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Last updated on 6 December 2018

SUMMARY

SUMMARY

IDENTIFICATION

SCIENTIFIC NAME(s)

Penaeus vannamei , Penaeus monodon

SPECIES NAME(s)

Whiteleg shrimp, Camarón blanco, Giant tiger prawn

JURISDICTION

Guangdong

PREDOMINANT PRODUCTION SYSTEM

Pond

WATER SOURCE

Brackish

JUVENILE SOURCE

hatchery - closed cycle


ANALYSIS

Strengths
  • The MoA have produced Order 31—Provisions on Quality and Safety Management of Aquaculture which contains best management practices and reporting requirements for various aspects of farm production, including water quality and disease control.
  • There is a supportive legislative environment for the introduction of zonal-based approaches to aquaculture siting and management. The importance of zonal management approaches is acknowledged in national legislation, including the MoA Order 31 and a recent MoA notice on the creation of coastal aquaculture watershed plans. The government has also announced that it will establish provincial-level aquaculture demonstration zones. 
  • The control of disease is improving. There is a national aquatic animal epidemic prevention system and a national aquatic animal disease surveillance plan, the latter is published annually by the MoA. The Guangdong Provincial Aquatic Animal Disease Prevention and Control Center also produce monthly aquaculture disease forecasts and guidance on the control of shrimp disease.
  • The control and enforcement of veterinary drug use are improving. From 2015, there have been no reports of banned veterinary drugs or those above allowable MRL in shrimp exported to the US or EU from China.
  • Water quality standards for marine aquaculture—NY 5052-2001, and wastewater discharge standards for mariculture—SC/T 9103–2007 have been produced by the MoA.
Weaknesses
  • Despite acknowledgment of the importance of zonal aquaculture management practices in national legislation, the management of the shrimp industry still appears to be farm-focused. There is no publicly available copy of the 2004 provincial aquaculture plan, and no information on more recent plans, in order to identify whether the industry plans to introduce zonal approaches.
  • It is difficult to assess the effectiveness of the current management approach and the enforcement of regulations due to a lack of publicly available information (e.g., aquaculture license and production data, EIA requirements, disease outbreak and control measures, and, farm-level water quality). There is no information on the level of compliance with either MoA Order 31 or water quality and wastewater discharge standards for marine aquaculture.
  • The current license process is unclear with respect to the inclusion of small-scale producers. There is also very little publicly available information about national or provincial producer associations. Both are important components of a zonal-approach to farm siting and management. Therefore, more information on these is required.
  • There is limited information on the aquaculture feed manufacturing industry and no information on source fisheries. Therefore, it is not possible to assess whether feed manufacturers are improving the sustainability of their supplies.
Recommendation for improvement
  • Invest and conduct research into carrying capacity studies for aquaculture and use the results of these to guide decisions on site selection and the licensing of farms.

  • Encourage the provincial government and industry to support the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs’ 2016 notice concerning the creation of coastal aquaculture watershed plans.

  • Encourage feed companies to publicly disclose source fisheries (for example, via annual reports or sustainability reports, regularly updated websites, or via initiatives such as the Ocean Disclosure Project) and, where necessary, initiate Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs).

  • Encourage the formation of a provincial producer organization that incorporates zonal management approaches, existing disease control and water quality measures, adherence to MoA Order 31, and public reporting of key performance indicators.

  • Encourage the industry to publish its provincial aquaculture plan and increase the public reporting of provincial production; licensing; water quality; disease outbreak and control data; compliance with water quality and disease control regulations; and, water quality and disease enforcement measures. 


FISHSOURCE SCORES

Management Quality:

regulatory framework

< 6

best practices

< 6

water quality

< 6

disease

< 6

feed

< 6


AIPS

No related AIPs

AQUACULTURE MANAGEMENT UNITS

In FishSource, information on aquaculture management is displayed at the highest resolution unit for which data is available. Ideally, information would simply be structured around an aquaculture management area (AMA) – the primary unit within which aquaculture management practices should be coordinated across a group of farms to mitigate against cumulative impacts and shared risks. Although AMAs are sometimes recognized in industry strategy and regulatory documents, they are not yet established across all aquaculture industries; so, we typically display information at the province/state level.

