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Last updated on 6 March 2018

SUMMARY

SUMMARY

IDENTIFICATION

SCIENTIFIC NAME(s)

Penaeus vannamei , Penaeus monodon

SPECIES NAME(s)

Whiteleg shrimp, Camarón blanco, Giant tiger prawn

JURISDICTION

Kiên Giang

PREDOMINANT PRODUCTION SYSTEM

Pond

WATER SOURCE

Brackish

JUVENILE SOURCE

hatchery - wild broodstock


ANALYSIS

Strengths
  • Extensive legislation concerning aquaculture production, (including regulations and guidance on VietGAP standards), as well as legislation on disease control & chemical and drug use and environmental monitoring and assessment.
  • In March 2017, MARD approved the DAH’s Decision No. 1038/QĐ-BNN-TY - National Plan of Disease Control for Shrimp for shrimp for 2017 to 2020. This requires farmers to monitor disease and environment indicators, perform disease checks, and collaborate on disease treatments.
  • The zonal management of diseases is outlined in MARD’s voluntary Circular 14/2016/TT-BNNPTNT, which contains procedures concerning the establishment of animal disease safety zones. In addition, MARD has produced an atlas defining aquaculture production zones in Kien Giang.
Weaknesses
  • There is little evidence of the implementation of the DAH’s Decision No. 1038/QĐ-BNN-TY concerning, the National Disease Control Plan. In general, only certified farms (both national and international schemes) are implementing biosecurity measures.
  • There has been a limited uptake of international certification schemes and MARD’s VietGAP National Standards – despite VietGAP being intended as an alternative to international certifications and mandatory for intensive shrimp farms by 2020.
  • There is no public reporting of data on shrimp farm water quality, the number of farms and license conditions or information on source fisheries used in the shrimp feed manufacturing industry. There is limited public data on disease outbreaks and management measures.
  • Repeated detection of residues of nationally and internationally prohibited drugs in shrimp exports from Vietnam - as well as the detection of allowable drugs, but above Maximum Residue Levels (MRL) for export destinations. 
Recommendation for improvement
  • Encourage feed companies to publicly disclose source fisheries (for example, via annual reports or sustainability reports, regularly updated websites, or via initiatives such as the Ocean Disclosure Project) - and where necessary, initiate Fishery Improvement Projects (FIP)s.

  • Provide farmers and companies with access to DFISH’s database of government approved drugs, feed, and treatment chemicals. 

  • Approve MONRE’s Circular (currently unnumbered) to guide implementation of the National Assembly’s Environment Protection Law No. 55/2014/QH13 (effective Jan 2015), regarding carrying capacity, allocation of waste water discharging quota, pollution correction, and necessary environmental improvements for polluted areas.

  • Increase the amount of public reporting on disease outbreaks and control, licensing and shrimp farm water quality monitoring.

  • Publish a list of disease-free and disease zones and the name of companies located within them via DAH’s website - as required by the DAH’s Official Dispatch No. 1079/TY-TS, under which the government and farmers are required to monitor disease and environmental indicators, perform disease checks by spot-sampling and collaborate on disease treatments. 


FISHSOURCE SCORES

Management Quality:

regulatory framework

< 6

best practices

< 6

water quality

< 6

disease

< 6

feed

< 6


AIPS

No related AIPs

AQUACULTURE MANAGEMENT UNITS

In FishSource, information on aquaculture management is displayed at the highest resolution unit for which data is available. Ideally, information would simply be structured around an aquaculture management area (AMA) – the primary unit within which aquaculture management practices should be coordinated across a group of farms to mitigate against cumulative impacts and shared risks. Although AMAs are sometimes recognized in industry strategy and regulatory documents, they are not yet established across all aquaculture industries; so, we typically display information at the province/state level.

