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Profile updated on 9 September 2019
PREDOMINANT PRODUCTION SYSTEM
hatchery - closed cycle
Feed companies should publicly disclose source fisheries and, where necessary, initiate Fishery Improvement Projects. The MMAF Independent Fish Feed Movement (GERPARI) should commit to sourcing raw materials from sustainable or improving source fisheries.
Future revisions of the five-year strategic plans should incorporate zonal and coordinated management approaches based on waterbody carrying-capacity studies.
National and provincial authorities should continue to improve the public availability of aquaculture-related data, particularly farm and waterbody water quality, disease outbreak and control measures, and EIA outcomes. These could be included under the BAPPENAS One Data, MMAF SIDATIK, and MoEF EIA portals.
The MMAF should clarify the responsibility for the CBIB standards, which should become mandatory for all producers. Zonal and coordinated management approaches based on waterbody carrying-capacity studies should be included in these standards.
In FishSource, information on aquaculture management is displayed at the highest resolution unit for which data is available. Ideally, information would simply be structured around an aquaculture management area (AMA) – the primary unit within which aquaculture management practices should be coordinated across a group of farms to mitigate against cumulative impacts and shared risks. Although AMAs are sometimes recognized in industry strategy and regulatory documents, they are not yet established across all aquaculture industries; so, we typically display information at the province/state level.
Government departments and web portals created under Indonesia’s One Data Initiative supplied the primary data and information sources used to compile this profile. These included details of aquaculture legislation, disease control and aquaculture strategies, and limited information on industry standards and aquaculture indicators. Information availability was generally insufficient, as it was limited in its geographic scope and the type of aquaculture indicators available.
The Indonesian Science Institute (LIPI), a legal and policy analysis on aquaculture governance in Indonesia, and sites monitoring export quality provided supplemental information.
Although there is extensive legislation referencing area and zonal approaches to aquaculture planning and management, the pangasius farming industry still appears focused on farm-based management practices, primarily through the voluntary CBIB certification standards and international certifications (Chaery 2013)(MMAF 2007).
At the national level, the Fisheries Act 31/2004 (amended, 2009), MMAF Law No. 30/MEN/2010, and Decree No. 127/DJ-PB/2011 all support aquaculture zoning by local government bodies (Government of Indonesia 2009)(Miao et al. 2013). The State Minister for Environmental Affairs’ Decree No.110/2003 provides two models to determine the carrying capacity of waterbodies (FAO 2006)(Ministry of Environment 2003)(Skonhoft 2005).
Area-based approaches to aquaculture development include the formation of integrated production areas (Minapolitans) (Hatfield 2018)(MMAF 2010)(MMAF 2011)(MMAF 2011)(MMAF 2013)(Rimmer et al. 2013). However, this program was replaced by integrated marine and fisheries centers (SKPT), which focus on the development of small island and border areas (Hatfield 2018)(Kemkominfo 2018)(MMAF 2016). It is not clear if these approaches adopt a zonal approach to aquaculture planning or encourage coordinated management between farms.
The DGA Strategic Plan for Aquaculture 2015-2019 outlines plans to improve the use of aquaculture resources, including the introduction of zonal management, fish health, and environmental management programs (DGA 2016).
At the provincial level, a copy of the Strategic Plan (Renstra) for the Department of Marine and Fisheries Affairs of South Sumatra Province was not publicly available. BAPPEDA’s Spatial Plan for South Sumatra 2016-2036 advocates for the development of cultivation areas, including fishery allocation areas (which includes aquaculture). Article 54 advocates that the control of freshwater aquaculture in border areas should be based on the carrying capacity of the waterbody. Article 57 states that aquaculture is prohibited in protected areas or adjacent to polluted areas (BAPPEDA Sumatera Selatan 2016).
Licensing: Under the 2004 Fisheries Law, farms require a license that is known as a Surat Izin Usaha Perikanan (SIUP) (MMAF 2007). Small-scale pond and cage farms are exempt (MMAF 2007)(Phillips et al., P. G. White and Yamamoto, others 2009). The Indonesian Investment Coordinating Board (BKPM) and its local offices (BKPMD) are now responsible for issuing licenses and introduced an online application system in 2018 (Hatfield 2018). A SIUP requires a locational and environmental permit. An environmental permit depends on the results of an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), known as an AMDAL. Farms under 50 ha do not require an AMDAL and are subject to a UKL/UPL (environmental management and monitoring measures) (Hatfield 2018)(Phillips et al., P. G. White and Yamamoto, others 2009).