Country
Provinces
AMA
Shrimp - China Guangdong

ANALYSIS

Information Sources

Information sources included the FAO website, a number of peer-reviewed journal and reports published by Chinese universities and research institutions and a recent Seafood Watch assessment report.  Information on water quality is available through the Environmental Protection of Guangdong Province website (GDEP). Information on national legislation was provided by the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs (MoA) website. Information on licensing was provided by the Guangdong Provincial Department of Ocean and Fisheries. Information on Environmental Impact Assessments was provided by the GDEP.

 

Information on disease monitoring procedures was provided by presentations made by the National Fisheries Technical Extension Center and the Chinese Academy of Sciences and information from the MoA and the Guangdong Provincial Aquatic Animal Disease Prevention and Control Center (GAADPC). Limited national-level information on disease outbreaks is available through the World Organization for Aquatic Animal Health (OIE) – World Animal Health Information System WAHIS database and the Network of Aquaculture Centers in Asia-Pacific (NACA) Quarterly Aquatic Animal Disease (QAAD) reports. 

Management Status

Zonal Assessment

In general, shrimp farming in Guangdong is managed on a farm-level basis. There is no publicly available information of any zonal management plans currently being implemented. 

Despite this, zonal management approaches to aquaculture are acknowledged in national and provincial legislation. For example, the Fishery Law (revised in 2004), gives provincial and local fishery administrations the authority to produce regional regulations and development plans for aquaculture tailored to local conditions, including the creation of aquaculture areas (Phillips et al., P. G. White and Yamamoto, others 2009).

At the provincial level, in 1999, the Guangdong provincial government introduced the Functional Zoning Scheme of the Coastal Areas of Guangdong Province, which classified coastal areas into different zones (including aquaculture) (Zhu and Dong 2010). In 2004, the government approved the Aquaculture Planning for Inland Water Area and Coastal Zone of Guangdong which established guidelines for aquaculture development and the management of local authorities (Zhu and Dong 2010). However, there is no publicly available information on its content or implementation. 

At the national-level, aquaculture production is governed by the MoA’s Order 31 - Provisions on Quality and Safety Management of Aquaculture (MoA 2003). Article 8 of this Order calls for provincial-level authorities to identify aquaculture areas, plan production, and scientifically determine the scale of farming and culture methods (MoA 2003).

In 2016, the MoA notice on issuing a code of practice for the creation of coastal aquaculture watershed plans, stating that it was necessary to plan and allocate aquaculture production based on good science and identify aquaculture areas to protect the environment and resource users (MoA 2016). Recently, the government announced plans to establish thousands of provincial-level aquaculture demonstration zones under China’s 13th Five Year Plan. These will account for 65% of national aquaculture production by 2020 (Godfrey 2017).

Licensing: Since 2002, the MoA has been responsible for a nationwide aquaculture licensing system (Phillips et al., P. G. White and Yamamoto, others 2009)(Zhu and Dong 2010). However, the process has faced problems with a lack of legislation concerning site selection for aquaculture and the inclusion of small-scale farmers (USDA 2012)(Zajdband 2012)(Zhu and Dong 2010). In Guangdong, licenses are awarded by the Guangdong Provincial Department of Ocean and Fisheries. Details on the application process and relevant forms are available from their website (GDOF 2018)(GDOF 2018).

The EIA Law (2003 amended 2008) requires a project developer to submit an EIA document (either an environmental impact report, environmental form or a registration form) to the State Environmental Protection Administration (SEPA) or its local counterpart before beginning construction of any project in China (Phillips et al., P. G. White and Yamamoto, others 2009).    In Guangdong, it is the responsibility of the Environmental Protection of Guangdong Province (GDEP) (GDEP 1999). The type of document submitted depends on the level of the project’s potential environmental impact.  As of 2008, cage and net enclosure aquaculture in sensitive areas required an EIA report. Oher types of marine and freshwater farms in sensitive areas required an EIA form (Phillips et al., P. G. White and Yamamoto, others 2009). The requirements for an environmental registration form are not clear.

