Last updated on 14 December 2015

SUMMARY

SUMMARY

IDENTIFICATION

SCIENTIFIC NAME(s)

Engraulis encrasicolus

SPECIES NAME(s)

European anchovy

The stock structure of European anchovy in NW Africa is not truly known but FAO considers the existence of an assessment unit in the subregion to perform stock assessments (FAO, 2013a,b). Based on otolith shape analysis and linking structure found to oceanographic features in the region Bacha et al. (2014) recently identified 3 populations in: Algero-Provençal Basin, southern Alborán Sea and NW Atlantic (Morocco and Gulf of Cadiz); but the study does not cover the whole assessment unit area.

The species is captured in a small pelagic fishery that also targets European pilchard Sardina pilchardus (central and southern stocks), sardinella Sardinella spp., horse mackerel Trachurus spp. and chub mackerel Scomber japonicus. The NW Africa assessment unit includes the northern area, zones A+B and C (Morocco) and Mauritania (FAO, 2013b).


ANALYSIS

Strengths
  • Research on stock structure is being conducted.
  • Various temporal and spatial closures are established by Decree as well as other technical measures.
  • A total allowable catch is established for zone C (south, Morocco) as well as limits under the Fisheries Partnership Agreements.
  • Management plans are in place for zones A+B (published in late 2014) and C (since 2010), both in Morocco.
  • Bycatch limits are defined in Morocco and Mauritania; allowed species are identified in Morocco.
  • Projects are underway to monitor, assess the shared small pelagics resources in the NW African region.
  • The seabed ecosystem is not expected to be impacted.
  • Marine reserves are in place.
Weaknesses
  • No stock assessment can be performed due to lack of data.
  • Biomass status is unknown and the stock has been considered as “fully exploited” in last years but there are uncertainties on stock identification, abundance surveys, catches do not cover the whole region and data quality and quantity is influencing determination of the stock status; misidentification of juveniles of horse mackerel and anchovies, hindering monitoring of Mauritanian landings.
  • Scientific advice is not published for each of the catch limits defined (national level and under the Fisheries Partnership Agreements, FPA).
  • It’s unclear if catch limits for small pelagic fisheries under FPAs do include anchovy and these limits are not monitored as a whole. It’s unknown if the catch limit applied in zone C for the small pelagic fishery (Morocco) is suitable to each of the stocks exploited especially given the depletion status of sardinellas Sardinella spp. and full exploitation status of chub mackerel. No catch limit is known to be in place for Moroccan zone A+B.
  • Management measures are based on geographical limits and the stock identity is not known.
  • No harvest control rule is known to be in place.
  • Discarding is not identified or quantified and is known to exist.
  • Bycatch is not monitored and limits are being overpassed.
  • Interaction with protected species and the seabed ecosystem is not monitored.
Options

Implement coordinated TAC regulation. Publish scientific advice and stock status determination. Quantify impact on the ecosystem as well as bycatch and discards. Conduct analysis to understand stock structure and perform regular data collection to monitor catches and stock condition. Promote cooperation between Morocco, Mauritania and the foreign interested parties to properly assess and manage the stock/fishery.

FISHSOURCE SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

≥ 6

Managers Compliance:

< 6

Fishers Compliance:

≥ 6

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

NOT YET SCORED

Future Health:

< 6


RECOMMENDATIONS

RETAILERS & SUPPLY CHAIN
  • Start a fishery improvement project (FIP) to bring this anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) fishery into alignment with the improvement work being conducted through the Moroccan Sardine FIP. For advice on starting a FIP, see SFP's Seafood Industry Guide to FIPs and other resources at https://www.sustainablefish.org/Programs/Professional-Guidance/FIP-Resources.
  • Contact the Moroccan and Mauritanian national authorities and request that they adopt precautionary management measures.
  • Contact the Moroccan and Mauritanian national fisheries research institute and request that they collect biological data on this stock and that they carry out genetic studies of stock identity.

FIPS

No related FIPs

CERTIFICATIONS

No related MSC fisheries

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

ASSESSMENT UNIT MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
NW Africa Mauritania Mauritania Purse seines
Morocco Morocco Purse seines

