Assessment Studies related to the CFP.http://ec.europa.eu/fisheries/documentation/studies/discards/annex_en.pdf

ICES, 2011a. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee. Book 5: Celtic Seas / North Sea. Sprat in Divisions VIId,e. 4 pp. http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2011/2011/spr-ech.pdf

ICES (International Council for the Exploration of the Sea), 2012a. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee. Book 5: The Celtic Sea and West of Scotland. 5.4.18: Sprat in Divisions VIId. http://ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2012/2012/spr-ech.pdf

ICES (International Council for the Exploration of the Sea), 2012b. Report of the Herring Assessment Working Group for the Area South of 62 N (HAWG). 13 - 22 March 2012 Copenhagen, Denmark ICES. CM 2012/ACOM:06. http://ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Expert%20Group%20Report/acom/2012/HAWG/HAWG%202012.pdf

ICES (International Council for the Exploration of the Sea), 2012c. ICES Implementation of Advice for Data- limited Stocks in 2012 in its 2012 Advice. http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Expert%20Group%20Report/acom/2012/ADHOC/DLS%20Guidance%20Report%202012.pdf

ICES (International Council for the Exploration of the Sea), 2013a. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee. Book 5: The Celtic Sea and West of Scotland. 5.4.40: Sprat in Divisions VIId,e. Advice for 2014. 6pp. http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2013/2013/spr-ech.pdf

ICES (International Council for the Exploration of the Sea), 2013b. Report of the Benchmark Workshop on Sprat Stocks (WKSPRAT), 11–15 February 2013, Copenhagen, Denmark. ICES CM 2013/ACOM:48. 220 pp. http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Expert%20Group%20Report/acom/2013/WKSPRAT%202013/wksprat_2013.pdf

ICES (International Council for the Exploration of the Sea), 2014a. Report of the Herring Assessment Working Group for the Area South of 62oN (HAWG). 11-20 March 2014 Copenhagen, Denmark ICES CM 2014/ACOM:06. 1257 pp. http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Expert%20Group%20Report/acom/2014/HAWG/01%20HAWG%20Report%202014.pdf

ICES (International Council for the Exploration of the Sea), 2014b. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee. Book 5: Celtic Sea and West of Scotland. 5.3.40: Sprat in Divisions VIId,e 2 pp. http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2014/2014/spr-ech.pdf

ICES (International Council for the Exploration of the Sea), 2015. Stock Annex: Sprat (Sprattus sprattus) in Divisions VIId,e (English Channel) in Report of the Herring Assessment Working Group for the Area South of 62oN (HAWG). 11-20 March 2014 Copenhagen, Denmark ICES CM 2014/ACOM:06. 1257 pp. http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Stock%20Annexes/spr-ech_SA.pdf

MMO (Marine Management Organization), 2012. UK Sea Fisheries Statistics 2012. https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/329268/Sections_1-3.pdf

MMO (Marine Management Organization), 2013a Quota use statistics annual data [consulted on 31 March 2014]. http://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/358342/UK_Sea_Fisheries_Statistics_2013_online_version.pdf

MMO (Marine Management Organization), 2013b. Area Closures: Cod recovery zones (CRZ) North Sea (ICES IVb,c) and Eastern Channel (ICES VIId) [accessed on 12 March 2013]. http://www.marinemanagement.org.uk/fisheries/monitoring/closures.htm

Northridge, S., Kingston, A., Mackay, A. and Lonergan, M. (2011). Bycatch of Vulnerable Species: Understanding the Process and Mitigating the Impacts. Final Report to Defra Marine and Fisheries Science Unit, Project no MF1003. University of St Andrews. Defra, London, 99pp. https://risweb.st-andrews.ac.uk/portal/en/researchoutput/bycatch-of-vulnerable-species--understanding-the-process-and-mitigating-the-impacts(f9b8a96c-0a8a-48d5-91d9-a56e2ae4c90c).html

NWWAC (North Western Waters Advisory Council), 2014. Fisheries information on Channel Sprat (VIIde) Date of submission: 30 April 2014, Revised:1 May 2014.http://www.nwwac.org/_fileupload/Opinions%20and%20Advice/Year%209/REVISED_NWWAC_Fisheries_Information_Channel_Sprat_1May2014_EN.pdf

Pawson, M.G., 1995. Fisheries Research Technical Report Number 99: Biogeographical identification of English Channel fish and shellfish stocks.http://www.cefas.co.uk/Publications/techrep/tech99.pdf

Ross, A. & S. Isaac, 2004. The Net Effect? A review of cetacean bycatch in pelagic trawls and other fisheries in the north-east Atlantic. A WDCS report for Greenpeace. http://www.wdcs.org/submissions_bin/neteffect.pdf

Seafish, 2014a. Ecological Risk Assessment of the effects of fishing for South West fisheries; ICES Divisions VII e,f,g & h.
Seafish Report SR 670. http://www.seafish.org/media/Publications/SR670ERAEFFinal_report1.pdf

Seafish, 2014b. SR672 Ecological Risk Assessment of the effects of fishing for South West fisheries; ICES Divisions VII e,f,g & h ; Supporting information
Seafish Report SR 672. https://www.seafish.org/media/publications/SR672ERAEFSupporting_information.pdf

SMRU (Sea Mammal Research Unit), 2009. Annual Report of the United Kingdom to the European Commission on the implementation of Council Regulation 812/2004 on cetacean bycatch: Results of fishery observations collection during 2008. Prepared by: The Sea Mammal Research Unit , June 2009 Final.http://archive.defra.gov.uk/foodfarm/fisheries/documents/fisheries/annualreport0609.pdf

UK MPA Centre, 2007. Interactive map of UK MPAs [accessed on 12 March 2013]. http://www.ukmpas.org/mapper.php

Van der Kooij, J, D. Brown, B.A. Roel, 2011. Final Report Programme 50: Western Channel Sprat (Sprattus sprattus) population assessment. Fisheries Science Partnership: 2011/12. http://cefas.defra.gov.uk/media/550978/mf050_report2011_vfinal.pdf

Van der Kooij, J, D. Brown, J.F. Silva & B.A. Roel, 2012. Final Report Programme 34: Western Channel Sprat (Sprattus sprattus) population assessment. Fisheries Science Partnership: 2012/13. http://www.cefas.defra.gov.uk/media/585785/mf051_report2012_vfinal.pdf

References

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