Proposed EIAs and their results are available for construction projects in Guangdong from the GDEP, but these do not include aquaculture enterprises (GDEP 1999).

Scientific Advice

The Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) is the main scientific advisory institution in China (Li et al. 2016). Its research and development arm consists of over 100 research institutions covering most aspects of the natural sciences (Li et al. 2016). The MoA and Bureau of Fisheries also support scientific research via the China National Fishery Technology Extension Centre (CNEC) and its regional extension stations, which are the main mechanisms for fisheries technology extension services (Farquhar and Sims 2017)(Song 1997). 

Water Quality: The CNEC is responsible for research into environmental quality monitoring techniques and produces reports on the state of China's environment. It also provides support to the State Environmental Protection Administration (SEPA) and its management of environmental quality.

Health Management: The National Fisheries Technical Extension Center, under the MoA, is responsible for establishing a national aquatic animal disease monitoring, control systems, and the development and revision of disease diagnostics (Feng 2013).

Disease Control: The China Institute of Veterinary Drugs Control under the MoA is responsible for the assessment of veterinary drugs, residue testing, and the formulation and revision of regulations and standards on veterinary drugs (Bureau of Veterinary, MoA 2011)(MoA 2013). 

Managers' Decisions

At the national level, the Bureau of Fisheries under the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs is the main department responsible for aquaculture plans under the national government’s five-year plan. These plans are implemented by the local Department of Fisheries offices (Farquhar and Sims 2017).

Water Quality: The MoA have also produced NY 5051–2001 (Water quality standards for freshwater aquaculture) and NY 5052-2001 (Water Quality of Aquatic Products for Aquatic Water) for freshwater and marine aquaculture farms respectively (MoA 2001)(MoA 2001). MoA Order 31 (Provisions on Quality and Safety Management of Aquaculture) requires farms to comply with the appropriate standard (MoA 2003). Water sources that do not meet water quality standards are prohibited. Article 6 of Order 31 states that aquaculture enterprises shall regularly monitor water quality (MoA 2003). The MoA has also produced SC/T 9103-2007 - Marine aquaculture water discharge requirements (MoA 2007)(Zhu and Dong 2010).

Health Management: A national aquatic animal epidemic prevention system has been established under the National Fisheries Technical Extension Center (Li 2017). In 2012, the MoA introduced a National Aquatic Animal Disease Surveillance Program, which includes the monitoring of WSD and IHHN in five provinces, including Guangdong (MoA 2012). Aquatic animal disease surveillance plans are produced annually, with a new disease program introduced in 2017 (MoA 2012)(MoA 2015)(MoA 2016)(MoA 2016)(MoA 2017). Following the publication of the national Animal Epidemics Law, national animal quarantine measures have been established (including those for aquatic animals). These aim to strengthen the management of animal quarantine activities and prevent and animal epidemics (GAADPC 2007).

The Guangdong Provincial Aquatic Animal Disease Prevention and Control Center under the GDOF produce monthly aquaculture disease forecasts and guidance on the control of shrimp diseases via their website (GAADPC 2007)(GAADPC 2018)(GAADPC 2018).

Disease Control: The use of veterinary drugs in aquaculture is governed by the MoA through the State Council’s regulations on the administration of veterinary drugs (Feng 2013). The most recent regulation is the 2014 Registration, Manufacture, Distribution, Import, and Export, use, Supervision and Administration of Veterinary Drugs and Vaccines, under which the MoA Veterinary Bureau and its provincial branches are responsible for enforcement (Li 2017).

The MoA Order 31 (Provisions on Quality and Safety Management of Aquaculture) requires that farms comply with the MoA National Veterinary Regulations, and Pollution-free food guidelines for the use of fishery drugs (NY5071-2002) (MoA 2003). Article 18 of Order 31 requires farms to keep a record of disease outbreaks and drug use. Records should be kept for a minimum of two years post-production and sale (MoA 2003).

Since 2001, the MoA has conducted routine monitoring of national agriculture product quality (including aquatic products) under the Department of Technology and Quality Supervision (DTQS) (Li 2017). Article 20 of Order 31 requires the MoA to implement a National Monitoring Program for Drug Residue of Aquaculture Aquatic Products (MoA 2003).