Analysis

OVERVIEW

Last updated on 7 July 2015

Strengths
  • Research on stock structure is being conducted.
  • Various temporal and spatial closures are established by Decree as well as other technical measures.
  • A total allowable catch is established for zone C (south, Morocco) as well as limits under the Fisheries Partnership Agreements.
  • Management plans are in place for zones A+B (published in late 2014) and C (since 2010), both in Morocco.
  • Bycatch limits are defined in Morocco and Mauritania; allowed species are identified in Morocco.
  • Projects are underway to monitor, assess the shared small pelagics resources in the NW African region.
  • The seabed ecosystem is not expected to be impacted.
  • Marine reserves are in place.
Weaknesses
  • No stock assessment can be performed due to lack of data.
  • Biomass status is unknown and the stock has been considered as “fully exploited” in last years but there are uncertainties on stock identification, abundance surveys, catches do not cover the whole region and data quality and quantity is influencing determination of the stock status; misidentification of juveniles of horse mackerel and anchovies, hindering monitoring of Mauritanian landings.
  • Scientific advice is not published for each of the catch limits defined (national level and under the Fisheries Partnership Agreements, FPA).
  • It’s unclear if catch limits for small pelagic fisheries under FPAs do include anchovy and these limits are not monitored as a whole. It’s unknown if the catch limit applied in zone C for the small pelagic fishery (Morocco) is suitable to each of the stocks exploited especially given the depletion status of sardinellas Sardinella spp. and full exploitation status of chub mackerel. No catch limit is known to be in place for Moroccan zone A+B.
  • Management measures are based on geographical limits and the stock identity is not known.
  • No harvest control rule is known to be in place.
  • Discarding is not identified or quantified and is known to exist.
  • Bycatch is not monitored and limits are being overpassed.
  • Interaction with protected species and the seabed ecosystem is not monitored.
Options

Implement coordinated TAC regulation. Publish scientific advice and stock status determination. Quantify impact on the ecosystem as well as bycatch and discards. Conduct analysis to understand stock structure and perform regular data collection to monitor catches and stock condition. Promote cooperation between Morocco, Mauritania and the foreign interested parties to properly assess and manage the stock/fishery.

RECOMMENDATIONS

Last updated on 16 October 2018

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain
  • Start a fishery improvement project (FIP) to bring this anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) fishery into alignment with the improvement work being conducted through the Moroccan Sardine FIP. For advice on starting a FIP, see SFP's Seafood Industry Guide to FIPs and other resources at https://www.sustainablefish.org/Programs/Professional-Guidance/FIP-Resources.
  • Contact the Moroccan and Mauritanian national authorities and request that they adopt precautionary management measures.
  • Contact the Moroccan and Mauritanian national fisheries research institute and request that they collect biological data on this stock and that they carry out genetic studies of stock identity.

1.STOCK STATUS

STOCK ASSESSMENT

Last updated on 24 June 2015

The National Fisheries Research Institute (Institut National de Recherche Halieutique, INRH) under the responsibility of the Department of Maritime Fisheries conducts regular research on the status of the exploited marine resources (FAO, 2013a,b; INRH, 2013). The Mauritanian Institute of Oceanographic Research and Fisheries (Institut Mauritanien de Recherches Océanographiques et des Pêches, IMROP) also performs scientific campaigns to assess the status of the exploited stocks in the country (Sidi et al., 2013).

Stock assessments and advised catch limits performed by the FAO working group are not published since the 2012 report (available in 2013) that used data until 2011 (FAO, 2013b; STECF, 2014).

Recruitment and acoustic surveys were conducted in Morocco and Mauritania in 2011 (January and July-August respectively). Nine acoustic surveys were realized during 2011 to analyze small pelagic stocks but data was not available at the time of the last assessment. Commercial fisheries’ samples were performed along the Moroccan and Mauritanian fishing boats (FAO, 2013b).

Like in 2010 (FAO, 2011b) data in 2011 were insufficient to perform a production model. Length frequency data were used to apply a Length Cohort Analysis (LCA), to determine over years and current Fishing mortality (F); a yield-per-recruit model (of Thomson and Bell) allowed estimating biological reference points (FAO, 2013b) including landings from 2009, 2010 and 2011 captured in northern zone, and Zones A+B in Morocco as well as an average of the length distributions for the 3 years. Uncertainties are related to lack of Mauritanian data which represent a big proportion of overall catches; insufficient data from distinct fishing zones (qualitatively and quantitatively) and uncertainty on the stock identity (FAO, 2013b). INRH has been carrying out genetic studies to understand anchovy stock structure (possibility of 2 stocks in the region) and migration patterns (INRH, 2013).

SCIENTIFIC ADVICE

Last updated on 24 June 2015

Since 2001, scientific advice has been offered annually by a FAO working group of scientists who assess the status of pelagic resources in northwest Africa, under the Committee for the Eastern Central Atlantic Fisheries (CECAF), and recommend management options geared towards their optimal and sustainable exploitation (FAO, 2011b).