Country
Provinces
AMA
Shrimp - Viet Nam Bến Tre
Cà Mau
Kiên Giang
Long An
Sóc Trăng
Tiền Giang
Trà Vinh

ANALYSIS

Information Sources

Publicly available data is available via research from universities/institutes such as Research Institute for Aquaculture (RIA) 2 and Can Tho University; public reports from International Collaborating Centre for Agriculture and Fisheries Sustainability (ICAFIS) and the Vietnam Association of Seafood Exporters and Producers (VASEP); various governments’ sources, such as the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (MARD), its Good Aquaculture Practice (VietGAP), and The Vietnam Directorate of Fisheries (DFISH). Regulations concerning aquaculture management and national and local strategies are provided by DFISH and some provincial departments of MARD and the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment (MONRE)  - as well as through the legal normative documents website (VBQPPL). 

Details concerning prohibited and allowable chemicals and drugs and associated Maximum Residue Levels (MRL) were provided by a report by the ASEAN Secretariat and a summary of MARD Circulars provided by VASEP. The presence of these drugs in export products was cross-checked against the United States’ Food and Drug Administration (FDA) import alerts and the European Commission’s Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (RASFF) portal.

Quantitative and qualitative information on shrimp disease is available through the World Organization for Animal Health - World Animal Health Information System (OIE WAHIS) database and the Network of Aquaculture Centers in Asia Pacific’s (NACA) Quarterly Aquatic Animal Disease (QAAD) reports respectively.

Management Status

Zonal Assessment

The management of the industry generally relies on a farm-level regulatory approach to management via national and international good aquaculture practices. According to the national government’s Decree No. 59/2005/NĐ-CP, all farmers must hold a business license for aquaculture. Farms should be located according to local aquaculture planning standards and operate according to national aquaculture, veterinary, food safety and environmental protection standards detailed on the licensing procedure and associated registration forms (outlining key criteria including stocking, estimated harvest etc.) is publicly available in Annex 3 of MARD’s Circular No. 23/2014/TT-BNNPTTN (Vbqppl 2017).

The Vietnam Directorate of Fishery (DFISH) is responsible for developing a Master Plan for shrimp production and national technical standards for aquaculture in cooperation with other national and international organizations on multiple issues associated with aquaculture production.

In 2015, MARD issued Decision No. 5528/QĐ-BNN-TCTS on the approval of brackish water shrimp production in the Mekong Delta until 2020, with a vision to 2030. Following this, DARD Kien Giang created plans for 85,800 hectares (ha) of giant tiger prawn farms by 2020 (9,400 ha of which will be semi-intensive and/or intensive farms) and 7,000 ha of whiteleg shrimp farms (semi-intensive and/or intensive). It has also created planning districts for farming tiger and whiteleg shrimp (Vbqppl 2017).  

MARD has developed an atlas to define specific aquaculture production zones at the provincial level (MARD 2017).

In 2016, MARD introduced a voluntary Circular 14/2016/TT-BNNPTNT outlining procedures to certify an animal disease safety zone/site (Vbqppl 2017). According to this, farming zones need to be registered by the DAH of DARD to be certified disease-free. Currently, there is little evidence of enforcement.

In 2015, MARD released Decision No. 4835/QĐ-BNN-TCTS concerning the voluntary application of VietGAP standards for whiteleg and giant tiger prawn farmers (MARD 2015). According to VietGAP Criteria 1.1.1, farms shall be farms should be sited according to provincial aquaculture master plans.

Scientific Advice

Water Quality: According to the Law of Environment Protection No. 55/2014/QH13, the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment (MONRE) is responsible for carrying capacity studies, identifying water quality and volume limits for discharge water, as well as issuing guidance and corrective measures. At the provincial level, responsibility for these issues belongs to the Provincial People Committee (PPC), who is also required to publish details of water bodies that exceed their carrying capacity as regulated by the National Government’s Decree No. 38/2015/NĐ-CP (Vbqppl 2017).

Health Management: According to MARD’s Circular No. 17/2014/TT-BNNPTNT, the National Department of Animal Health (DAH) under the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (MARD) monitors the national implementation of aquatic health treatment and prevention plans, conducts training, and collaborates with local research institutes (such as RIA 2), universities (including Can Tho University, Nong Lam University), and international organizations (Vbqppl 2017).