A Chinese Inspector Quarantine (CIQ) certificate is required for all export product (Zajdband 2012)(Zhang et al. 2015). The PRC’s State Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine (AQSIQ) is responsible for national import and export inspections (AQSIQ 2018)

Management Thresholds

Water Quality: The MoA NY 5051–2001 and NY5052-2001 set limits for freshwater and marine aquaculture respectively (MoA 2001)(MoA 2001)(Zhu and Dong 2010). According to MoA Order 31, water should be treated when it does not meet these standards. Production should stop and farms should report to the local fishery administrative department if water quality repeatedly fails to meet these standards (MoA 2003). In 2007, the MoA introduced  SC/T 9103–2007 - Water Drainage Standard for Mariculture. These set limits to farm discharge and outline measurement and supervision protocols (MoA 2007)(Zhu and Dong 2010). 

Health Management: The National Fisheries Extension System has introduced a national aquatic animal epidemic prevention system which monitors 36 aquatic diseases, including white spot disease (WSD) and Infectious Hypodermal and Hematopoietic Necrosis (IHHN) (Li 2017).

Disease Control: The following antibiotics are prohibited from use in aquaculture: norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, chloramphenicol, tylosin, bacitracin Zinc, nitrofurans (furazolidone, nitrofurazone, nitrofurantoin, etc.) and olaquindox (Li 2017). Allowable antibiotics include, but are not exclusive to, sulfadiazine, flumequine, oxolinic acid and oxytetracycline (Li 2017). 

Prohibited and allowed veterinary drugs for animal production (including aquatic species) and relevant Maximum Residual Levels (MRL) are also provided by the MoA Announcement 235 (GAIN 2007).  

Industry and Management Performance

Compliance

Due to the lack of information on license content and the number of licensed farms, it is difficult to assess current industry compliance with license requirements.

Water Quality: Not available

Health Management: Not available

Disease Control: A list of CIQ certified seafood suppliers (both international and domestic) is available via the AQSIQ website (AQSIQ 2018).  CIQ registered enterprises are also available under the CIQ website (CIQS 2008).  

Current Performance

Water Quality: The MEP provides an online national database of weekly water quality for various waterbodies (including lakes, river basins, and rivers). However, coastal water quality is not included (MEP 2018).

The Guangdong Environment Protection Department provides quarterly water quality data for river estuaries in Guangdong province. Twenty-three sites are monitored (GDEP 2018)(GDEP 2018).  According to the 2017 summary report by the Environmental Protection Department, water quality in 73.7% of river estuaries was classified as good; 15.8% was slightly polluted, and 10.5% was heavily polluted (GDEP 2018). The main pollutants were COD, BOD 5, ammonia nitrogen and total phosphorus, although the sources were not identified (GDEP 2018)

Health Management: At the national level, the industry has been impacted by AHPND, which is thought to have caused a halt to the growth in production in 2013. The disease affected all major shrimp producing regions (Portley 2016).  Another disease of concern is Hepatopancreatic microsporidiosis (HPM) caused by the microsporidian Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP) (Portley 2016).  Despite this, the OIE WAHIS database does not currently list any disease outbreaks at either the national or provincial level from 2015 onwards (World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) 2017). Information from NACA’s QAAD reports indicates the presence of WSD, and the confirmed infection (but no clinical disease) of IHHN and IMN limited to one or more zones. However, there is no indication of the province affected (NACA et al. 2017)

Disease Control: The US FDA recently issued two import alerts concerning the use of unapproved drugs in seafood and the use of the prohibited substance nitrofuran (FDA 2018)(FDA 2018). These list multiple companies that are subject to Detention Without Physical Examination (DWPE) due to the historic presence of prohibited substances. At the national level, four Chinese companies are listed for supplying shrimp product containing chloramphenicol, one of which is from Guangdong – with the incident taking place in 2003 (FDA 2018). No Chinese companies have supplied shrimp containing nitrofurans (FDA 2018).

The EC RASFF portal does not list any recent notifications (from 2015 onwards) of border rejections or other follow up measures concerning shrimp from China due to either the presence of prohibited substances or MRLs above allowable thresholds for export destinations (European Commission 2018).