The Agency for Marine and Fisheries Research Affairs and Human Resources or BRSDM under the MMAF is responsible for conducting research into marine and fisheries issues. Its Fisheries Research Center is responsible for aquaculture (FAO 2006)(Mochtar 2018). Other national research institutions include the Indonesia Institute of Sciences (Lembaga Ilmu Pengetahuan Indonesia - LIPI) which conducts research into the environment, food security, agriculture, and animal husbandry (LIPI 2018).
The DGA also provides research and technology support services via 12 Technical Implementation Units (UPT) nationwide (FAO 2006)(Nurdjana 2006). Provincial marine and fisheries offices (DKP) also provide support through local technical implementation units (UPTD) (Nurdjana 2006).
Water Quality: The LIPI Research Center for Limnology focuses on water quality (LIPI 2010) and waterbody management studies for several lakes nationwide (LIPI 2018). They have introduced a Lake Indonesia Information System (Sistem Informasi Danau Indonesia - SIDI), for which the public portal is currently under construction (LIPI 2015). LIPI has stated that there is a limited application of water quality studies in management approaches (LIPI 2018).
Health Management: No information available
Disease Control: No information available
The DGA (under MMAF) is the national government department responsible for aquaculture policy development. At the provincial- and district-level, the provincial marine and fisheries services (DKP) are responsible. Under the national government’s Autonomy Law, No. 22/1999 (amended Law No 23/2014), provincial bodies have greater freedom and are no longer under the direct supervision of MMAF (Nurdjana 2006). The DGA’s Regulation No. 65/PER-DJPB/2015 contains general best management practice (CBIB) assessment criteria. These are applicable to all aquaculture species and systems (DJPB 2015).
Water Quality: The Indonesian Government’s Regulation No. 82 of 2001 governs water quality. Under this, water bodies are classified into Class I to IV. Class II and III are suitable for aquaculture (ADB 2016)(Badan Pusat Statistik 2018)(Government of Indonesia 2001)(Government of Indonesia 2001)(Hatfield 2018)(Partowijoto and Hidayat 2006). Guidelines for assessing water quality have also been created, classifying water quality from excellent (Class A) to bad or heavily polluted (Class D) (MoE 2003).
The DGA is responsible for water quality monitoring and reporting, the mapping of aquaculture areas and the nutrient status of reservoirs, and controlling waste discharge from shrimp and fishponds (NACA 2017). The Environmental Impact Management Agency (BAPPEDAL) is responsible for various environmental issues, including the coordination of the EIA process and the monitoring of waste discharge. In South Sumatra, it is called the Environmental and Land Service Office of South Sumatra (Dinas Lingkungan Hidup dan Pertanahan Provinsi Sumatera Selatan) (DLHP 2018).
Health Management: The MMAF and the DGA are responsible for aquatic animal health (NACA 2017)(OIE and NACA 2013). The FQIA under the MMAF is also responsible for providing health certificates for import and export products (FQIA 2011). The amendment to the 2004 Fisheries Law, states that the MMAF can declare disease outbreak areas and establish preventative disease measures. Imported animals and their products require a health certificate, issued by the country of origin (Skonhoft 2005). Article 56 of Regulation No. 28/2017 on aquaculture calls for a disease surveillance and alert system and management plans, including emergency responses. Article 58 calls for disease risk and hazard assessments for the introduction of new species or strains (Government of Indonesia 2017). A National Fish Vaccination Program started in 2009 (NACA 2017).
Recent efforts to improve national aquatic animal disease management include the introduction of the MMAF and Fish Quarantine and Inspection Agency’s (FQIA) Guidelines to quarantine fish for aquaculture producers (Cara Karantina Ikan Yang Baik) or CKIB. These include risk assessments and an emergency response plan for multiple diseases. CKIB also aims to improve biosecurity and traceability to meet the requirements of export countries (MMAF 2014).
Disease Control: The authorities responsible for the use of chemicals and veterinary drugs are the DGA and its Directorate of Fish Health & Environment (ASEAN Secretariat 2013)(Maskur 2013).