MARD also provides advice and assistance in animal health, including forecasting animal disease and zoonotic outbreaks. DFISH also provides guidance on aquaculture planning and produces technical standards and requirements for aquaculture applications. In addition, the PPC and DARD and their lower levels (such as the provincial departments of animal health and aquaculture agencies) are responsible for the environmental and disease monitoring within their province.

Disease Control: DAH in collaboration with DFISH also provide guidance on the control of diseases. The DAH is also responsible for reporting outbreaks of animal disease to MARD as regulated by MARD’s Circular No. 17/2014/TT-BNNPTNT (Vbqppl 2017)

Managers' Decisions

The Vietnam Directorate of Fishery (DFISH) is responsible for developing a Master Plan for Shrimp Production and National Technical Standards for Aquaculture in cooperation with other national and international organizations on multiple issues associated with aquaculture production.  MARD has developed an Environmental Master Plan for shrimp production in the Mekong Delta from 2015 (Fistenet 2014).

Water Quality: According to National technical regulation on brackish water shrimp culture farm No. QCVN 02-19:2014/BNNPTNT and MARD’s Circular 45/2010/TT-BNNPTNT, farmers should monitor the water quality in terms of in pond water and wastewater (Vbqppl 2017). DARD Kien Giang uses information on water quality of waterbodies supplying shrimp production sites (Kien Giang DARD 2017) to produce advice and recommendations regarding shrimp health and environmental management.

Health Management: According to MARD’s Circular 38/2012/TT-BNNPTNT outbreaks of specific disease must be reported. MARD’s Circular No. 17/2014/TT-BNNPTTN provides guidance and procedures for disease prevention, treatment, and reporting. In addition, MARD’s Circular 45/2010/TT-BNNPTNT regulates the conditions of farm establishment to ensure veterinary hygiene (Vbqppl 2017).

Disease Control: The use of chemicals and drugs is regulated under MARD’s Decision 10/2007/QĐ-BTS, which includes a list of approved chemicals (Vbqppl 2017). The competent authorities responsible for the use of 1) chemicals in aquaculture and 2) veterinary drugs are identified - the DAH and the Department/Directorate of Fisheries and the DAH respectively (ASEAN Secretariat 2013).

Kien Giang PPC provides guidance on how to prevent and control disease. Producers should follow this to proactively monitor and improve the prevention and control of shrimp disease (Kien Giang DARD 2017).

Management Thresholds

Water Quality: MARDs’ Circular 45/2010/TT-BNNPTNT and National Technical Standards QCVN 02-20:2014/BNNPTNT regulates shrimp production sites to ensure food safety and set in-pond and discharge water quality limits (Vbqppl 2017). MONRE’s Circular 36/2015/TT-BTNMT and the national government’s Decree No. 38/2015/NĐ-CP regulate toxic waste management. Water quality criteria for different types of public waterbodies are also described in MARD’s Circular 45/2010/TT-BNNPTNT (Vbqppl 2017).

VietGAP Criteria. No. 1.1.1, 2.1, 3.4.3 and 4.2.1 outline guidance on in-pond water quality and wastewater quality respectively. VietGAP also requires the farms to comply with the QCVN 02 -19:2014/BNNPTNT - National technical regulation on brackish water shrimp culture farm - Conditions for veterinary hygiene, environmental protection, and food safety, and incorporate limits for shrimp farm effluent established by MARD’s Circular No. 45/2010/TT-BNNPTNT (Vbqppl 2017).

Health Management: Limits to stocking density are set by MARD’s Circular 45/2010/TT-BNNPTNT. Under criteria 3.1 and 3.5, VietGAP farms must comply with the existing regulations and have a fish health plan written by a fish health specialist or a veterinarian (Vbqppl 2017).