Trends in Performance

Water Quality: Extensive shrimp systems have been gradually replaced by semi-intensive and intensive systems, which account for 85% and 15% of production systems respectively (Cao 2012). Daily water exchange is estimated at 1-3% for semi-intensive and 8-15% for intensive farms, which are typically flow-through systems that discharge their effluents directly into water bodies (Cao 2012). Since 2008, freshwater (inland) production has overtaken brackish water (coastal) production, and there are concerns this is causing salinization (Ma 2015).

Health Management: The OIE WAHIS database lists two outbreaks of IHHN in 2012 & 2013; up to three outbreaks of Taura Syndrome per year from 2010 – 2013; up to five outbreaks of WSD per year from 2010-2013; and one outbreak of YHD per year in 2012 & 2013 ((World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) 2017).  AHPND and IMN are absent; however, AHPND was only added to the OIE list of notifiable diseases in 2016 (World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) 2017).

Disease Control: Over the period 2005-2014,  the EC RASFF portal lists multiple notifications concerning the detection of prohibited veterinary drugs in shrimp from China (classified as serious) or levels of antibiotics above MRL for export destinations (classified as not serious). However, the province of origin is not stated (European Commission 2018). These included those identified as prohibited from use in China, notably chloramphenicol and nitrofurans (European Commission 2018)(GAIN 2007)(Li 2017). There are no notifications from 2015 onwards (European Commission 2018)

Improvement Plans

In association with the China Aquatic Products Promotion & Marketing Association (CAPPMA), Shanghai Ocean University, and leading fishery and aquaculture scientists, China Blue has developed and launched iFISH - a database of Chinese seafood profiles (including farmed species) aiming to assist Chinese seafood retailers and buyers to identify environmental and social risks in their supply chain (iFISH 2018)(Mao 2017).

Water Quality: The 13th Five Year Plan (FYP) (2016-2020) will focus on reducing water pollution and intends to reduce chemical oxygen demand and ammonia pollution over the plan’s timeframe. This will be achieved by the construction of urban sewage treatment and support facilities, urban stormwater capture and recycling, and the reduction of waste pollutants (Hsu et al. 2017). In 2015, China’s State Council published an Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of Water Pollution (the Water Ten Plan). This roadmap outlines ten general measures and 38 sub-measures and deadlines for tackling water pollution and the responsible government department (Hsu et al. 2017). 

Health Management: Aquatic animal disease surveillance plans are produced annually (MoA 2012)(MoA 2015)(MoA 2016)(MoA 2016)(MoA 2017). 

Disease Control: The revised Food Safety Law (2015) established a food safety monitoring system for food-borne diseases, contamination, and other food-related hazards (FAO 2015).

Scores

Regulatory Framework

The regulatory system addresses risks to and from aquaculture through a zonal approach to siting, licensing, and production management.

The MoA is also responsible for a nationwide aquaculture licensing system (Phillips et al., P. G. White and Yamamoto, others 2009)(Zhu and Dong 2010). The license application process, content, and forms are available via the Guangdong Provincial Department of Ocean and Fisheries website (GDOF 2018)(GDOF 2018). However, there is no information on license outcomes.

The EIA Law (2003 amended 2008) requires that an EIA document (environmental impact report, environmental form, or registration form) is submitted to the State Environmental Protection Administration (SEPA) or its local counterpart before beginning construction of any project in China (Phillips et al., P. G. White and Yamamoto, others 2009). The type of document submitted depends on the level of the project’s potential environmental impact. Proposed EIA and their results are available for construction projects in Guangdong from the GDEP, but do not appear to include aquaculture enterprises (GDEP 1999).

In 2004, the government approved the Aquaculture Planning for Inland Water Area and Coastal Zone of Guangdong which established guidelines for aquaculture development and management of local authorities (Zhu and Dong 2010). However, there is no publicly available information on either its content or implementation. 

As of 2008, cage and net enclosure aquaculture in sensitive areas required an EIA report. Oher types of marine and freshwater farms in sensitive areas required an EIA form (Phillips et al., P. G. White and Yamamoto, others 2009). However, it is not clear if this is applicable to all farms and there is no indication of EIAs conducted for shrimp farms from the GDEP (GDEP 1999). 