Contrarily to previous years when a quantitative limit was recommended, the scientific advice by the FAO working group for 2012 (FAO, 2013b) made no explicit recommendations with absolute catch limits. FAO suggested however, similarly to previous years and based on a precautionary approach, that the fishing effort and catches should not increase above the current level (i.e. ~150,000 tons in 2010 and 2011).

Continued monitoring of Mauritanian catches, correct identification of species (which are confounded with horse mackerel juveniles) and genetic studies to identify the stock are also advised (FAO, 2013a,b; STECF, 2012 and 2014). The Joint Scientific Committee (Comité Scientifique Cojoint RIM-UE; CSC) created with the Fisheries Partnership Agreement (FPA) between Mauritania-European Union (EU) raises the importance of the FAO Working Group to assess the stocks with new approaches and robust diagnostics, and also bringing international expertise to support the scientific work conducted in the area (CSC, 2014).

Reference Points

Last updated on 24 Jun 2015

F0.1 is set as a target and FMAX as the limit reference point (absolute values not publicly available) (FAO, 2013b).

CURRENT STATUS

Last updated on 24 June 2015

Biomass and fishing mortality time series are not available. Only a regional acoustic survey conducted in Morocco provided an abundance estimate at 243,000 tons but the result cannot be comparable with previous years. Analyses were not finalized (data until 2011) or surveys were not conducted at the time of last stock assessment (FAO, 2013b). And more recent data is not available.

According to the models performed using fishery-dependent data up to 2011, the stock is still considered as “fully exploited” with F close to the target F0.1. However FAO working group considers that this result should be carefully interpreted due to uncertainties and lack of input data (FAO, 2013b).

Trends

Last updated on 24 Jun 2015

Biomass estimates have been showing a decreasing trend since 2007 (FAO, 2011b).

Until 1997, total catches (in Moroccan and Mauritanian territories) oscillated around 10,000 – 60,000 tonnes, doubling to 120,000 tonnes in the late 1990s and reaching the maximum level at 180,000 tonnes in 2003. After the decrease to 84,000 tonnes in 2005 landings have been above 120,000 tons in result of an effort increase because of international agreements.
The FAO working group (2013a,b) already mentioned misidentification of juveniles of horse mackerel and anchovies, hindering monitoring of Mauritanian landings.

Morocco

Last updated on 24 June 2015

Trends

Last updated on 24 Jun 2015

Proportion of catches per country has been oscillating. In 2010 and 2011 landings increased to 150,000 tonnes especially due to an effort increment (110%) in Moroccan waters comparing to 2009 (STECF, 2012; FAO. 2013b).

In 2011 the FPA in place ended between EU and Morocco reflecting Moroccan catches. The FPA was renewed in late 2011 until February 2015 (EC, 2014).

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

MANAGEMENT

Last updated on 24 June 2015

Technical management measures include minimum mesh sizes for nets (40mm for purse-seining in Mauritania) and trawls (70mm for Morocco and 40mm for Mauritania), minimum landings sizes (16cm in Mauritania) and weights, restrictions on non-target species, limited access to some areas and restriction or prohibition of certain fishing gears (Sidi et al., 2012). Gascoigne (2014) presents 40mm as the minimum stretched mesh-size for pelagic and semi-pelagic trawls. The same author also refers that purse-seining of gross tonnage 2-150 is only allowed behind 2 miles and seiners and trawls of >150 gross tonnage cannot operate within 5 miles and other vessels should be >15 miles (Gascoigne, 2014).

The Sub-Regional Fisheries Commission (SRFC) is conducting efforts to assess and manage the small pelagic stocks in the region jointly with Morocco. An advisory committee for the small pelagic was created under the SRFC. A project is in place to characterize, monitor and develop a strategic plan for the mentioned fisheries and resources (Sidi et al., 2012; SRFC, 2013).

Recovery Plans

Last updated on 24 Jun 2015

Not applicable.

Morocco

Last updated on 24 June 2015

The Ministry of Agriculture and Marine Fisheries (Ministère de l’Agriculture et de la Pèche Maritime, MAPM) is in charge of marine resources’ management. The Halieutis strategy for the fisheries management and development comprises three pillars: sustainability of the resources, performance of the sector and competitiveness (Lazraq, 2012).

Gascoigne (2014) presents 40mm as the minimum stretched mesh-size for pelagic and semi-pelagic trawls. The same author also refers that purse-seining of gross tonnage 2-150 is only allowed behind 2 miles and seiners and trawls of >150 gross tonnage cannot operate within 5 miles and other vessels should be >15 miles (Gascoigne, 2014).

A management plan was published in November 2014 for the small pelagic fishery operating in northern and central zones (A+B). Various spatial and temporal closures are established for each of the zones (MAMPM, 2014). No TAC is known to be in place but a bycatch limit is established at 3% of total catches and allowed species are identified (MAPM, 2014).