Disease Control: The use of the antibiotics nitrofuran, chloramphenicol, dimetridazole/metronidazole and enrofloxacin; the disinfectant, malachite green, and cypermethrin; the chemotherapeutant, trichlorfon; and the piscicide deltamethrin are prohibited (ASEAN Secretariat 2013). VASEP summarizes multiple MARD Circulars concerning the use of chemicals, antibiotics, and bioproducts - and has produced lists of chemicals and antibiotics banned for use in fishery production and trading and for veterinary use. Restricted chemicals and antibiotics - including maximum residue levels (MRL)s are also identified (VASEP 2014).  VietGAP Criteria No. 2.1.2 requires that all farms should use chemicals listed under Circular No. 12/2010/TT-BNNPTNT and incorporates a list of banned chemicals and antibiotics according to MARD’s Circular No. 15/2009/TT-BNN and Circular No. 20/2010/TT-BNNPTNT (Vbqppl 2017)

Government approved drugs, feed, and chemical treatments are available on DFISH’s website (DFISH 2017). However, users of this online database need an account to access information. Under MARD’s Circular No. 04/2016/TT-BNNPTNT in 2016, farmers are required to report disease events such as WSD, Taura Syndrome, YHV, IHHN, IMN, and AHPND (Vbqppl 2017). In addition, MARD provides guidance how to prevent and treat these diseases.

Industry and Management Performance

Compliance

Due to a lack of information on the number of licensed farms in Kien Giang it is difficult to assess whether farms are in compliance.

Water Quality: There is no information to assess farms compliance with water discharge limits set by MARD’s Circular 45/2010/TT-BNNPTNT.

Health Management: There is no information to assess compliance with veterinary standards set by MARD’s Circular 45/2010/TT-BNNPTNT.

Disease Control: There is no information to assess the use of chemicals and drugs in compliance with MARD’s Decision 10/2007/QĐ-BTS.

Current Performance

Water Quality: According to water quality monitoring reports for waterbodies in Kien Giang for May 2017, the environment is currently suitable for shrimp production. However, some parameters do not comply with the acceptable limits in some waterbodies. Therefore, it is advised that producers should treat the water before discharge (Kien Giang DARD 2017).

Health Management: WSD and AHPND are reported in Vietnam by NACA's QAAD reports, with the provinces (including Kien Giang) and the total area affected provided by the epidemiological comments (NACA et al. 2017).

In first four months of 2017, 285.6 hectares of farms in Kien Giang were affected by shrimp disease. Outbreaks took place at 107 sites in 40 villages in 24 communes in 7 districts. WSD affected 115 ha, AHPND affected 117. 9 ha, Monodon baculovirus và virus (MBV) and Hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV) affected in 5 ha (Kien Giang PPC 2017). DARD, Kien Giang, state that 44,5 ha were affected by WSD and AHPND, but producers in these districts did not announce these diseases to Kien Giang’s DAH and therefore didn’t comply with MARD’s Circular No. 04/2016/TT-BNNPTNT (Kien Giang DARD 2017).

Disease Control: Farms owned by companies have qualified fish health specialists. However, most small-scale farmers rely on their own experience and use of chemical/drugs for disease control measures. The U. S. Food and Drug Administration recently issued an import alert (16-124) over the historical use of unapproved drugs in seafood from various countries (including shrimp from Vietnam) (FDA 2018). For shrimp (from various provinces), these include those listed as prohibited from use in fisheries production or trading in Vietnam; those banned from veterinary use; and, those identified as restricted in use (ASEAN Secretariat 2013)(FDA 2018)(VASEP 2014).

The European Commission’s (EC) Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (RASFF) also includes multiple recent notifications (from 2015 onwards) of border rejections or information for follow up concerning shrimp from Vietnam. These include notifications concerning the detection of drugs prohibited from use in Vietnam and export destinations (classified as serious by RASFF); those listed as restricted in Vietnam, but not authorized in export countries (classified as undecided); and drugs permitted by Vietnam and importing countries, but above the MRL for export destinations (classified as not serious). It should be noted that the province that the product comes from is not stated (European Commission 2018)

DARD advises that farmers should consider using vitamins and other minerals to improve shrimp health (Kien Giang DARD 2017).

Trends in Performance

Water Quality: A trend towards intensive forms of production increases the risk of pollution through wastewater and sediment discharge. However, intensive systems typically incorporate bio-security and water treatment facilities, especially in the larger farms (which are also more likely to incorporate BAP and GAP standards). 