Aquaculture zoning is referenced in various national and provincial legislation (MoA 2003)(National People’s Congress 2004)(Zhu and Dong 2010). Under the 13th FYP- 2016-2020, the government plans to establish thousands of provincial level aquaculture demonstration zones (Godfrey 2017). However, there is no current evidence of aquaculture zones being used in industry planning.  

Although the licensing process has been identified, it is not known whether all farms require a license. The process is stated to have faced difficulties including small-scale farmers (USDA 2012)(Zajdband 2012)(Zhu and Dong 2010). 

The MoA is responsible for aquaculture licenses at the national-level (Phillips et al., P. G. White and Yamamoto, others 2009)(Zhu and Dong 2010). While at the provincial level it is the Guangdong Provincial Department of Ocean and Fisheries (GDOF 2018)(GDOF 2018). The competent environmental authority at the national level is SEPA, while at the county-level it is the local environmental competent authorities(Phillips et al., P. G. White and Yamamoto, others 2009). In Guangdong, it is the GDEP (GDEP 1999). The results of EIAs are available for construction projects (GDEP 1999), but there is no information on licenses awarded. 

Organized Producers Following Code of Good Practice

The presence of an active producer organization representative of the whole industry and establishment of a Code of Good Practice.

There is no available information on producer organizations in the shrimp industry in Guangdong province. The MoA have produced Order 31 - Provisions on Quality and Safety Management of Aquaculture (MoA 2003). However, there is no evidence of compliance with this Order. 

The MoA Order 31 details best management practices and reporting requirements for various aspects of farm-level production, including water quality and disease control (MoA 2003). However, there is no evidence of a producer association or organization.

There is no evidence of enforcement of MoA Order 31. 

Water Quality Management

The impact of aquaculture on the quality of public water resources is managed.

The MEP provides an online national database of weekly water quality for various freshwater waterbodies (including lakes, river basins, and rivers) (MEP 2018).  The Guangdong Environment Protection department provides quarterly water quality reports for 23 river estuaries in Guangdong province (GDEP 2018)(GDEP 2018). However, there is no evidence of any carrying-capacity studies being conducted for aquaculture management purposes. 

National water quality standards for marine and freshwater aquaculture have been set by the MoA under NY 5052-2001 and NY5051-2001 (MoA 2001)(MoA 2001). However, there is no evidence that these are based on an assessment of the carrying capacity of the associated water body. 

The Guangdong Environmental Protection Department is responsible for reporting the state of water bodies (GDEP 2013)(GDEP 2018)(GDEP 2018). There is limited evidence of enforcement measures for aquaculture enterprises. For example, water sources that do not meet water quality standards NY 5052-2001 and NY5051-2001 are prohibited and aquaculture enterprises are required to monitor water quality (MoA 2003). However, there is no evidence that this enforcement is active. 

Disease Impact and Risk Reduction

Industry is protected from catastrophic losses through best practice disease management on farm and at the zone level.

There is evidence in the literature of a national system for aquatic animal diseases (China’s Aquatic Animal Epidemic Prevention System) created to conduct surveillance and diagnostics as well as epidemiological investigations (Feng 2013). However, despite this, there is limited information on disease outbreaks available at either the national or provincial level. Some information is provided by the OIE and NACA QAAD reports (NACA et al. 2017)(World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) 2017). However, this information is national-level and only concerns international notifiable diseases. 

There are national biosecurity protocols at the national boundaries (Feng 2013). A national aquatic animal epidemic prevention system has been established which monitors 36 aquatic diseases including WSD and IHHN (Li 2017). Under the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs’ annual National Aquatic Animal Disease Surveillance Program, provincial fishery departments are required to implement aquatic epidemic monitoring plans, report outbreaks, and publish early warning alerts. Eight aquatic diseases are monitored, including WSD and IHHN (MoA 2015)(MoA 2016)(MoA 2016)(MoA 2017)

The Guangdong Provincial Aquatic Animal Disease Prevention and Control Center produce monthly aquaculture disease forecasts and guidance on the control of shrimp disease via their website (GAADPC 2007)(GAADPC 2018).