A management plan is in place since 2010 for the Moroccan small pelagic fishery operating in zone C (south). Fishing licenses, TACs, bycatch limits (at 2-5% depending on vessel category) and a list of authorized bycatch species is published as well as gears’ characteristics, spatial zoning and closed areas are officially set by Decrees. All landings should be reported and logbooks completed (Gascoigne, 2014). The TAC is defined each year, based on a scientific advice and biomass estimates, and is further split by fishing area, ships and processing activity (Lazraq, 2012) but the decision-making process to define it is not formalized and it’s not clear if it’s set according to the scientific recommendation (Gascoigne, 2014). The total TAC is for the whole small pelagic fishery that targets European pilchard (sardine) Sardina pilchardus, sardinellas Sardinella spp., jack and horse mackerels Trachurus spp., European anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus and chub mackerel Scomber japonicus. It’s ambiguous if the limit is suitable to each of the stocks included given the depletion status of sardinellas Sardinella spp. and full exploitation status of chub mackerel (Gascoigne, 2014).

The Sub-Regional Fisheries Commission (SRFC) is conducting efforts to assess and manage the small pelagic stocks in the region jointly with Morocco. An advisory committee for the small pelagic was created under the SRFC. A project is in place to characterize, monitor and develop a strategic plan for the mentioned fisheries and resources (Sidi et al., 2012; SRFC, 2013).

The Fisheries Partnership Agreement (FPA) between the European Union and the Kingdom of Morocco was renewed in late 2013 (OJEU, 2013). Implemented since September 2014, for 4 years, it allows operations of more than 100 European vessels in Moroccan waters (STECF, 2014). Limits are established for foreign freezer trawlers operating under the FPA: 80,000 tons for EU (includes anchovy; EC, 2014) and 100,000 tons for Russian vessels (not known if includes anchovy; Gascoigne, 2014).

COMPLIANCE

Last updated on 24 June 2015

Fishers’ compliance cannot be determined. Despite FAO recommendations to maintain catches and fishing effort in last years, levels have been increasing – from 116,000 in 2009 tons to 150,000 tons in 2011 (FAO, 2013b).

According to IMROP observers bycatch limits are being exceeded depending on the season and fishing area as well as discarding by the EU fleet that is not officially reported (CSC, 2014).

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

BYCATCH
ETP Species

Last updated on 24 June 2015

The interaction of fisheries operating in Mauritania (CSC, 2014) and Morocco (Gascoigne, 2014) with protected species is unknown.

A protection area for monk seals Monachus monachus (Critically endangered in the IUCN Red list; Aguilar and Lowry, 2013) is established within 12 miles between 21º23’ 00’’ and 20º54’40’’N (MAPM, 2009; Gascoigne, 2014). From 2012 to 2017 hammerhead sharks Sphyrna spp. (except bonnethead S. tiburo), oceanic whitetip shark Carcharhinus longimanus (Vulnerable in IUCN Red list; Baum et al., 2006) and bigeye thresher shark Alopias superciliosus (Vulnerable in IUCN Red list; Amorim et al., 2009) cannot be captured (Gascoigne, 2014; MAPM, 2014a) in accordance with commitments and recommendations made by the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (ICCAT) and the General Fisheries Commission for the Mediterranean (GFCM) (MAPM, 2014a).

Other Species

Last updated on 24 June 2015

No explicit data is available but discarding may be occurring in fisheries operating in Morocco (Gascoigne, 2014) and Mauritania (CSC, 2014).

Morocco

Last updated on 24 June 2015

The total Moroccan TAC applies to all species captured in the small pelagic fishery caught by trawlers and purse-seiners: European anchovy, European pilchard (sardine) Sardina pilchardus, sardinella Sardinella spp., horse mackerel Trachurus spp. and chub mackerel Scomber japonicus. Anchovy represents usually less than 5% of the total catch except on zone A+B occasionally. No explicit data is available but discarding may be occurring (Gascoigne, 2014).

Non-target species are allowed at 3% of total catches (in volume) in zones A+B (MAPM, 2014b) and at 2-5% in zone C depending on vessel category. A list of authorized bycatch species is published in Official Decrees for all zones and none of the species is protected (Gascoigne, 2014).

Sardinella Sardinella spp. is depleted in consequence of low recruitment and overexploitation and chub mackerel is fully exploited (Gascoigne, 2014).

HABITAT

Last updated on 24 June 2015

Purse seining is generally considered to have very low potential effects on the habitat and the possibility of ghost fishing is extremely low when nets are lost (Bjordal, 2002). Trawling is not as well expected to interact with the seabed but the interaction is not monitored.