Health Management: Farmers in Vietnam have previously tackled disease outbreaks through the use of prophylactics and chemotherapeutants, which have the potential to adversely impact the environment and overall shrimp quality. Farmers are adopting the use of probiotics and improved management strategies to improve water quality and prevent disease outbreaks (Portley 2016).

Disease Control: According to the E. C’s RASFF portal, from 2008-2014, there were multiple notifications concerning the detection of prohibited veterinary medicines or levels of antibiotics above the MRL in shrimp from Vietnam – although the province of origin is not stated (European Commission 2018)

Improvement Plans

Kien Giang province has produced shrimp development plans for the province. These state that shrimp production zones should be established in Giang Thanh, Kien Luong, Ha Tien, Hon Dat, An Bien, An Minh and Vinh Thuận as regulated in Decision No. 41/QD-UBND of Kien Giang PPC (Vbqppl 2017).

Kien Giang PPC is promoting links between producers and processing plants in compliance with the National Government’s Decision No. 593/QĐ-TTg. They are also promoting the adoption of certification schemes such as GlobalGAP and VietGAP (Vbqppl 2017).

Water Quality: No information available. 

Health Management: Kien Giang DARD has directed line agencies to strengthen water quality and disease monitoring. Specifically, producers should collaborate with the government in disease prevention measures (Kien Giang DARD 2017).

Disease Control: In March 2017, MARD approved Decision No. 1038/QĐ-BNN-TY a National Disease Control Plan for shrimp for 2017 to 2020. Under this, the government and farmers are required to monitor disease and environmental indicators, perform disease checks by spot-sampling and collaborate on disease treatments. In addition, the DAH has issued an Official Dispatch No. 1079/TY-TS asking Mekong Delta provinces to provide a list of producers to join the program. Official Dispatch No. 1079/TY-TS describes disease control, sampling, and health analysis procedures under Annex 2 (Vbqppl 2017).

Scores

Regulatory Framework

The regulatory system addresses risks to and from aquaculture through a zonal approach to siting, licensing, and production management.

The aquaculture sector doesn’t require an aquaculture license but must have a business license that meets the conditions prescribed and published by the national government’s Decree No. 59/2005/NĐ-CP. Additional information on the licensing procedure (outlining key criteria including stocking, estimated harvest etc.) is publicly available in Annex 3 of MARD’s Circular No. 23/2014/TT-BNNPTTN (Vbqppl 2017).

According to the National Government’s Decree No. 18/2015/NĐ-CP farms require an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), but the results of EIAs are not made publically available. In 2015, MARD issued Decision No. 5528/QĐ-BNN-TCTS on the approval of brackish water shrimp production in Mekong Delta until 2020, with a vision to 2030 (Vbqppl 2017)

According to Decree No. 18/2015/NĐ-CP, farms require an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) (Vbqppl 2017).  In addition, all farms must possess a business license to operate. However, only farms with a surface area > 10 ha and extensive farms >50 ha require an EIA report to be approved by the PPC (Decree No. 18/2015/NĐ-CP). In 2015, MARD issued Decision No. 5528/QĐ-BNN-TCTS on the approval of brackish water shrimp production in Mekong Delta until 2020, with a vision to 2030 where aquaculture zones are used to determine farm siting & licensing (Vbqppl 2017). MARD has developed an atlas to define specific aquaculture production zones at the provincial level (MARD 2017). However, there is no indication of whether the industry is using these zones for planning. 

The Kien Giang PPC is responsible for EIAs as outlined in Environment Protection Law No. 55/2014/QH13 (Vbqppl 2017). In addition, enforcement measures also have been determined. However, there is no information on the number of licensed farms. The number of VietGAP and other certified farms suggests compliance with MARD’s Decision No. 4835/QĐ-BNN-TCTS is low (VietGAP 2017)

Organized Producers Following Code of Good Practice

The presence of an active producer organization representative of the whole industry and establishment of a Code of Good Practice.