Multiple legislation and standards govern the use of chemicals in aquaculture. These include the Fisheries Law; MMAF’s KEP.02/MEN/2007 on food quality and safety, MMAF’s KEP.20/MEN/2003; and DGA’s Decree KEP.106/DJ-PB/2011 (E.C 2012)(MMAF 2003)(MMAF 2007)(Skonhoft 2005). Articles 37-43 of Regulation No. 28/2017 on aquaculture prohibits drugs that could harm the environment. Drug vendors should be licensed and drug quality should be tested (Government of Indonesia 2017). Permitted chemicals and drugs are included in the MMAF SIBATIK website (MMAF 2018).
Water Quality: Guidelines for assessing water quality have been set that classify water quality from excellent (Class A) to bad or heavily polluted (Class D). These include a range of biochemical indicators but are not specific to aquaculture (MoE 2003). The CBIB assessment criteria state that water quality should be suitable for farmed species and should be monitored regularly (DJPB 2015).
Health Management: The CBIB standards outline several biosecurity criteria including the use of certified disease-free seed, disinfection of equipment and recording of disease events (DJPB 2015). MMAF KEPMEN No. 26/KP/2013 identifies multiple diseases that are subject to quarantine and emergency response measures. Those applicable to pangasius are Edwardsiella tarda, Streptococcus agalactiae, Pseudomonas anguilliseptica, and Henneguya exillis (MMAF 2013).
Under the MMAF CKIB standards, farmers are required to inform the Fish Quarantine, Quality Control and Safety of Fishery Products Technical implementation unit (UPT KIPM) of any disease outbreaks listed by the OIE or KEPMEN-No. 26/KP 2013 listed diseases. Quarantine, movement restrictions, and disease control measures are required (MMAF 2014).
Disease Control: The CBIB standards allow the use of permitted and registered chemicals as per product instructions. Farmed product requires testing to ensure that residues are below acceptable thresholds. The use of treatments should be recorded (DJPB 2015). Banned antibiotics include tetracycline, nitrofuran, chloramphenicol, dimetridazole/metronidazole, niturpirinol and florenicol; the disinfectant, malachite green; and the chemothrapeutants, triclorfon, and trifluralin (ASEAN Secretariat 2013). The DGA’s Decree KEP.106/DJ-PB/2011 permits maximum residue levels of 100 µg/kg for tetracycline, oxytetracycline, chlortetracycline, doxycycline, sulphonamides, quinolones, emamectin, and ivermectin (E.C 2012).
The National Standardization Agency of Indonesia (BSN) has set national food quality standards known as the Indonesian National Standards (SNI). SNI standards for fishery products are the responsibility of the MMAF FQIA. There are over 260 fishery-product related SNIs, including 89 for aquaculture products (FQIA 2011). SNI 01-6483.5-2002 is relevant to the production of pangasius in ponds (FQIA 2011), but the contents of this standard are not publicly available.
There is not enough information available to assess farmers’ compliance. Any assessment is constrained by a lack of information on the number of licensed farms and environmental permits and EIAs (AMDAL) conducted as part of the license requirement.
However, as of April 2019, an EIA website was under construction (MoEF 2017). Small-scale producers are exempt from licensing (MMAF 2007)(Phillips et al., P. G. White and Yamamoto, others 2009). In general terms, the management of the industry relies on a farm-level regulatory approach via the voluntary CBIB and SNI standards. The number of farms adhering to these standards in South Sumatra is unknown. The CBIB website is no longer available as the MMAF no longer financially supports the CBIB standards.
Water Quality: There is very limited information on the status of waterbody quality at the national or provincial level. LIPI’s SIDI website plans to bring together information on water quality for multiple waterbodies in Indonesia and is currently under construction (LIPI 2015). The Musi River is classified as heavily polluted (Badan Pusat Statistik 2018). There is no evidence of LIPI conducting any carrying-capacity studies in waterbodies in South Sumatra (LIPI 2010). There has also been limited integration of water quality research into overall management approaches (LIPI 2018).
Health Management: The most serious pangasius pathogen nationwide is Enteric septicemia of catfish (ESC) caused by the bacterium Edwardsiella ictaluri (Mawardi et al. 2018)(NACA 2017)(Yuasa et al. 2003). In 2017, ESC was reported in Sumatra and Kalimantan, with mortality rates of up to 50% (NACA 2017)(NACA et al. 2017).