Most of the species captured on this small pelagic fishery represent a key trophic role in the ecosystem and the majority is highly dependent on oceanographic conditions, namely on the upwelling of the NW Africa zone (e.g. Larissi et al., 2013; Alheit et al., 2014).

Morocco

Last updated on 24 June 2015

Marine Reserves

Last updated on 24 Jun 2015

Fishing of small pelagics including sardine was prohibited from 1998 to 2003 between 24ºN and 25ºN within a 15 mile radius of the coast (Kamili, 2006). Three marine protected areas (MPA) – Ile d’Essaouira, Souss-Massa and Khnifiss/Puerto Cansado – are declared in the central area (Wood, 2007; Naji, 2013) but it is not clear if fishing is regulated.

MPAs established along the NW African coast do not contribute directly for the stock but indirectly for the protection of the ecosystems. Fishing areas, considering artisanal and industrial fishing sectors, are defined in each of the countries (Sidi et al., 2012) and summarized below:

IndustrialArtisanal
15 miles south of 15ºNbeyond 2 miles

FishSource Scores

Last updated on 20 January 2017

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

As calculated for 2014 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

Two management plans are in place for the small pelagic fishery operating in the NW Africa (one recently published for zones A+B and another one in place since 2010 for zone C) where temporal and spatial closures and other technical measures are defined as well as allowed bycatch species and limits according to vessels’ categories (MAPM, 2014b; Gascoigne, 2014). A Total Allowable Catch (TAC) is defined for the small pelagic fishery operating in zone C but the suitability to each of the stocks is not known. Catch limits are defined for foreign trawlers under the Fisheries Partnership Agreement (FPA) with European Union (EU) and Russia (Gascoigne, 2014).

As calculated for 2014 data.

The score is < 6.

An overall catch limit is not defined despite FAO recommendations to not overpass 2009 and 2010 catch levels in the NW African region (FAO, 2013b). Furthermore levels have been increasing - from 116,000 in 2009 tons to 150,000 tons in 2011 – including Mauritania, Morocco and foreign fleets (FAO, 2013b). A TAC for the Moroccan small pelagic fishery is established since 2010 in zone C according to scientific recommendation that is not available and it’s unknown if the limit is suitable to each of the stocks particularly considering the depleted status of sardinellas and full exploitation status of chub mackerel (Gascoigne, 2014). Other limits are also established under the Fisheries Partnership Agreements of Morocco and Mauritania (not clear if all TACs include anchovy) with foreign countries but no scientific advice is either identified.

As calculated for 2014 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

Fishers’ compliance cannot be determined because no overall catch limit is defined for the region. Moroccan catches have been increasing but are however well below the national catch limit defined for zone C. Bycatch limits are known to be overpassed in Morocco and Mauritania (CSC, 2014; Gascoigne, 2014).

STOCK HEALTH:

As calculated for 2011 data.

The score is < 6.

Using data up to 2011, the stock was considered as “fully exploited” with fishing mortality close to the target F0.1. However the FAO working group considers that this result should be carefully interpreted due to uncertainties and lack of input data (FAO, 2013b).

No data available for biomass
No data available for biomass
To see data for catch and tac, please view this site on a desktop.
No data available for fishing mortality
No data available for fishing mortality
No data available for recruitment
No data available for recruitment
To see data for management quality, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for stock status, please view this site on a desktop.
DATA NOTES

1) Landings 1990-2011 from Morocco and Mauritania as well as landings under the Fishery Partnership Agreements (FPA) of each country with Russia and European Union (FAO, 2013b).
2) Advised TACs by the FAO working group are for the whole NW Africa subregion (FAO, 2011b; STECF, 2012) but recommendation for 2012 (FAO, 2013b) did not provide an absolute value. Advice by the National Fisheries Research Institute of Morocco is not available despite the definition of a catch limit only for zone C in Morocco. Scientific recommendations for limits defined under the FPAs are not available.
3) A Moroccan Total Allowable Catch (TAC) is defined only for zone C since 2010 at 1,093,000 tons and was reduced to 1,000,000 t in 2013 (Gascoigne, 2014). For the foreign freezer trawlers operating under the Fisheries Partnership Agreement (FPAs) with Morocco, limits are also established – 80,000 tons for the EU (includes anchovy). It’s unclear if the remaining catch limits – of Morocco-Russia and Mauritania-Russia – include anchovy so were not included in the datasheet. For 2014 and 2015 only the TAC under the EU-Morocco FPA is included because it’s unknown if the previous Moroccan TAC of 1,000,000 tons is still in place for 2014 and 2015.
4) Scores #1, #2 and #3 are based on available information related to fisheries operating in both Moroccan and Mauritanian territories.
5) Biomass and fishing mortality time series are not publicly available. Only a regional acoustic survey conducted in Morocco provided an abundance estimate but the result is not comparable with previous years. Analyses were not finalized (data until 2011) and surveys were not conducted for the last stock assessment (FAO, 2013b) so score #4 cannot be quantitative or qualitatively determined.
6) Biological reference points are not defined. The target F0.1 and limit FMAX reference points for fishing mortality are defined but absolute values are not available. Score #5 is based on the available information (FAO, 2013b).