VietGAP is the national standard Code of Good Practice (CoGP) for shrimp farming (MARD 2015), but there is limited compliance to these standards (VietGAP 2017). The industry is represented by Vietnam Association of Seafood Exporters and Producers (VASEP) (VASEP 2018) and The Vietnam Fisheries Association (VINAFIS) (VINAFIS 2013). Details on individual members (name, production scope, achieved certifications) are available via the VASEP website (VASEP 2017).

VietGAP outlines indicators for on-farm best management practices, but these do not include any zonal considerations (MARD 2015). VASEP includes both large and small-scale producers according to MARD’s Decision No.1172/QÐ-BNV (VASEP 2017). The names of VASEP members are available (VASEP 2017)

VASEP membership rules are available for the shrimp industry and apply to both small and large scale producers; although these do not appear to be conditional on following the CoGP/VietGAP standard (VASEP 2017). Although under MARD’s Decision No. 4835/QĐ-BNN-TCTS, compliance with VietGAP standards is mandatory for intensive shrimp farmers by 2020 (MARD 2015)

Water Quality Management

The impact of aquaculture on the quality of public water resources is managed.

Water quality test results from some public water bodies used for aquaculture are available via DARD’s Kien Giang Aquaculture Agency’s website (Kien Giang DARD 2017). However, farm-level water quality data are not available. 

Water quality criteria for different types of public waterbodies are described in MARD’s Circular 45/2010/TT-BNNPTNT. MARD’s Circular 45/2010/TT-BNNPTNT and National Technical Standards QCVN 02-20:2014/BNNPTNT regulates shrimp production sites to ensure food safety and set in-pond and discharge water quality limits (Vbqppl 2017). However, no carrying capacity studies have been conducted. 

The enforcement agency – MONRE is identifiable, but enforcement measures are not.

Disease Impact and Risk Reduction

Industry is protected from catastrophic losses through best practice disease management on farm and at the zone level.

Some information on international notifiable diseases (mostly at the national-level) is available from the OIE WAHIS database (OIE 2017), but there is no information on disease rates or survival available from national or provincial regulatory authority. Information on the number of hectares affected by disease outbreaks available at times of significant disease problems from the Kien Giang PPC and DARD websites (Kien Giang DARD 2017)(Kien Giang PPC 2017). Mortality and fish health status are known to be recorded by individual farms and government agencies; however, this information is not publicly available.

Disease control regulations for shrimp are outlined under MARD’s Decision 1038/QĐ-BNN-TY (Vbqppl 2017). Under VietGAP, farms must comply with the existing regulations and have a fish health plan written by a fish health specialist or a veterinarian (MARD 2015); however, only a few certified farms are currently following these procedures (VietGAP 2017). There is a national disease control plan from 2017 to 2020 as regulated in DAH’s Decision No. 1038/QĐ-BNN-TY (Vbqppl 2017), however, there is no evidence of the implementation of this plan. 

The DAH is the responsible authority, but enforcement measures are not identifiable. 

Marine Feed Ingredient Management

The fishmeal and oil in aquaculture feed is sourced from well managed or improving fisheries.

The major companies supplying feed can be identified through DARD. These include CP Vietnam (CP Vietnam 2017), Uni-President and Grobest. However, source fishery information is not provided.

Some feed producers have made commitments to improve the sourcing of marine feed ingredients (CP 2016)(CP 2017).  

Statistics:

To see data for Production, please view this site on a desktop.
No data available for Water Quality Monitoring
No data available for Water Quality Monitoring
No data available for Disease Reporting
No data available for Disease Reporting
Data Notes

Number of notifiable disease events reported to OIE - The OIE WAHIS dtabase only presents information at the provincial level for YHD, with no recorded outbreaks in Kien Giang (OIE 2017).

Aquaculture Improvement Projects (AIPs)

No related AIPs

Certifications & Codes of Good Practice

Certified Farms

To see data for Certified Farms, please view this site on a desktop.

Certified Production

No data available
No data available

Data Notes

Certified Farms

The information presented here is based on publicly available information from the respective certification websites. The unit of certification varies between the different Certification schemes.