Disease Control: The European Commissions’ RASFF portal and the U.S. FDA Import Alerts do not list any alerts or notifications concerning the detection of prohibited veterinary medicines or maximum residue levels above acceptable thresholds in pangasius from Indonesia (European Commission 2019)(FDA 2018).
Water Quality: Key pressures on Indonesia's inland waterbodies include water quality degradation, anthropogenic activities, changes in land and water use, and climate change (LIPI 2018). Information for the Musi River suggests water quality is deteriorating (BAPPENAS and MoEF 2018).
Health Management: No information available.
Disease Control: In 2014, the DGA introduced the Aquacard program to support the sustainability and uptake of the CBIB and good fish hatchery (CPIB) standards and the traceability of product (MMAF 2014). Aquacard is given to farmers or groups of farmers known as Pokdakans who have achieved CBIB status. However, it is not known if this system has been fully implemented. Technical guidelines are available (in Bahasa) from the MMAF (MMAF 2014).
The MMAF aimed to address major food safety, biosecurity and environmental issues concerning pangasius farming in Indonesia through the introduction of the voluntary CBIB standard (Chaery 2013). The DGA Strategic Plan for Aquaculture 2015-2019 aims to have 20,000 farms of all species certified to CBIB standards by 2019 (DGA 2016). However, the MMAF no longer financially supports the CBIB standards. A draft regulation for the creation of a third-party CBIB auditing system has been proposed under the MMAF's BBP2HP Center for Fisheries Testing (LSPro) (MMAF 2017).
Water Quality: No information available.
Health Management: The MMAF has prepared a national strategy for the control of fish health and the environment (DJPB 2018)(MMAF 2018). The strategy has been submitted to the FAO and is one of the outputs of the FAO TCP / INS / 3402 project (2011-2014) - Improving the capacity of fish health and environmental management in Indonesia (Maskur 2013)(MMAF 2018). A copy of this strategy is not publicly available. In 2017, a vaccine for ESC was developed (NACA 2017).
Disease Control: The MMAF have produced SIBATIK, a website dedicated to providing information on the use of fish health drugs, sampling procedures, and associated legislation. It also contains a list of permitted and registered drugs and chemicals (MMAF 2018).
The regulatory system addresses risks to and from aquaculture through a zonal approach to siting, licensing, and production management.
There is no publicly available data on the number of licenses or associated EIAs at this time, but a website for EIAs is under construction (MoEF 2017). At the national level, the DGA has produced a Strategic Plan for Aquaculture 2015-2019 (DGA 2016). A copy of South Sumatra’s Department of Fisheries and Marine Affairs Strategic Plan (Renstra) is not available.
There is no evidence of any aquaculture management areas. A license known as a SIUP is required to take part in fisheries enterprises (including aquaculture) (Hatfield 2018)(MMAF 2007). However, small-scale farms are exempt (MMAF 2007)(Phillips et al., P. G. White and Yamamoto, others 2009).
To receive a SUIP a location and environmental permit are required. An EIA (known as AMDAL) is required to receive an environmental permit for farms >50 hectares. Farms under this size are subject to a UKL/UPL (environmental management and monitoring measures) (Hatfield 2018)(Phillips et al., P. G. White and Yamamoto, others 2009).
Aquaculture zoning is referenced in multiple pieces of legislation, including the DGA Strategic Plan for Aquaculture 2015-2019 and South Sumatra’s Spatial Plan 2016-2036. Aquaculture is also banned in protected areas and adjacent to polluted areas (BAPPEDA Sumatera Selatan 2016)(DGA 2016)(MMAF 2010).
There is no evidence of enforcement of the license or EIA regulatory processes. The Investment Coordinating Board (BKPM) and its regional branches (BKPMD) are responsible for licensing. Previously, it was the MMAF (Hatfield 2018)(MMAF 2007). BKPM is also responsible for the environmental permit with recommendations provided by the Ministry of Environment. BAPPEDAL (and its regional offices) is responsible for the coordination of the EIA process (Hatfield 2018).
The presence of an active producer organization representative of the whole industry and establishment of a Code of Good Practice.
The number of CBIB certified pangasius farms by province was previously publicly available via the DGA CBIB website; however, this site is now unavailable. There is no information on the membership of any aquaculture or pangasius producer organization, with the exception of Masyarakat Akuakultur Indonesia (MAI) (MAI 2016).