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Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

No related FIPs

Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

No related MSC certifications

Sources

Credits

Aguilar, A. and Lowry, L. (IUCN SSC Pinniped Specialist Group) 2013. Monachus monachus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3 [Accessed 20 June 2015]http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/13653/0

Alheit, J., Licandro, P., Coombs, S., Garcia, A., Giráldez, A., Santamaría, M. T. G., Slotte, A., Tsikliras, A. C. 2014. Reprint of “Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) modulates dynamics of small pelagic fishes and ecosystem regime shifts in the eastern North and Central Atlantic”, Journal of Marine Systems 133: 88–102http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0924796314000347

Amorim, A., Baum, J., Cailliet, G.M., Clò, S., Clarke, S.C., Fergusson, I., Gonzalez, M., Macias, D., Mancini, P., Mancusi, C., Myers, R., Reardon, M., Trejo, T., Vacchi, M., Valenti, S.V. 2009. Alopias superciliosus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3 [Accessed 20 June 2015]http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/161696/0

Bacha, M., Jemaa, S., Hamitouche, A., Rabhi, K., and Amara, R. 2014. Population structure of the European anchovy, Engraulis encrasicolus, in the SW Mediterranean Sea, and the Atlantic Ocean: evidence from otolith shape analysis. ICES Journal of Marine Science, doi: 10.1093/icesjms/fsu097http://icesjms.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2014/06/11/icesjms.fsu097.full.pdf+html

Baum, J., Medina, E., Musick, J.A., Smale, M. 2006. Carcharhinus longimanus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3 [Accessed 20 June 2015]http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/39374/0

Comite consultatif regional sur les petits pelagiques (CCRPP), 2013. Premiere reunion du Comite consultatif regional sur les petits pelagiques, Projet de Plan d’Aménagement des Pêcheries de Petits Pélagiques (PAP-PP), Setembre 2013, 36pp.http://spcsrp.org/medias/csrp/projets/pelagics/CCR/Presentation_PAP-PP_LC.pdf

Comité Scientifique Conjoint APP RIM-EU (CSC), 2014. Rapport de la septième réunion du Comité Scientifique Conjoint de l'Accord signé entre la République Islamique de Mauritanie et l'Union européenne. Madrid, 27 pp + Annexes.http://ec.europa.eu/fisheries/documentation/studies/joint-scientific-committee-eu-mauritania-2014/report-jsc-2014_fr.pdf

Committee for the Eastern Central Atlantic (CECAF), 2012. Main outcomes of the sixth session of the scientific sub-committee (CECAF/XX/2012/4), Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 2 p.http://www.fao.org/docrep/meeting/024/an153e.pdf

European Commission (EC), 2014. EU-Morocco Fisheries Partnership Agreement to enter into force, Press release database [Accessed 18 June 2015]http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-14-836_en.htm

FAO, 2005. Report of the FAO Working Group on the Assessment of Small pelagic fish off Northwest Africa, FAO Fisheries Report No. 785 (FIRM/R785 Bi), 193 p.ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/009/a0828b/a0828b01.pdf

FAO, 2007. Report of the FAO Working Group on the Assessment of Small pelagic fish off Northwest Africa, FAO Fisheries Report No. 849 (FIMF/R849 Bi), 252 p.ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/010/a1485b/a1485b.pdf

FAO, 2008. Report of the FAO Working Group on the Assessment of Small pelagic fish off Northwest Africa, FAO Fisheries Report No. 882 (FIMF/R882 Bi), 269 p.ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/011/i0467b/i0467b.pdf

FAO, 2009. Report of the FAO Working Group on the Assessment of Small pelagic fish off Northwest Africa, FAO Fisheries Report No. 965 (FIRF/R965 Bi), 265 p.http://www.fao.org/docrep/014/i2237b/i2237b.pdf

FAO, 2011b. Report of the FAO Working Group on the Assessment of Small pelagic fish off Northwest Africa, FAO Fisheries Report No. 975 (FIRF/R975 Bi), 276 p.http://www.fao.org/docrep/015/i2236b/i2236b.pdf