  • For ASC,  we report only the number of farms that are listed as certified on their website. We do not include farms that are in assessment.
  • For BAP, we report only the farms that are certified. We do not include hatcheries, processing facilities, or farms in the iBAP program.
  • For GlobalG.A.P., we report the number of fish farming companies that are certified. The number of farms operated by companies certified by GlobalG.A.P is not publicly available. We do not include certified companies that only operate hatcheries. 

Production Volume

  • The ASC does publish certified production volume by country, but data is not available at the province/state level. Information presented here is manually compiled from publicly available certification audits on a semi-annual basis.
  •  Certified production volume data is not publicly available from BAP or GlobalG.A.P.

BACKGROUND

Ecosystem

Kien Giang is located in the south of Viet Nam bordering Cambodia. Surface water sources are plentiful in the rainy season (from May to October); however, most are contaminated with saline alum due to its location at the end of the Hau river in Rach Gia Bay. There are three main tributaries - the Cai Lon, Cai Be and Giang Thanh rivers, which serve as the main systems for flood drainage, irrigation in the dry season, and transport (MPI 2017). The province has the potential for further aquaculture and seafood development.

Biology of farmed stock

Giant tiger prawn seed production is concentrated in the Mekong Delta in small-scale hatcheries, while whiteleg shrimp seed production is concentrated in the central provinces in large hatcheries. Giant tiger prawn hatcheries rely on large, wild-caught animals (size 250-300 grams), while whiteleg shrimp hatcheries rely on imported animals. However, trials on the domesticating whiteleg broodstock are ongoing at various research institutes and private hatcheries (Hai et al. 2015).

Fish farming history

Shrimp culture in Vietnam started in the 1970’s with the introduction of extensive mangrove-shrimp (Giant tiger prawn) systems, which relied on tidal water exchange, naturally-occurring wild seed, limited additional stocking (1 to 4 shrimp per square meter) and no feeding. By the 1980’s the industry introduced “improved-extensive systems” - shrimp reared in a monoculture system in earthen ponds (Tho et al. 2011). Typically, these were also integrated within mangrove systems (30-50% of the total farm area), but were stocked with additional shrimp seed (4-6 shrimps per square meter) and required additional feeding  (Tran et al. 2014). By1985, semi-intensive and intensive giant tiger prawn systems had been introduced. These relied on the use of formulated feeds, aeration, and hatchery-produced seed (Tran et al. 2014). More recently, intensive and super-intensive whiteleg culture systems have become more common (Tran et al. 2014).

Currently, all of the above systems are represented within the Mekong Delta Region - with integrated mangrove-shrimp farming systems accounting for 50,000 ha (8% of total shrimp culture); improved-extensive farming systems accounting for 55%; and, intensive shrimp farming accounting for 10% (Tran et al. 2014).

Laws and Institutions

In Vietnam, government policies are defined in Laws, Decrees, Ordinances, Circulars, and Regulations, with the latter often at the provincial level (Ministry of Fisheries and World Bank) (MOFI and WB 2005).  Policies and Decisions are created via a complex process of vertical and horizontal consensus building (Shanks et al. 2004).

In summary, all major policy decisions passed at the national level are reviewed and approved at the provincial/city level through locally specified decisions and guidelines to support implementation.  

Law - Responsible institutions - Relevant Activities

National Fisheries Law (Law No. 17/2003/QH11) - MOFI, now MARD - Management of the capture fisheries and aquaculture sectors.

Decision No. 3824/QĐ-BNN-TCTS -  MARD - Releasing VietGAP standard for Aquaculture.

Decision No. 5528/QĐ-BNN-TCTS - MARD - MARD has issued their Decision No. 5528/QĐ-BNN-TCTS on the approval of brackish water shrimp production in Mekong Delta provinces until 2020, foresee up to 2030.

Decision No. 1038/QĐ-BNN-TY - MARD - National plan of disease control plan on shrimp and pangasius from 2017 to 2020.