The CBIB assessment standards are applicable to all aquaculture species and contain Best Management Practices at the farm-level (DJPB 2015). A CKIB document is also available that focusses on farm-level biosecurity measures and emergency disease response plans (MMAF 2014). There are several national pangasius and aquaculture organizations including the Indonesian Catfish Entrepreneurs Association (APCI), Masyarakat Perikanan Nusantara (MPN),; Masyarakat Akuakultur Indonesia (MAI), and Gabungan Pengusaha Perikanan Indonesia (Gappindo) (InfoAkuakultur 2016)(MAI 2016)(Nurdjana 2006). In 2014, MAI had over 900 members representing a range of stakeholders, including government institutions, research organizations, and farmers (MAI 2016).
The MMAF and its provincial departments financially support organized fish farmer groups known as Pokdakans in order to provide training and encourage improved production practices (MMAF 2014). Some Pokdakans producing pangasius in South Sumatra are identifiable via media reports (PKBL-BUMN 2017)(Sumselnews 2018).
The CBIB standards are voluntary (Chaery 2013)(MMAF 2007). However, the DGA Strategic Plan for Aquaculture states that 20,000 farmers will be CBIB certified by 2019 (DGA 2016).
The future of the CBIB standards remains unclear as the MMAF no longer financially supports them and is considering introducing third-party auditing under the MMAF's BBP2HP Center for Fisheries Testing (LSPro) (MMAF 2017). There is no reference to the CBIB standards on the MAI website (MAI 2016). It is not known whether the CBIB standards are mandatory for pokdakans.
The impact of aquaculture on the quality of public water resources is managed.
There is no information on farm-level water quality. There is very little information on coastal, lake, or reservoir water quality in South Sumatra apart from the status of the Musi River (Badan Pusat Statistik 2018)(MoEF 2015). LIPI is constructing the Sistem Informasi Danau Indonesia (SIDI) portal, which will bring together water quality information for multiple waterbodies in Indonesia including Lake Ranau in South Sumatra (LIPI 2015). There is no evidence of carrying – capacity studies for water bodies (LIPI 2010).
There is no evidence of farm-specific effluent standards. Regulation No. 82 of 2001 classifies waterbodies into four categories, with Class II and III being suitable for aquaculture (ADB 2016)(Government of Indonesia 2001)(Partowijoto and Hidayat 2006). Guidelines for assessing water quality have been established classifying water quality from excellent (Class A) to bad or heavily polluted (Class D) (MoE 2003).
The State Minister for Environmental Affairs’ Decree No.110/2003 contains two models to assess the carrying capacity of waterbodies (FAO 2006)(Ministry of Environment 2003)(Skonhoft 2005). It is not known whether this Decree is active or if it is applied to aquaculture planning.
Water quality enforcement measures are not available. Under Regulation No. 82 of 2001, the national government is responsible for cross-provincial/border water quality management. Meanwhile, the provincial, regency or city government is responsible for inter-regency/city water quality management (Government of Indonesia 2001).
The Environmental Impact Management Agency (BAPPEDAL) is responsible for various environmental issues, including the coordination of the EIA process and the monitoring and management of waste discharge. In South Sumatra, it is known as Sistem Informasi Lingkungan Hidup Sumatera Selatan (DLHP 2018).
Industry is protected from catastrophic losses through best practice disease management on farm and at the zone level.
There is very limited information on key disease criteria such as the number of outbreaks and associated losses at the provincial level. Qualitative national information on the presence of OIE notifiable diseases and other aquatic diseases is available through the QAAD reports produced by NACA in association with the OIE and FAO (NACA et al. 2019). These include the location and associated mortality of ESC outbreaks. However, Indonesia does not report regularly to the QAAD report (NACA et al. 2019).
The OIE provides information on the number of notifiable disease outbreaks at the national level. There is no information on the occurrence of diseases known to be of concern to pangasius farming such as ESC (World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) 2019).
There is no evidence of a coordinated disease response for regular production. Article 56 of Regulation No. 28/2017 on aquaculture calls for an aquatic disease surveillance and alert system as well as disease risk and hazard assessments for the introduction of new species or strains (Government of Indonesia 2017).