FAO, 2013a. Report of the FAO Working Group on the Assessment of Small Pelagic Fish off Northwest Africa. Casablanca. Morocco, 24–28 May 2011. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Report, No. 1026. Rome. 253 pp.http://www.fao.org/docrep/017/i3135b/i3135b.pdf

FAO, 2013b. Report of the FAO Working Group on the Assessment of Small Pelagic Fish off Northwest Africa. Dakar, Senegal 21–25 May 2012. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Report. No. 1036. Rome. 245 pp.http://www.fao.org/docrep/019/i3346b/i3346b.pdf

Fishery Resources Monitoring System (FIRMS), 2005-2012. Status of stocks and resources 2008. Anchovy - Morocco and Mauritania, 2007. FIRMS Reports. In: Fishery Resources Monitoring System (FIRMS) [online]. Rome. Updated 1 January 2002. [Accessed 17 July 2012].http://firms.fao.org/firms/resource/10094/en

Gascoigne, J. 2014. Moroccan sardine fishery: assessment in relation to the MSC standard, FINAL – 29 October 2014, 17pp.http://fisheryimprovementprojects.org/wp-content/uploads/sustainability-evaluation-final-FINAL-29oct2014.pdf

Institut National the Recherche Halieutique (INRH), 2013. ANCHOIS Engraulis encrasicolus (Linnaeus, 1758), 3pp.http://www.inrh.ma/sites/default/files/Anchois.pdf

Institut National the Recherche Halieutique (INRH), undated. Petit pélagiques, Production [Accessed 23 June 2015]http://www.inrh.ma/petits-pelagiques/production

Larissi, Jamila, Berraho, A., Makaoui, A., Baibai, T., Somoue, L. Benazzouz, A, Zizah, S., Agouzouk, A., Hilmi, K. 2013. Impact of Inter-annual Coastal Upwelling Variability (2001-2010) on the productivity of the Moroccan Atlantic South Area (21° - 26°N), Journal of Marine Biology and Oceanography 2:1http://scitechnol.com/impact-of-interannual-coastal-upwelling-variability-on-productivity-of-moroccan-atlantic-south-area--n-pCHe.pdf

Ministere de l’Agriculture et de la pêche martime (MAPM), 2009. Arrêté du ministre de l'agriculture et de la pêche maritime n° 2806-09 du 22 kaada 1430 (10 novembre 2009) relatif à l'interdiction temporaire de pêche des phoques-moines et autres mammifères marins ainsi que de certaines autres espèces marines (BO. N° 5796 du 17 décembre 2009), Département de la pêche maritime, 1pp.http://www.mpm.gov.ma/wps/wcm/connect/ca840909-aea7-43a4-a49f-666949a80f95/23-Arr%C3%AAt%C3%A9+du+ministre+de+l'agriculture+et+de+la+p%C3%AAche+maritime+n%C2%B0+2806-09.pdf?MOD=AJPERES&CACHEID=ca840909-aea7-43a4-a49f-666949a80f95