Veterinary Law No. 79/2015/QH13 - National Assembly - Regulations on the prevention, treatment, and control of animal diseases; animal quarantine, animal products; control of animal slaughter, processing, processing of animals and animal products; veterinary hygiene inspection; & management of veterinary medicine.

Circular No. 14/2016/TT-BNNPTNT - MARD - Regulations and procedures to certify an animal disease safety zone/site  As well as the organization and identification of those who need to develop and apply for a certification for disease safety zones.

Decree No. 201/2013/NĐ-CP - National Assembly - Regulations on water use and limits for discharge water.

Law No. 52/2005/QH11 and No. 55/2014/QH13 - National Assembly - Policies, measures, and resources to protect the environment; rights, obligations, and responsibilities of agencies, organizations, households, and individuals in environmental protection.

Law No. 17/2012/QH13 - National Assembly - Regulating management, protection, exploration, and use of water resource.

Circular No. 27/2015/TT-BTNMT and Circular No. 09/2014/TT-BNNPTTN - MONRE and MARD - Strategic environment assessment, environment impact assessment and environment protection reporting.

Law No. 20/2008/QH12 - National Assembly - Biodiversity

Management Timetable

No information available.

Stakeholders

Producers & Processors: 

In addition to shrimp farmers, Kien Giang has seafood processing plants, small-scale shrimp hatcheries and nurseries, and distributors of chemicals and aquafeed.

There are also multiple institutions that set legislation, policy development, research, and environmental monitoring of shrimp culture.

Government:

The Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (MARD). Relevant departments/institutions under MARD include:

  • Science, Technology and Environment Department
  • Planning Department
  • Legislation Department 
  • Directorate of Water Resources
  • Directorate of Fisheries (including Department of Aquaculture; Centre for Aquaculture Input Testing, Inspection and Verifying; Fisheries Information Center; Department of Capture Fisheries and Resources Protection; and Viet Nam Institute of Fisheries Economics and Planning)
  • Department of Processing and Trade for Agro-Forestry-Fisheries Products and Salt Production
  • National Agro-Forestry-Fisheries Quality Assurance Department (NAFIQAD), formally known as the National Fisheries Quality Assurance and Veterinary Directorate (NAFIQAVED) prior to 2007 (6 branches nationwide)
  • Department of Animal Health
  • International Cooperation Department
  • Centre for Information and Statistics
  • National Centre for Agriculture and Fisheries Extension
  • National Centre for Rural Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation
  • Vietnam Agriculture Newspaper
  • Vietnam Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development
  • Research Institute for Aquaculture II (RIA2)
  • Institute of Policy and Strategy for Agriculture and Rural Development (IPSARD)

Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment (MONRE). Relevant departments/institutions under MONRE include:

  • Department of Legislation
  • Agency for Land Management
  • Agency for Environment
  • Department of Water Resources Management
  • Department of Meteorology and Climate Change
  • Agency for Survey and Mapping
  • Department Information Technology
  • Vietnam Environment Administration (and its Centre for Environmental Monitoring)

Ministry of Planning and Investment (including General Statistical Office and the Central Institute for Economic Management)

Ministry of Labor, Invalids and Social Affairs

Ministry of Science and Technology

Government Inspectorate - a ministerial-level agency fulfilling the function of state management of inspection.

Provincial Organisations

At the provincial level, Departments of Agriculture and Rural Development (DARD) operate as local branches of the Ministry, in partnership with Provincial People’s Committees.

  • Provincial department of Animal health
  • Aquaculture Agency
  • Provincial department of natural resource environment

Fisheries and Aquaculture Associations

  • Professional Associations, local NGOs
  • Vietnam’s Association of Seafood Exporters and Producers (VASEP)
  • Vietnam’s Fisheries Association (VINAFIS)
  • International Collaborating Centre for Aquaculture and Fisheries Sustainability (ICAFIS)
  • Centre for Research Resources and Rural Development (RECERD)
  • Centre for Marine Life Conservation and Community Development (MCD)

Sources

References

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    Shrimp - Viet Nam, Kiên Giang

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