The CKIB document includes emergency response instructions for the outbreak of OIE notifiable diseases and those identified under MMAF KEPMEN-No. 26 - KP / 2013 (MMAF 2013)(MMAF 2014). Imported animals and their products require a health certificate (Skonhoft 2005).
There is limited information on disease enforcement. The MMAF is the responsible authority for aquatic animal health nationwide and the identifiable authority for enforcing disease management regulations (OIE and NACA 2013). The MMAF provide records of fish quarantine violations from 2003 to 2013 and corrective actions from 2003 to 2011 via the One Data Portal (MMAF 2016)(MMAF 2016).
The MMAF SIDATIK website identifies a range of annual fish quarantine and quality control actions at the national-level including shipments prohibited from entry, the total number of fish quarantine violations, and quarantine actions (MMAF 2017). None of these records are reported by species.
The fishmeal and oil in aquaculture feed is sourced from well managed or improving fisheries.
Major feed companies are identifiable, but there is no information on source fisheries from any of the suppliers. Identified Indonesian pangasius feed producers include PT. Central Proteinaprima (CP Prima), Japfa and P.T. Allied Feeds Indonesia (CP Prima 2016)(Japfa 2015)(PT. Allied Feeds Indonesia 2018).
There is limited evidence of commitments to improve the sourcing of ingredients from fish feed suppliers. The Indonesian Feedmills Association outlines various feed improvement activities (GMPT 2018).
CP produces annual sustainability reports that outline their commitment to the improvement of source fisheries (CP Prima 2018). CP Foods is also part of SFP's Asian Reduction Fisheries Supply Chain Roundtable, which aims to address improvements in the Asian fisheries that supply the production of fishmeal and oil for use in aquaculture feeds (SFP 2017).
No related AIPs
No related analysis
South Sumatra is part of the Southern Sumatra-Western Java freshwater Ecosystem and has a tropical climate (Hales 2015)(Saleh et al. 2016). Major waterbodies include the Ogan, Musi, Mesuji, Tulangbawang, Seputih, and Sugihan rivers flowing into the South China and Javan seas and Lake Ranau and Air Hitam (BAPPENAS and MoEF 2018)(Hales 2015)(MMAF 2015)(MoEF 2015)(Muthmainnah and Gaffar 2017)(Saleh et al. 2016).
Ecosystems include one of Indonesia’s largest floodplain river systems, the Ogan/Komering/Lempuing system, peat, and swamp forests, and floodplain swamps and forests (Hoggarth et al. 2003)(Muthmainnah and Gaffar 2017). Sumatran freshwater swamp forests are home to many endangered species and are under threat from logging and agricultural expansion (WWF 2018). There was 48,000 ha of water conservation areas in S. Sumatra in 2014 (BAPPENAS and Ministry of Forestry 2018).
The main farmed species is P. hypothalamus (Ramadhan et al. 2016)(WorldFish 2015), which was introduced to Indonesia from Thailand (Slembrouck et al. 2003). Other species include the indigenous P. djambal , P. macronema, P. micronemus, P. nasutus , P. nieuwenhuisii, and hybrids of P. hypophthalmus and P. djambal (Nguyen 2009)(Slembrouck et al. 2003)(STIP 2016)(STIP, 2016).
P. hypothalamus seed is produced in hatcheries using the artificial spawning of broodstock (Hamid et al. 2009)(Legendre et al. 2000). P. djambal seed is produced in hatcheries but relies on broodstock produced from wild-caught juveniles (Slembrouck et al. 2003).
There are over 150 intensive-indoor pangasius hatcheries nationwide, located in the main production areas (STIP, 2016). Nationwide, pangasius seed production doubled from 529 million fry in 2009 to over 1,000 million in 2014 (MMAF 2015).
Genetic improvement of P. hypophthalmus has taken place through selective breeding and hybridization in Thailand and Indonesia (Nguyen 2009).
Indonesia is the second largest producer of farmed pangasius after Vietnam. Production has grown dramatically from around 100,000 t in 2009 to over 430,000 t in 2016 (FAO 2018)(MMAF 2018). This growth in the industry is thought to be due to government support - including the introduction of MMAF PER.15/MEN/2011 that prevented imports from other countries (MMAF 2011)(Ramadhan et al. 2016) – as well as growing domestic demand (Globefish 2015)(SMART-fish Indonesia 2018). The industry mainly supplies the domestic market and very little is exported (MMAF 2015)(MMAF 2015)(Seafish 2015)(STIP 2016).