The local aquatic animal epidemic prevention technology department is responsible for disease surveillance, detection, diagnosis, epidemiological investigation, as well as reporting (Feng 2013). In Guangdong, it is the GAADPC (GAADPC 2007). 

Following the publication of the national Animal Epidemics Law, national animal quarantine measures have been established (including those for aquatic animals). These aim to strengthen the management of animal quarantine activities and prevent and animal epidemics (GAADPC 2007). 

Marine Feed Ingredient Management

The fishmeal and oil in aquaculture feed is sourced from well managed or improving fisheries.

There are four BAP certified feed mills in China, including two identified in Guangdong - Guangdong Shuanghu Feed Co., Ltd and Zhanjiang Guolian Feed Co., Ltd (GAA 2017). Others include Others include Guangdong Evergreen Feed Industry Co., Ltd and Shihai Co Ltd (owned by Nutreco) (Guangdong Evergreen 2018)(Nutreco 2011). However, source fisheries are unknown. 

Guangdong Evergreen Feed Industry Co. Ltd. was the winner of the first F3 Fish-Free Feed Challenge – with the feed now accounting for 8% of its sales (GAA 2017). Nutreco produces a sustainability report which includes multiple improvement initiatives, including the use of Fishery Improvement Projects (FIP) (Nutreco 2017). However, there is no information concerning coordinated improvement processes between feed suppliers.

Statistics:

No data available
No data available
No data available
No data available
No data available
No data available
Data Notes

Provincial production is available from the China Fishery Statistics Yearbooks, but these are not publicly available. 

The number of outbreaks of notifiable diseases is available via the OIE WAHIS database, but only at the national level and does not provide any information from 2015 onwards (World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) 2017). 

Aquaculture Improvement Projects (AIPs)

No related AIPs

Certifications & Codes of Good Practice

Certified Farms

To see data for Certified Farms, please view this site on a desktop.

Certified Production

No data available
No data available

Data Notes

Certified Farms

The information presented here is based on publicly available information from the respective certification websites. The unit of certification varies between the different Certification schemes.

  • For ASC,  we report only the number of farms that are listed as certified on their website. We do not include farms that are in assessment.
  • For BAP, we report only the farms that are certified. We do not include hatcheries, processing facilities, or farms in the iBAP program.
  • For GlobalG.A.P., we report the number of fish farming companies that are certified. The number of farms operated by companies certified by GlobalG.A.P is not publicly available. We do not include certified companies that only operate hatcheries. 

Production Volume

  • The ASC does publish certified production volume by country, but data is not available at the province/state level. Information presented here is manually compiled from publicly available certification audits on a semi-annual basis.
  •  Certified production volume data is not publicly available from BAP or GlobalG.A.P.

BACKGROUND

Ecosystem

Guangdong is the southernmost province in mainland China and is adjacent to Fujian province the northeast and Guangxi province in the southwest. Guangdong has China’s longest coastline (4,300 km), where the majority of shrimp farms are located (Ma 2015). Guangdong has approximately 1,300 rivers, including those that lead to the Pearl River Delta, which covers approximately 7,500 square km. Water sources for shrimp farms are usually from either intertidal zones or brackish water in inland areas.

Biology of farmed stock

Whileleg shrimp PL is produced in hatcheries (Ma 2015). Giant tiger prawn production is still dependent on the collection of broodstock from the wild. 

Fish farming history

China has one of the oldest histories of aquaculture dating back 4,000 years (Biao and Kaijin 2007)(Shuping 2005).  Shrimp farming was established in the eastern coast of China by farmers producing a product for their own consumption or for local markets. The intensification of shrimp farming began in the late 1970’s when the State Aquaculture Administration introduced technologies to increase stocking densities, produce hatchery-reared PL and processed feed, and improve water management and farm mechanization.

By the early 1990’s China was already considered the world’s largest shrimp producer contributing about 35% of the global farmed shrimp production (Biao and Kaijin 2007). Production was impacted in the early 1990’s due to outbreaks of WSD (Portley 2016).  