Ministere de l’Agriculture et de la pêche martime (MAPM), 2014a. Plan d’aménagement de la pêcherie des requins, Département de la pêche maritime [Accessed 27 February 2015]http://www.mpm.gov.ma/wps/portal/!ut/p/b1/vZjZkqJIFIafZR7AMEn2SyDZIVkyAeXGcGktcVdKwKcf7KjqDstSe2Ja4QI1_sPHWTlhN-_2uvl6eJzPhuV8sx4uz99zYaABwCkqo4BACkVgpySghNNBoINW0G8F4MahgJ_2IvNp7_MI2Bg7umtzLHDZbtbtWeNS1Ti7Mm30xnact1o0juUoZ1g3ni_i2UT1WBvu-UOf5Bs5HO-LRpI8WPZ1LufXQefgrLRJOFo13pg3hg2nU-XtSBFU54iB04Vw7BN7Bn9I-bQ_jrdyhAmXJNkIpmQXRq64NS1hZQdLd5BN2M0yKqMdynrsXBY6x5rfyJtxpBYeyt62xqjYLYKBOzwMJsnIXU9Xanl4rzxrfOTr2T__fMTiV7AkWZLOweJlXWDZWLgfCwg_7O8E62wPDNMLIBCAlKbt7UU-tG1bYyQqfObituDSPtQZYMe6lHqc2n7ir-yvBBe1YIZIBopp-xhEMQQh-8he-DP7O4Kf9qZicaIHgOSZPLAVK4nliGWBLn7a3xZc8IGsy216NANinDJAu-JfC_Lb6Y0C9n7-z4JL_0WpbRAJM5Eu6QwH-Cv_rwSXfEE996Kp6UFqMCRirvhXgj_q5Zv28JF91s3vl5jwKbgzLh4VaX6vC0wTfgjudeFdhPLrDjfqKOKuENeBepSquw-pqPx9wbmWnG4-W25G7YxOrXEjoo1fIR3FI2hV8wLUk7ZttIjullau2ukscklH3cnaYAszsRFXG8nLnK0yjhJf4EvPP9JprGzZ6Zuib8WerWReuuvM-4aPfEeVLNZyh3NltR9t4cra1aywWwON8eMOFHfTvjTcG_Wxs4n246yOkjXNBuNuv3VA_B1loGDQ5snDsQsIBA7Tpd0e4AakaLb2aXGKC1BBrM9qjPoVc0pY2v6GkyUmZcb4-gYALwFkn9uYqt6BEkCxFU7SOFEVrTesmuQRUHwxkIXPBgaWeAYS6gkBhef3w2s9TPhnA02LbyewKAMehQ4DyNOBkmzrLVAQIx8iaAbCa4EA_f2iwavN_of_Y_3-IJvy0zvyyz6i8q8GPmsE3NpYPO7VQOHVQP7ZwC9LmPxNDmsX69uAJozPjDJA0Ihgari0tA1tpjsJxF5S-wVX02JrULmnT4w4UhqNPzYPYCH3QhgPngn7sj9w13k7Radyr1SERudNrMbiNMHJoialgTHS6zaXNT7FDi3s9pqHpAw_82YL-9H8EVD8_0Df2q37wXyihSlKK2lNG2lKQrliq6I39pOiV53GJ8_TeMdLtimOZu9usjmQhA2p0auIf3KoBsqGnEx3N58OGfNdU9BIhkz54OG_ebP-5Wh9WfXd76LV-Ej1fep4oMiAr4sZpjokJWEosk8Apa4vZhVB7slHaUAnvQ-guuSrOn8A1LhXA4VnA7_s3P53FQ_xogEYxf45ibiYnoEVLvP2smnaHDY4gS08YjAdg8MEfQILy-DI_aLRWPHpwEsPGea1wCjiXhtS-M129FQPbYd7NVB4bUiZCDwbCCQVtRuDr2ocqwI9eLqHX_6XUK-HtxgBX5zYeKRXoGgnSXJeUVY1wefhnbrtMzTtEK9oO218FHsU0w8gWvBTYf4AGIuvBoK_DtyukqP7-_CEWP95SuzqeHm-7fn_fm7-BbaxiVc!/dl4/d5/L0lKZyEvSUVqQUFOVEFBQUEhLzRBRXlDQSEhL1o2XzcxMDRBQjFBME9NNUQwSU5OSkVLSTQzME83/

Ministere de l’Agriculture et de la pêche martime (MAPM), 2014b. Arrêté du ministre de l’Agriculture et de la pêche maritime nº 4196-14 du 2 safar (25 novembre 2014) relatif à la pêcherie des petits pélagiques de l’Atlantique Nord-Méditerranée et à la pêcherie des petits pélagiques de l’Atlantique Centre. Bulletin Official nº 6322-9rabii I 1436 (1er-1-2015), 4pp.BO-6322-FR-_D_cision_MPM_-_Am_nagement_des_p_cheries_petits_p_lagiques.pdf

Ministere des peches et de l’economie maritime (MPEM), undated. MPEM portant creation d'une Commission Nationale de Concertation pour la gestion durable des petits pélagiques et fixant ses règles d'organisation et de fonctionnement, 5pp.http://www.spcsrp.org/medias/csrp/Leg/MAU/R-CNC-PP_N950-Mai_2012_FR.pdf

Scientific, Technical and Economic Committee for Fisheries (STECF), 2012. Review of scientific advice for 2012, Part 3 (STECF 11-15), 248 p.http://stecf.jrc.ec.europa.eu/documents/43805/222034/11-09_EWG+11-17+-+Review+of+advice+for+2012+part+3_JRC67715.pdf

Sidi, M.T, Meissa, B., Bouzoma, M.M., Braham, C.I. 2013. Evaluation des ressources et amenagement des pecheries de la ZEE Mauritanienne, Rapport du septieme groupe de travail de l’ Institut Mauritanien de Recherches Océanographiques et des Pêches. Nouadhibou, 5-11 Decembre 2010, 241pp.http://www.imrop.mr/publications/Grroupe%20de%20travail/Rapport%20GT%202010%20IMROP.pdf

References

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    European anchovy - NW Africa, Morocco, Morocco, Purse seines

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