South Sumatra is the largest pangasius producer in Indonesia, accounting for over 50% of production (DGA 2014)(MMAF 2016)(MMAF 2017)(STIP 2016). Production increased from around 47,000 t in 2009 to over 230, 000 t in 2014. Production then dropped to 160,000 t in 2015 (DGA 2014)(MMAF 2016)(MMAF 2017). The majority of production takes place in ponds with smaller amounts produced in cages (Phillips et al. 2015)(Ramadhan et al. 2016)(STIP 2016).
In 2012, the DGA began a process of aquaculture industrialization in South Sumatra in order to support and vertically integrate the pangasius industry focused on Banyuasin, OKI, South OKU, and East OKU districts (DGA 2016).
Current constraints to the industry include the high cost of feed, seed and feed quality, pollution and poor transportation networks (Harkell 2017)(Ramadhan et al. 2016)(WorldFish 2015).
Legislation - Responsible Institution - Relevant activities
The Fisheries Law No. 31/2004, amended as Law No. 45/2009 - Government of Indonesia - The legal framework for the Indonesian fisheries and aquaculture sector.
The Autonomy Law (Law No. 22/1999), amended by Law 32/2004, and Law No 23/2014) - Government of Indonesia - Gives the provincial government or governor responsibility for the provincial fisheries sector.
Regulation No. 28/2017 - Government of Indonesia - Procedures for the governing aquaculture production.
Presidential Instruction Number 7 2016 - MMAF - Acceleration of National Fishery Industry Development.
No. PER.15/MEN/2011 - MMAF - Quality Control and Safety of Fishery Products Entering the Territory of the Republic of Indonesia
No Per.12/MEN/2017 - MMAF - Fish Cultivation License.
KEPMEN – No 51/2016 - MMAF - Integrated Marine and Fisheries Centers (Sentra Kelautan dan Perikanan Terpadu -SKPT).
KEP.32/MEN/2010 amended 2011 - MMAF - Minapolitan Areas.
Law No. 30/MEN/2010 - MMAF - The management plan and zoning of aquatic conservation areas.
Decree No. 127/DJ-PB/2011 - MMAF - Spatial/planning zoning.
Decree No. 8/KEPMEN-KP/2014 - MMAF - Implementation of SNI for fisheries products.
Decree No: Per.02/MEN/2007 - MMAF - Fish drug residue, chemicals, biological substances and contaminants.
Regulation of No PER. 02 /MEN /2007 - MMAF - Monitoring residual medicine, chemical, and biological material and contaminants in aquaculture.
Decree KEP.106/DJ-PB/2011 - DGA - MRLs for a number of antibiotics and anthelmintics.
Decree No. KEP. 02/MEN/2007 - MMAF - Good Aquaculture Practices.
KEPMEN No. 26/KEPMEN-KP/2013 - MMAF - Notifiable fish diseases, quarantine, and emergency responses.
Decree No: Kep.17/Men/2006 - MMAF - List of quarantine pests and fish diseases.
KEP.33/MEN/2007 - MMAF - High – risk aquatic diseases.
Decree No.110/2003 - Ministry of Environment - Guidelines on the stipulation of accommodating the capacity of water pollution in water sources.
Decree No. 17, 2001 - Ministry of Environment - Environmental assessment.
Regulation No. 82 of 2001 - Government of Indonesia - Management of water quality and water pollution control.
Regulation No. 02/MEN/ 2010 - MMAF - The procurement and distribution of fish feed.
Government Regulation No.27/1999 - Government of Indonesia - The analysis of environmental impacts.
Decree No. 40/2000 - MMAF - Procedures for the commission for appraisal of environmental impact analysis.
At the national level, the DGA has produced a strategic plan for aquaculture 2015-2019 (DGA 2016). A copy of the DKP South Sumatra’s strategic plan was not available, but both plans are expected to be updated for their next five-year periods.
The MMAF no longer financially supports the CBIB standards. A draft regulation for the creation of a third-party CBIB auditing system has been proposed under the MMAF's BBP2HP Center for Fisheries Testing (LSPro) (MMAF 2017).
Professional organizations (National & Regional)