White leg shrimp production began in the early 2000’s (FAO 2018). Chinese shrimp production subsequently increased from around 130,000 t in 1998 to over 2 million t in 2016 (FAO 2018). In 2013, there is evidence that production leveled off at around 1.8 million t (FAO 2018). This is thought to be due to the impact of the AHPND (Portley 2016). Production has subsequently increased (FAO 2018).

Although production continues to grow, exports are falling due to rising domestic demand, the impact of AHPND and import restrictions due to antibiotic residues (Ma 2015)(Portley 2016)  At the national and provincial-level, production is dominated by the non-native, whiteleg shrimp, which accounts for over 70% of production and is produced in both seawater and freshwater systems (FAO 2018)(Portley 2016). Around 30% of whiteleg shrimp from Guangdong is exported (Portley 2016).

China remains the world’s largest shrimp producer and the world’s third-largest exporter (Portley 2016). Guangdong, Jiangsu, and Guangxi are major producing provinces, with Guangdong accounting for almost 50% of total production (Portley 2016). Nationwide, about 15% of shrimp farms are intensive which focus on production for export markets, the remainder is semi‐intensive or extensive (Ma 2015)

Laws and Institutions

Legislation - Responsible Institution - Relevant activities

Fisheries Law (1986 as amended in 2000 and 2004)National People's Congress -  This law requires the state to adopt a policy requiring simultaneous development of aquaculture, fishing, and processing with special emphasis on aquaculture.

Environmental Impact Assessment Law (2002)National Peoples' Congress - Expands EIA requirements from individual construction projects to government planning for development (agriculture, aquaculture, animal husbandry, forestry, water conservation and natural resources).

Order 31 - Provisions on Quality and Safety Management of Aquaculture (2003) - MoA - Aims to improve the quality of aquaculture products, protect the environment, and promote sustainable aquaculture development.

Water quality standard for fisheries (GB 11607-89) (1990) - MoA – The prevention and control of water pollution for fisheries. 

NY 5052-2001 Water pollution-free aquaculture water quality (2001) - MoA - Water quality standards and measurement methods for marine aquaculture.

NY 5051–2001 Water quality standards for freshwater aquaculture (2001) - MoA - Water quality standards and measurement methods for freshwater aquaculture.

Animal Epidemic Prevention Law of the People’s Republic of China (1197 amended 2008) - MoA – The prevention of animal epidemics and reporting thereof, disease control and quarantine of animals and by-products. 

The 2017 National Aquatic Animal Disease Surveillance Plan (2017) - MoA - The control of major aquatic animal epidemics, and established under the MoA Animal Epidemic and Fisheries Laws. 

NY5071-2002 - Pollution-free food guidelines for the use of fishery drugs (2002) - MoA - Prohibited and allowed aquatic and veterinary medicines.

Announcement 235 (2002) - MoA - Prohibited and allowed veterinary drugs for animal production (including aquatic species) and relevant MRL.

Registration, Manufacture, Distribution, Import and Export, use, Supervision and Administration of Veterinary Drugs and Vaccines/Regulations on the Administration of Veterinary Drugs" (Order No. 404 of the State Council) - MoA - Strengthening the management, quality of veterinary drugs, promoting the development of the animal husbandry industry and protecting human health.

Management Timetable

No information available

Stakeholders
  • National Government

Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs of the People’s Republic of China (MoA)

  • Bureau of Fisheries
  • Veterinary Bureau
  • Agricultural Products Processing Bureau

Ministry of Land Resources of the People’s Republic of China

Ministry of Water Resources of the People’s Republic of China

Ministry of Environmental Protection of the People’s Republic of China (MEP)

China National Environmental Monitoring Center (CNEMC)

Provincial Government

  • Department of Agriculture Guangdong Province
  • Environmental Protection of Guangdong Province
  • Guangdong Oceanic and Fishery Administration/Guangdong Provincial Department of Ocean and Fisheries
    • The Guangdong Provincial Aquatic Animal Disease Prevention and Control Center

Producers Associations

China Aquatic Products Processing and Marketing Alliance (CAPPMA) – is a non-profit organization, composed of enterprises that are engaged in aquatic production, processing, transportation and trade.

Sources

References

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    Shrimp - China, Guangdong

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